What is Vitamin?
The word vitamin comes from the concept “vital amine”. “Vital” for being indispensable for life. And “amina”… Does the word “amina” suggest anything to you? Exactly, amino acids, because an amine is a nitrogen-containing compound. Do vitamins have anything to do with amino acids?
Vitamins are organic substances essential for the normal functioning of the body, they are found in small amounts in all foods, except those that are highly refined. Vitamins, as their etymology (from the Latinvita, life) suggests, are important for the life of the organism and for metabolic function. Vitamins and minerals are essential micronutrients for the proper functioning of the whole organism. Since they are involved in many rations and processes, it is clear that the right intake is essential for maintaining the health of the whole body.
Different Types of Vitamins
Kinds of vitamins like Vit A, B, C, D, E, K.
Classification of vitamins
List of Vitamins are classified into two parts as below:
- Fat-soluble: in this category are vitamins K, E, D, A. Have you noticed? Together they form the word “keda”, so you can remember them. These can accumulate in our fat tissue, so if we eat them in excess, they cause toxicity.
- Water-soluble: in this category are all B vitamins and vitamin C. And we say that they are water-soluble because they do not accumulate in our fat and their excess is eliminated with our urine.
They belong to this group:
They belong, instead, to this group:
- B vitamins:
- Vitamin C or ascorbic acid.
What is vitamin B Complex?
Vit-B is considered an essential vitamin. Your body needs it to work properly, including for many different cellular processes, such as building DNA components and proteins. Each of the B-group vitamins plays a critical role in keeping you healthy. For example, B12, B6 and B9 are important vitamins for healthy brain and nerve function, while Vit-B2 is important for skin health and good vision.
Vit-B is a group of vitamins that help your body’s metabolism function better. The B group of vitamins include thiamin (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), biotin (B7), folate (B9) and cyanocobalamin (B12). The ‘B-group’ or ‘B-complex’ of vitamins make up 8 out of 13 essential vitamins and are all water-soluble (dissolves in water). This means that they cannot be stored in the body and must be consumed regularly as part of a healthy diet.
Types of vitamin B and Their Functions
Types of Vitamin B as mentioned bellow:
- B vitamins:
Function of Vitamin B and Effects of Vitamin
Is vitamin B deficiency common? Is vitamin B deficiency serious? Not every Vit-B affects the body in the same way. The effects of the different B vitamins include, for example:
- Vitamin B1 (thiamine): This substance is important because it helps the body to gain energy from carbohydrates found in potatoes or rice, among other things. In other words, thiamine serves carbohydrate metabolism. In addition, it is involved, for example, in blood formation and digestion.
- Vitamin B2 (riboflavin): The nutrient supports the body like B1 in energy production. It draws these from consumed carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Furthermore, the vitamin is important for the formation of red blood cells and the detoxification function of the liver.
- Vitamin B3 (niacin): This also contributes to energy production from fats, carbohydrates or proteins. In addition, it is involved in the construction, division and repair processes of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) – which carries the genetic information.
- Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid): Among the B vitamins, pantothenic acid, for example, has the function of supporting the breakdown and build-up of proteins, carbohydrates and fats. In addition, B5 contributes to normal mental performance.
- Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine): This B vitamin, together with vitamin B12 and folic acid (folate), regulates homocysteine levels in the body. In addition, pyridoxine is needed to form messenger substances in the nerves.
- Vitamin B7 (biotin): It helps the organism, for example, in protein and fat metabolism. In addition, vitamin B7 promotes, among other things, the formation of new hair roots and nail beds.
- Vitamin B9 (folic acid): Vitamin B9, for example, is involved in growth processes and the division of cells. It also plays a role in blood formation and the lowering of homocysteine levels.
- Vitamin B12 (cobalamin): The B vitamin, for example, is important for cell division, blood formation and nerve function.
Vitamin B Deficiency Diseases List: What are the symptoms of a lack of vitamin B?
What are the symptoms of vitamin B complex deficiency? When there is a lack of B vitamins in the body, it begins to show certain factors that warn us that something is not right in our body. Symptoms appear that alert us as:
- Tingling or burning in the hands and feet
- Chapped lips or mouth sores
- Weight loss
- Mood changes
If you have any of these symptoms it is a warning that something is not right in your body. That’s why you should take a test to determine which B vitamin is not being absorbed properly by your body or what foods are missing from your daily meals
What Causes Lack of Vitamin B?
Vitamin B deficiency causes: Risk groups: Who should pay particular attention to the intake of Vit-B? What causes the lack of vitamin B in general terms are eating habits, drugs or alcoholism. This, accompanied by other habits, causes poor absorption of certain vitamins. What causes lack of vitamin B?
