Trinidad and Tobago: History, Location, Capital, Language, Tourism And More
Trinidad And Tobago
History of Trinidad and Tobago: The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, located in the Caribbean Sea, is made up of two main islands, Trinidad, the largest, and Tobago, the smaller one, together with 21 other smaller islands. Its capital is Port of Spain and Chaguanas is its most populous city. Let’s learn a little more about this island of extensive oil fields, an important producer of sugar cane, cocoa and coffee, among other products.
Trinidad And Tobago Geography
The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago is located in front of the mouth of the Orinoco River, above the continental shelf of the eastern coast of Venezuela. It limits to the west with the Caribbean Sea and to the east with the Atlantic Ocean. To the south is Venezuela and the island of Granada to the north. It is an archipelago with two islands, Trinidad and Tobago, plus 21 islets or small islands.
The History On Trinidad and Tobago
The island of Trinidad was discovered by Christopher Columbus on July 31, 1498, he called it “Land of the Holy Trinity”. Columbus baptized Tobago with the name of “Bella Forma”. The Spaniards populated and colonized them, until the French arrived in the 18th century, disputing the territory, in addition, with the English and the Dutch.
After many events to appropriate the island, the Province of Trinidad was finally created, by the Spanish, in the 16th century. They were controlled by the Captaincy General of Venezuela and then, during Napoleon’s wars, in 1797, the English conquered the island and incorporated it into the colonies of the British Crown, through the Peace Treaty of Amiens.
Thus, the islands of Trinidad and Tabaco (Tobago, in English) officially passed into the hands of the United Kingdom. France finally relented in its aspirations to appropriate these islands.
Antonio Sedeño, wanted to settle in Trinidad in the year 1530, to discover “El Dorado” (legendary kingdom rich in gold mines), as well as to control the existing slave trade. This was not possible and he retired to Isla de Margarita , in Venezuela, returning the following year, settling in Cumucurapo, in Port of Spain.
New Settlers in Trinidad And Tobago
Unable to attract more settlers, Sedeño had to leave Trinidad in 1534. While Tobago, almost completely depopulated, received Dutch, French, Spanish and English groups. France sold this property to England in 1802. Its economy was based on sugar cane, coffee, tobacco and banana crops.
As a consequence of this colonization, the majority of the indigenous population disappeared. It was mostly replaced by the Melano-African population, that is, the African workforce, which they brought as slaves, to work on the sugar cane and tobacco plantations.
In the same way, coolies or coolies entered , which came from India, China, Lebanon and Syria, with little or poor quality and cheaper, during the 19th century, when African slaves were not profitable and due to the processes of abolition of slavery.
1845 Beginning of Indian Immigration
In 1845, the first ship with indentured workers from India reaches Trinidad. The new arrivals are quarantined on Nelson Island and thence allotted the sugar estate on which to work for a period of five years (women for three years). Until the end of indentureship in 1917, approximately 144,000 people come from India. Many choose to stay after their indentureship contracts are over and found families in their new home country.
1840s-60s Portuguese and Chinese immigration
In 1846, sugar planters privately charter a ship to bring 219 Madeiran immigrant labourers to Trinidad. They are put to work on the more rigorous but better-paying sugar estates, but the harsh conditions of tropical sugar plantations prove to be too much for them. Some leave for the cocoa estates while others abandon plantation labour altogether and turn to petty shopkeeping. Other ships arrive later in 1846 and in 1847.
The Portuguese are not compelled by law to indenture themselves and Madeira does not prove to be a viable source of labour. After 1847, Portuguese immigration is no longer considered a solution to the planters’ predicament and the Madeirans are followed by two groups of Asian indentured labourers—the Chinese and the Indians.
1882 Beginning of cane Farming
Sir Neville Lubbock, Chairman of the West India Committee and a Director of the New Colonial Company Ltd. (later Usine Ste Madeleine), hits upon the idea of having workers on the sugar estates grow canes on idle lands of the sugar company. In 1882, eight men accept parcels of abandoned lands and become Trinidad’s first cane farmers.
The History Of Trinidad And Tobago Independence
During World War II, the United States, who were allies of the United Kingdom, founded a military base in Chaguaramas (peninsular northwest of the island of Trinidad), incorporating Trinidad and Tobago under the domination of the English crown, for a decade.
Trinidad and Tobago, together with Jamaica, Barbados, the Windward and Leeward Islands, formed the Federation of the West Indies, whose capital was Chaguaramas. It only remained active until 1961, when Jamaica separated, at which time its partial independence was determined, since it remained under the command of the British monarch, on August 3, 1962.
The islands of Trinidad and Tobago entered the United Nations (UN) in 1962 and the Organization of American States (OAS) in 1967. On August 1, 1976 they obtained their independence, separating from the British Crown. , to which they were subordinate since 1802.
