Best Sudan History: The History Of South Sudan Conflict Timeline 2023

The Sudan History Facts: The history of Sudan dates back thousands of years to BC and is almost as old as the Nile River. The Old Testament Kush kingdom was in present-day northern Sudan and was a center of power for thousands of years along the Nile River in Egypt and Sudan.

Sudan history Before the separation of South Sudan from Sudan in 2011, Sudan was the largest country on the African continent. Currently, Sudan occupies an area of 1,861,484 km2 with a population of 43,120,843 (2018). The majority of the population is 70% ethnic Sudanese Arabs and the rest are Fur, Beja, Nuba and Falata ethnicities. Islam (Sunni) is the religion practiced by the majority of the population of Sudan. There are two official languages in Sudan which are Arabic and English.

Where is Sudan located in Africa? Dan is a country located on the North African continent. Geographically, Sudan is bordered by Egypt to its north, South Sudan to its south, Central Africa and Congo to its southwest and Chad to its west, and Libya to its northwest. Sudan also borders Eritrea and Ethiopia to its southeast. While the Red Sea is in the north-east of Sudan. Most of Sudan is land and only a few places are mountainous. The highest point in Sudan is the Deriba caldera (3042 m) located on Mount Marrah.

Sudan history in Africa: Sudan is the 15th largest country in the world located in Northeast Africa. Despite having abundant oil reserves, this country remains a victim of lawlessness, misery and poverty.  A brief Sudan history as below:

The history of Sudan timeline
The history of Sudan timeline
  • The History on Sudan Facts

  • Total Area of Sudan: total: 1,861,484 sq km  land: 1,731,671 sq km water: 129,813 sq km
  • Capital of Sudan: Khartoum or Khartum is the capital of Sudan.
  • Official Language of Sudan: Arabic
  • Sudani Currency: Sudanese Pound
  • Religion of Sudan History

  • Religious Beliefs In Sudan

    Rank Belief System Estimated Share of Population in Sudan
    1 Islam (predominately Sunni with several minority denominations present) 95.3%
    2 Christianity (predominately Roman Catholic with other smaller denominations present) 3.2%
    3 Animism and/or Other Indigenous Beliefs 1.5%
  • Religious Beliefs In South Sudan History
Rank Belief System Share of Population in South Sudan
1 Roman Catholic Christianity 37.2%
2 Episcopal Churches and Other Forms of Christianity 36.5%
3 Traditional African Beliefs and Animism 19.7%
4 Islam 6.2%
Other Beliefs 0.4%


  • Prehistory of the Sudan Timeline

Early Sudan history: Sudanese land is one of the few places in the world where humans first settled their settlements. Human population has been inhabited in this country for more than 5 thousand years. The Kingdom of Kerma ruled this country between 2500 BC to 1500 BC.

Kerma was the capital of this kingdom. One of the oldest civilizations in the world, the Kerma culture, developed in Kerma itself. This ancient city is the largest archaeological sites in the Nubia region, where Archeologists have been engaged in excavations and research for decades.

Around 1500 BC, Sudan came under the control of the Egyptian New Kingdom. This empire ruled Sudan till 1070 BC. The Kingdom of Kush began to rule in 725 BC after the breakup of the Egyptian New Kingdom. Sudan achieved considerable prosperity during the rule of the Kingdom of Kush. During this time, the Kush kingdom also took control of Egypt for almost a century.

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After the fall of the Kingdom of Kush in 350 AD, the native Nubians of Sudan established 3 Christian kingdoms Nobatia, Makuria and Alodia, two of these three kingdoms Makuria and Alodia continued to rule in Sudan till the 15th century! Many Arab nomads started settling in Sudan between the 14th and 15th centuries. Between the 16th and 19th centuries, the rule of the Funj sultanate in central and eastern Sudan, the Darfur Sultanate in west Sudan, and the Ottoman Empire in North Sudan continued.

The Sudan History Timeline
The Sudan History Timeline
  • Colonial British Rule in Sudan History who colonized Sudan

Colonial Sudan history: The history of Sudan changed in the 19th century and the Muhammad Ali dynasty of Egypt defeated all the three kingdoms of Sudan and established Egypt’s rule over Sudan. The modern borders of Sudan were fixed during the Egyptian rule, and during this time political, agricultural, and economic development also started in this country.