As a rule, people are well supplied with B vitamins – provided that they pay attention to a healthy and balanced diet. However, there aregroups of people who have an increased need or shouldpay particular attention to certain nutrients due to their diet or illness. The following table gives an exemplary overview:
|B vitamins||Risk factors for vitamin deficiency|
|Thiamine (vitamin B1)||high consumption of black tea (reduces the absorption of B1)|
|Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)||Pregnancy and lactation (due to an additional requirement), vegetarian or vegan diet|
|Niacin (Vitamin B3)||Alcoholism, patients with anorexia (loss of appetite), chronic diarrhoea (diarrhoea) or cirrhosis of the liver|
|Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5)||severe malnutrition, for example in parenteral (intravenous) nutrition alone, or dialysis patients|
|Pyridoxine (vitamin B6)||Alcohol abuse, liver disease, taking the contraceptive pill|
|Biotin (Vitamin B7)||Pregnancy, epileptic with anticonvulsant therapy|
|Folic acid (vitamin B9)||Pregnancy and lactation, people with malabsorption syndrome or atrophic gastritis (thin gastric mucosa)|
|Cobalamin (Vitamin B12)||vegetarian or vegan diet, elderly, pregnancy and lactation, persons with absorption disorders (absorption disorder of substances)|
In the following, the individual B vitamins are examined in more detail.
Thiamine (Vitamin B-1)
The heart, liver, kidney, and brain all contain high amounts of thiamine. The body needs thiamine for:
- the breakdown of sugar molecules (carbohydrates) from food
- the formation of certain neurotransmitters (brain chemicals)
- the production of fatty acids
- the synthesis of certain hormones
Food with thiamine
Thiamine is contained in:
- Whole grain and fortified bread, cereals, pasta and rice
- Acorn pumpkin
- Legumes, such as black beans and soybeans
Thiamine deficiency is not common in the United States. However, certain groups of people may not receive enough thiamine, including
- People with alcohol dependence
- older adults
- People with HIV or AIDS
- People with diabetes
- People with heart failure
- People who have undergone bariatric surgery
Symptoms of thiamine deficiency
A person with a thiamine deficiency may experience the following symptoms
- Weight loss
- little or no appetite
- Memory problems or confusion
- Heart problems
- Tingling and numbness in the hands and feet
- Loss of muscle mass
- bad reflexes
Alcohol dependence can cause a person to develop thiamine deficiency. This can cause Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS), which can cause tingling and numbness in the hands and feet, memory loss, and confusion.
WKS can lead to Wernicke’s encephalopathy (WE), which can be life-threatening. A2017 review found that people with WE may benefit from high doses of thiamine.
For more in-depth resources on vitamins, minerals, and supplements, visit our dedicated hub.
Riboflavin (Vitamin B-2)
Riboflavin is important for:
- energy production
- Supporting the body in breaking down fats, drugs and steroid hormones
- the conversion of tryptophan into niacin (vitamin B-3)
- the conversion of vitamin B-6 into a coenzyme that the body needs
Food with riboflavin
Foods rich in riboflavin include:
- Organ meat
- fortified breakfast cereals
- Yogurt and milk
Symptoms of riboflavin deficiency
Riboflavin deficiency is rare but can occur when a person has an endocrine disorder, such as thyroid problems, or certain other conditions.
A person who is deficient in riboflavin may experience the following symptoms
- Sores at the corners of the mouth
- swelling of the mouth and throat
- swollen, chapped lips
- Hair loss
- red, itchy eyes
Severe riboflavin deficiency can lead to anemia and cataracts. Riboflavin deficiency during pregnancy can lead to a higher risk of certain birth defects.
People at highest risk for riboflavin deficiency include:
- People who follow a vegan diet or do not consume dairy products
- Athletes who do not eat meat, especially those who also do not consume dairy products or other animal products
- Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding, especially those who do not consume meat or dairy products
Niacin (Vitamin B-3)
The body converts niacin into a coenzyme called nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). NAD is a necessary component of more than 400 different enzyme reactions in the body, most of all vitamin derived coenzymes. These enzymes help with:
- the conversion of energy into carbohydrates, fats and proteins into a form that can be used by the body
- Metabolic processes in the body’s cells
- communication between cells
- Expression of DNA in cells
Foods with niacin
Animal foods such as meat, poultry and fish contain a lot of NAD, which the body can easily utilize.
Plant foods such as nuts, legumes, and grains contain a natural form of niacin that the body can’t easily utilize. However, manufacturers add niacin to foods such as cereals, and the body can easily use this form.
Symptoms of niacin deficiency
If too little niacin is ingested, it can lead to a niacin deficiency. Severe niacin deficiency leads to pellagra, which can cause:
- brown discoloration on the skin exposed to sunlight
- Skin areas with a rough appearance
- a bright red tongue
- Vomiting, diarrhea or constipation
If left untreated, pellagra can lead to severe memory impairment, behavioral changes, and suicidal thoughts. It can also lead to extreme loss of appetite or death.