Even when they are independent, they will continue to maintain a close link with Great Britain, through the “Privy Council”, with functions of Court of Appeal and of the Commonwealth of Nations or, later called, of England.
Where is the Island located Trinidad And Tobago ?
Trinidad and Tobago is one of the 13 countries that make up the Antilles or Caribbean Islands. It is located at the southern end of this group of islands, bordering Granada to the south and on the continental mass of the eastern coast of Venezuela. It is 11 km from the Venezuelan northeast coast and 130 km from the south of the Grenadines. Tobago is 30 km north of Trinidad.
Population Of Trinidad And Tobago
According to data from the current year, 2018, it has 1,379,600 inhabitants. It is below Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Puerto Rico and Jamaica (according to the 2016 census). The island was Spanish until 1797, the crown allowed the entry of French to occupy the plantations, this mixture of cultures gave rise to patois (mixed language).
Everything disappeared when the English arrived on the island, who remained in control of everything until independence was achieved. When massive immigration was unleashed, slavery was replaced, abolished in 1833.
Workers arrived at the sugar and cocoa plantations from India, the first in 1845, who represent 40% of the population in Trinidad and Tobago; Africans form an important percentage, since they arrived brought by the Spanish.
Most of the population is black in Tobago. It is smaller than the island of Trinidad, but in tourism it is as big as it. There are elegant resorts, beachside restaurants, golf courses and spectacularly magical beaches.
Currency of Trinidad And Tobago
The Trinidad and Tobago dollar, or simply the dollar, is the official currency of the island of Trinidad and Tobago. Its abbreviation is $ or TT$, as a way of differentiating them from other types of dollars. It is subdivided into 100 cents.
It was established in 1964, as a substitute for the British West Indies dollar, with the same value. The coin is issued by the Central Bank of Trinidad and Tobago, with presentations of 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 cents. Banknotes are presented in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 dollars.
The History Of Trinidad And Tobago Flag
The national flag of the island of Trinidad and Tobago, symbolizes with the red color, the tranquility of the country and the generosity of its people, the vitality and courage plus the energy of the sun; the white color symbolizes peace, the serenity of the sea, equality among all people and purity in national aspirations; the tenacity, solidarity and vocation for unity of the island is represented by the color black.
These three colors together also mean or represent the elements earth, water and fire, also recalling their past, present and future. It was adopted on August 31, 1962.
The flag is predominantly red, with a black band and thin white borders; the black stripe is four times wider than the white one, it crosses it diagonally from the upper left corner to the lower right, forming two triangles.
The two islands, Trinidad and Tobago, are represented in the two triangles that form in the center of the flag.
Languages of Trinidad And Tobago : Idiom
The official language of Trinidad and Tobago is English. It is estimated that in 2020, Spanish will become the co-official language of the Island. Hindi is used mainly in popular music. In Tobago, the use of Tobago Creole English, a mixture of English with African elements, is frequent; while Trinidadian English has more French and Hindi influences.
These languages are normally spoken in informal settings, there is as yet no standardized writing system. Due to the proximity of Trinidad and Tobago to the coast of Venezuela, relations with the Spanish-speaking peoples have been strengthened, which has caused the island’s government to require the learning of Spanish in all secondary schools, gaining ground little by little on the island.
Spanish was decreed as the First Foreign Language in 2004 and it is expected that in 2010, 30% of public employees will speak this language fluently. By 2020 it will become the second official language of the country. Other unofficial languages used on the island are Bhojpuri , Arawak, French Creole , and others.
History of Port of Spain Trinidad And Tobago
An obligatory place to visit, for being the capital of the country Trinidad and Tobago and for its great tourist attraction. City full of tall buildings, neon lights and streets packed with native people and foreign tourists. The carnival is very famous, due to the diversity of elements and participating races, a multicultural Caribbean cocktail with the calypso band, which does not stop playing, is an unmissable show before Lent.
History of San Fernando Trinidad
Saint Ferdinand Trinidad And Tobago
It is the second most populous city in Trinidad and Tobago. It is located to the southwest of the island of Trinidad, with an area of 19 km 2 . The distance between Port of Spain, the capital of Trinidad and Tobago, and San Fernando, is 43 km. It has hotel capacity according to its flow of visitors per year, restaurants, recreational sites.
Culture of Trinidad and Tobago
As well as Jamaica, the Dominican Republic and other Antillean islands, the culture of Trinidad and Tobago is influenced by different contributions from other countries. Some elements of British culture are present, because they were part of that English empire.
But there are also marked traces of Africans, Indians, Chinese, French and a little less Spanish and Portuguese. They can be easily seen in their tastes in music, sports, food, religions and many important aspects of life in this country.
The cultural diversity and the religious context give rise to a series of festivities throughout the year. Annually, in the month of February, the carnival is celebrated in a lavish and very colorful way, being one of the best in the world.