The Urabi Revolution in Egypt between 1879 and 1882 greatly weakened the powers of the Egyptian monarchy. Taking advantage of this weakness, the British captured Egypt. Meanwhile, the religious-nationalist started the Mahdist Revolt in Sudan as well. This rebellion resulted in the establishment of the Omdurman Caliphate in Sudan under the leadership of Muhammad Ahmad. To oust this caliphate from power, the British and Egyptian army together fought a war against the Omdurman caliphate, and by defeating this caliphate, Egypt’s rule was established again in Sudan.

Who colonized Sudan?

Although Egypt itself was now under the control of Britain, in such a way the British did not care that the country they were occupying, that country itself rules another country! After which he started putting pressure on Egypt and finally in 1899 the authority of the British was established in Sudan as well.

  • The History of Sudan Freedom From UK

19s Sudan History facts: After a few years of being under the British rule, the people of both the countries started to understand the meaning of freedom, and then the campaign for freedom from the British started in both the countries. Muhammad Naguib, the first President of Egypt, was born and raised in Sudan. While leading the freedom movement, he demanded the independence of both the countries and also announced that after getting independence from the British, Sudan would also become a separate country.

After the Egyptian Revolution that started in 1952, Egypt got independence from the British in 1953, and then within a year, on January 1, 1953, Sudan also became an independent country.

  • The history of South Sudan Timeline

The History of South Sudan timeline: The history of Sudan changed with the rise of South Sudan It has been accused of human rights abuses, support for global terrorism, persecution of minorities, and genocide based on caste in the 2003 war. During the entire 30-year dictatorship of Omar al-Bashir, about 400,000 people were killed in Sudan.

The civil war between groups in North and South Sudan, which began during the reign of Gaafar Nimeiry, continued to turn violent by the day. After coming under the rule of Omar al-Bashir, atrocities on minorities increased, then the Christian people of South Sudan decided to make South Sudan a separate country.

In 2010, a war broke out between the Army of Sudan and the Sudan Revolutionary Front over the capture of Abyei, an area with vast oil reserves. As a result of this war, South Sudan got independence from Sudan and South Sudan became a new country in the world.

  • History of the Sudan

history of the sudan
Facts History of the Sudan
  • History About Sudan

  • History of the Sudan: Since 1955, North and South Sudan have fought over religious, ethnic, ideological differences and over oil. South Sudan as of July 9, South Sudan is a new independent country. independence after separating from its northern neighbor, Sudan, on July 9, 2011. The self-determination achieved after a historic referendum made it the youngest sovereign state in the world, but it also precipitated its political division, exposed its deep ethnic rivalry and condemned it to a painful civil war.
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Facts History of Sudan and South Sudan: The birth of South Sudan, the youngest country in the world

The Sudanese internal conflict gave its population a respite from 2005 with the signing of the Nairobi Accords that ended the second Sudanese civil war.

The north and south signed a peace after 22 years of war, 1.9 million dead and more than 4 million citizens displaced.

From 2005 to 2011, South Sudan’s self-government was revived within a unified state, but that idea soon expired for separatists in the region who decided to organize an independence referendum on July 9, 2011.

The vote gave a resounding yes to independence with 98.83% of the vote, a decision that was accepted by Khartoum and precipitated the division of Sudan into two states: Sudan and South Sudan.

Khartoum’s position on the creation of South Sudan lent more credence to Al-Bashir’s ill-fated international reputation, but southern independence meant the loss of a quarter of the territory and region with the most natural resources.

history of sudan

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  • a history of south sudan from slavery to independence
  • History of South Sudan Conflict: History of Sudan and South Sudan

The main conflict in Sudan was the civil wars between north and South Sudan because of religious conflict between Christianity/tribal religions and Islam. Christianity is a monotheistic religion with three major branches. The major branches are Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox. Islam is also monotheistic and broken up into two branches, Sunni and Shi’a. They are both universalizing religions, but Islam is mainly clustered in the Middle East, Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh and India, and Christianity is all over the world. The conflict began in 1955 and continues until this day. Religion was the main issue of the conflict.