People at risk for niacin deficiency include those who:
- Anorexia nervosa
- Alcohol use disorder
- Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
- Hartnup’s disease
- Carcinoid syndrome, in which tumors develop in the gastrointestinal tract
Pantothenic acid (vitamin B-5)
Pantothenic acid is necessary for the body to form new coenzymes, proteins and fats.
The red blood cells transport pantothenic acid throughout the body so that it can use the nutrient in a variety of processes for energy and metabolism.
Foods with pantothenic acid
Many foods contain at least some pantothenic acid, but some of the highest amounts are found in:
- Nonveg liver
- Shiitake mushrooms
- Sunflower seeds
- fortified breakfast cereals
Symptoms of pantothenic acid deficiency
Pantothenic acid deficiency is rare in the U.S. because it is abundant in many foods. However, it can affect people with severe malnutrition. In such cases, they usually also have a deficiency of other nutrients.
Symptoms of deficiency include:
- Numbness and burning of hands and feet
- Restlessness and poor sleep
- lack of appetite
People with a particular gene mutation, the pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration 2 mutation, are at high risk of deficiency.
Vitamin B-6, or pyridoxine, plays a role in more than 100 enzyme reactions. The body needs vitamin B-6 for:
- amino acid metabolism
- the breakdown of carbohydrates and fats
- the development of the brain
- Immune function
Foods with vitamin B-6
Some of the richest sources of vitamin B-6 include:
- Organ meat
- fortified cereals
Symptoms of vitamin B-6 deficiency
According to the Office of Dietary Supplements of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), many vitamins B-6 deficiencies are associated with low Vit-B-12 levels.
Vitamin B-6 deficiency can cause:
- Dandruff on the lips
- Cracks in the corners of the mouth
- swollen tongue
- weakened immune system
People at risk of vitamin B-6 deficiency include those who
- Kidney disease (kidneys)
- had a kidney transplant
- Coeliac disease
- Crohn’s disease
- Ulcerative colitis
- Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis
Biotin (Vitamin B-7)
Manufacturers add biotin to many hair, skin and nail supplements. However, the NIH states that there isinsufficient evidenceas to whether taking extra biotin helps with hair, skin, or nails.
Some people believe that biotin can help with psoriasis.
The human body needs biotin for:
- the breakdown of fats, carbohydrates and protein
- the communication between the cells in the body
- Regulation of DNA
Foods with biotin
Many foods contain biotin, including:
- Organ meat
Symptoms of biotin deficiency
Signs of biotin deficiency include
- Thinning of the hair
- a scaly rash around the eyes, nose and mouth
- brittle nails
Deficiency is rare in the U.S., but the following groups may be more at risk:
- People with a metabolic disorder called biotinidase deficiency
- People with alcohol problems
- Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding
Folate (Vitamin B-9)
Folic Acid Vitamin B9: The natural form of vitamin B-9 is called folate. Folic acid, which is found in fortified foods and some supplements, is a synthetic form of the vitamin.
Because most people can’t eat enough green leafy vegetables to reach the levels needed in pregnancy, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that all women of childbearing age who want to become pregnant take 400 mcg of folic acid daily in addition to a varied, folate-containing diet.
If a woman consumes enough folate both before and during pregnancy, the fetus has a lower risk of certain birth defects that affect the brain and spinal cord.
Folate is also important for:
- DNA replication
- the metabolism of vitamins
- the metabolism of amino acids
- the right cell division
Foods with folate
The FDA requires manufacturers to add folic acid to standardized fortified grain products to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. People can get folic acid from fortified breads and cereals.
Natural folate is found in:
- dark green leafy vegetables
- Liver in Nonveg
- Orange juice
Symptoms of folic acid deficiency
Due to the addition of folic acid in cereal products, folic acid deficiency has become less common. However, possible symptoms of folic acid deficiency may include:
- Sores on the tongue or in the mouth
- Skin, hair or nail changes
The FDA recommends that women increase their intake of folate and take folic acid supplements daily before they become pregnant and during pregnancy. Other groups that may need extra folate include people who have:
- Alcohol use disorder
- Coeliac disease
- Conditions that interfere with nutrient absorption
People should not take more than 1,000 mcg of folic acid per day. Taking more than this amount canmask the symptoms of Vit-B-12 deficiency. This can lead to permanent nerve damage.
Vit-B-12 contains the mineral cobalt and is sometimes called “cobalamin.” The body uses vitamin B-12 for:
- the formation of new red blood cells
- DNA synthesis
- Brain and neurological function: B12 deficiency neurological symptoms
- Fat and protein metabolism
Foods with vitamin B-12
Vitamin B12 foods: Vit-B-12 occurs naturally in animal products and vegetarians, such as:
- Nonveg liver
- Milk and yogurt
- Green vegetable line spinach and etc.