Indigenous art forms such as soca (calypso-like music), Parang (carols of Venezuelan origin), chutney music rhythm , and pichakaree (music that mixes Caribbean and Indian styles), as well as the famous game of limbo.
History of Trinidad And Tobago Religion
Because of this diversity of influences, the opposite does not occur in religion. There are several currents such as Catholic or Hindu, which are the most followed; Muslim, Presbyterian, Anglican and Methodist, on a smaller scale.
The claimers (spiritual baptists) and the Orisha faith (before, shangós), are growing in the religious population. Also, Mormons have been spreading since the mid-1980s.
It is estimated that the island is 30% Roman Catholic, 24% Hindu, 10% Anglican, 10% other Protestant Christian churches and 6% Muslim. Santeria ceremonies have a marked influence on manifestations such as culture, music and the plastic arts of the nation.
Trinidad and Tobago are the seventh Hindu country in the world with 22.50% Hindus living in which the population of Hindus is 237,737
Trinidad And Tobago Carnivals
History of Trinidad and Tobago carnival: Among the festivals celebrated on the Island, the carnivals stand out. These were imported by the French colonizers, at the end of the 18th century. It was first celebrated by the elite citizens of the city, but it was little by little, imitated and adapted to the tastes and ways of the slaves.
History of Trinidad Carnival
The contestants wear incredibly glamorous sparkly outfits. They use materials such as velvet, silk, satin, and lamé. The garments range from tiny bikinis to gigantic wings with heights of 10 feet or more. They make and wear their costumes themselves, adorned with beads, sequins, seashells, leaves and other beautiful shiny objects.
When slavery was abolished, it was passed on to the rest of the population. They usually wear masks parodying characters from colonial society. The plantation slave was represented by a popular character, whom they called Négre Jardin ; the ladies of high society with Dame Lorraine .
These carnivals became popular and commercialized at the beginning of the 20th century, obtaining good results with the opening of the island to tourism. No less important are the religious holidays, such as Christmas, Divali , in autumn, which is an Indian festival of lights, and Eid_ul-Fitr , commemorating the end of Ramadan for Muslims.
Boxing Day is a day of sales after Christmas in the island’s department stores and businesses, reflecting the Anglo-Saxon culture that exists in this nation.
Foods of Trinidad and Tobago Gastronomy
Food in Trinidad and Tobago is the result of a fusion of Indian, African, Creole, European, Chinese, Lebanese and Amerindian cuisines. Fish, shrimp, spicy foods, tropical fruits and vegetables are common.
Some of the island’s specialties are Callaloo , a soup based on green leaves, seasoned with various seasonings typical of the region and sometimes accompanied with crab or meat. The Doubles, street food prepared with chickpea curry, comes with two slices of fried bread, seasoned with pepper, garlic and different sauces.
The Roti Wrap, is an Indian bread stuffed with chicken, meat and a kind of curry, sold in street stalls along the roads, also on the beaches. Shark and Bake is a snack made with shark or catfish meat; another very popular one is based on crab sauce, with pieces of dough, called Crab and Dumplings .
Cod is present in the Bulijol , crumbled and seasoned with peppers, onions, tomatoes and olive oil, served in cakes ( hops). Cou-cou is a kind of bun , cornmeal mixed with okra and lard, cooked in boiling water until firm. They are served in slices, generally accompanying the Callaloo.
Finishing with shark cake, although many more dishes of equal or lesser quality are missing, consisting of fillets with a lot of seasoning, placed inside slices of fried bread, more pepper, garlic and coriander sauces. Popular local drinks include beer, coconut water, punch, and rum.
Trinidad and Tobago Cities
* Chaguana, San Juan, San Fernando
* Port of Spain, Arima, Marabella
* Point Fortin, Tunapuna, Sangre Grande
* Tacarigua, Arouca, Princes Town
Economy Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago is a country supported mainly by the exploitation of oil, natural gas and derivatives. It is attractive for transnational companies, since their taxes are still low, which facilitates and promotes investment.
When prices and production fell in the 90’s, there was an economic recession on the island, which was fortunately overcome. Later, foreign investment projects were established, which have tipped the economic balance in favor of the island government.
Before, the income from oil and derivatives went directly to investment in the local plastics and electronics industries.
Trinidad and Tobago is the cradle of important personalities, both in the world of literature, music and sports. Among the most popular is Nicki Minaj, an important figure in music and fashion. She has been a featured model for Pepsi and other well-known brands.
Nicki when it comes to rap and pop, has broken sales records, which was why she was named “the most influential rapper in the world” by The New York Times, as well as the queen of rap and hip-hop. hop. In the line of beauty, they were not far behind in the most famous contests in the universe, being Janelle Commissions, the first Trinidadian to obtain the title of Miss Universe in 1977, with the honor, in addition, of being the first black woman to conquer it.
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