People who don’t eat animal products may need to get vit-B-12 through supplements or fortified foods like breakfast cereals and nutritional yeast.
Learn more about vegetarian and vegan sources of vit-B-12 here.
Symptoms of vitamin B-12 deficiency
Unusual symptoms of b12 deficiency: Vit- B-12 deficiency usually causes a condition called megaloblastic anemia. Symptoms of vitamin B-12 deficiency may include:
- Weight loss
- Numbness and tingling in the hands and feet
- Memory problems
People at risk for B-12 deficiency include those who
- Conditions that affect the absorption of nutrients
- older adults
- Coeliac disease
- Crohn’s disease
- had gastric bypass surgery or stomach surgery
Vegetarians, vegans, and people who are pregnant or breastfeeding may also need supplemental vitamin B-12.
What Causes Tingling in Feet and Hand
What Causes Tingling of Feet and Hands: Many asking search why tingling in feet and legs when I seat or at night this is tingling feet anxiety. Do you feel the tingling sensation on both hands and feet? A lack of vitamin B12 could be the cause. This deficiency causes anemia because the formation of red blood cells is reduced.
Anxiety tingling feet: Vitamin deficiencies can be caused by not having enough of a particular vitamin in your diet, or by a condition where the vitamin is not absorbed properly.
Some vitamins are important for the health of your nerves. Examples include:
- Vitamin B-12
- Vitamin B-6
- Vitamin B-1
- Vitamin E
- Vitamin D3
A deficiency of these vitamins can cause tingling in the hands or feet or legs. This is feet tingling anxiety
How to Stop Tingling Feet From Anxiety
Take high dose of Vitamin B super foods like Spinach, Chenopodium album, Linseed Beetroot, Flax, Pomegranate, Mango, sprouts, jaggery, liver, oysters, herring, trout, egg, camembert, Milk, Cheese with vitamin E foods as well as take at least 1-2 hours Sun bath at Morning time only. Do exercise and Yoga at least 30 minutes daily. If problem not solved within few days contact immediately contact to your doctor.
How long to recover from vitamin b12 deficiency
Remains a Vit-B12 deficiency left untreated, the undersupply can lead to irreparable Nerve damage and even death. Therefore, if you suspect a vitamin B12 deficiency go to the doctor, which may cause a Blood test. If a deficiency is diagnosed, there are various measures to remedy it. These depend on the cause the undersupply in the body memory:
- In case of poor nutrition, a change in eating habits is indicated.
- For vegans can in consultation Food supplements with vit-B12 can be useful with the doctor.
- Can vit-B12 only insufficiently absorbed, cobalamin is delivered directly to the muscles squirted.
How fast the vitamin B12 deficiency can be remedied depends on how much the Body memory is affected by the undersupply. Ask your doctor Advice. In the case of a slight vit- B12 deficiency, there is already a short Time of taking preparations an improvement. If it is a severe vitamin B12 deficiency, it takes longer. Patients with acute problems receive cobalamin initially daily in high doses and later usually for life at regular intervals, about one month to 3 months.
Vitamin B12 foods
Flax seeds, spinach, Beetroot, Green Vegetables, Milk, Mango, Nonveg, Fish and etc.
What amounts of vitamin B do you need per day?
Not only the effect of the different B vitamins can differ. Also, the amount you should consume daily through your diet varies from Vit- B1 to Vit-B12. how much vitamin b 12 should I take? An adult usually has the following daily requirements:
|B-Vitamin Daily Value||Occurrence (examples)|
|B1(1.0 to 1.3 mg)||Pork, whole grains, brown rice|
|B2(1.0 to 1.4 mg)||Offal, Camembert, Pollock|
|B3(11 to 16 mg)||Anchovies, poultry, mung beans, peanuts|
|B5 (6 mg)||Liver, dairy products, eggs, oatmeal|
|B6(1.4 to 1.6 mg)||Chicken, mackerel, whole grains, potatoes|
|B7(30 to 60 μg)||Liver, egg yolk, yeast, soybeans, oatmeal|
|B9 (300 μg)||Spinach, kale, soybeans, egg yolk|
|B12(4.0 μg)vitamin b12 foods||Flax, Green Vegetables, Nonveg liver, oysters, herring, trout, egg, camembert, Milk,|
Vitamin B deficiency test
Easly available to any nearest laboratory recommended by doctors.
The test is not a medical diagnosis. It is only intended to give you a first clue. To detect a vit-B12 deficiency, you need to consult a doctor. Because only a blood or urine test provides information about whether it is an undersupply or whether your symptoms are based on another disease. It is important to treat a vit- B12 deficiency in a timely manner.