Now it is centered around oil. Northern Sudan’s population is Muslim; this caused them to be mostly Arabic-speaking. Whereas Southern Sudan’s population has a more African race, tradition, culture and religion, it has Christian and Western influences. Christianity was located in Northern Sudan, but it was eradicated in the 16th century and replaced by Islam, but Christianity was introduced to Southern Sudan by missionaries associated with British colonialism. Even though Southern Sudan now had its independence it was still threatened by Islamification and Arabization from Northern Sudan.

Where is Sudan located?

The history of South Sudan conflict
The history of South Sudan conflict

What caused the current conflict?

History of South Sudan Conflict: In 1989, a military coup led by Omar al-Bashir led to the establishment of an Islamist dictatorship that would last 30 years. The Al-Bashir government continued to perpetrate the exclusionary policy that had endured since the colonial period, which favored the development of the central regions of Sudan at the expense of the periphery. In the mid-1990s, the Darfur region was severely underdeveloped and regularly devastated by natural disasters, leading to tensions over access to land and natural resources.

An ethnically diverse region, with a mix of Arab and non-Arab groups, tensions ran along ethnic lines. Several non-Arab groups formed rebel groups, notably the Sudan Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), and led attacks against the government. Government-linked militias, known as the Popular Defense Forces, or Janjaweed, made up of local Arab tribes, engaged in what were called “counter-insurgency” activities to put down the rebel uprising. This led to the proliferation of violence and conflict, with the outbreak of civil war in 2003, which left some 300,000 people dead and 2.5 million displaced, according to the UN.

Although the violence has decreased somewhat since the early 2000s, political grievances continue in Darfur, as do intercommunal tensions. Lawlessness and banditry abound, with civilians bearing the brunt, and waves of violence continue to batter the region. The Juba Peace Agreement was signed in October 2020, and is still in force. However, the recent waves of violence show that the conflict continues and threatens to resurface in the future.


This has been compounded by political volatility in Khartoum as well. Following the ouster of al-Bashir by a civilian-led protest movement in April 2019, a transitional Sovereign Council was formed, including an agreement to share power between civilian and military factions (source). In October 2021, the army enacted an inauguration to remove civilian Prime Minister Abdalla Hamdok from office, sparking further protests. Although Hamdok was reinstated in November 2021, in January 2022 he resigned after continued anti-military


  • Cultural differences drowned Sudan in north-south civil wars

North and South Sudan Conflict Reason: with the independence of Egypt between 1922 and 1923, the territory of the Sudan began to swing between various interests. On the one hand the Egyptians wanted to include it in their demarcation. The British, rather than handing it over to Egypt, thought of adhering the southern part to the protectorate of Uganda. And the Sudanese themselves, in turn, sought to segregate themselves as one country. After World War II, and the decline of European colonialism in Africa, the Egyptians and British agreed to give independence to Sudan, and form it as a Republic in 1956, with Khartoum as its capital.

The notion of one Sudan since 1955 triggered inter-ethnic tensions in southern Sudan. Thus began the first Sudanese civil war, which pitted the newly declared central government against the southern liberation movement.

This first war lasted 17 years and ended in 1972, after negotiating in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia, the creation of a new autonomous government in southern Sudan. The peace achieved lasted barely a decade, until Sudanese President Jaafar al-Numeiry, of Arab roots and Muslim faith, wanted to apply sharia throughout the country; This led the country into a second Sudanese civil war. This conflict between the central government of Sudan and the Sudan People’s Liberation Army lasted until 2005, when a new peace agreement was reached.

In this agreement, the figure of an autonomous government of South Sudan was revived, which would expire after 6 years when a secessionist referendum was called.

With 98.83%, the 2011 separatist referendum made clear the will of the South Sudanese people to establish themselves as a new country. The Khartoum government accepted the decision and gave in to Juba’s self-determination. But since then, in South Sudan, the scars of the latest civil war have lingered, the country’s hospitals continue to be wounded by tribal conflicts, and young people’s hopes have been dashed by an inefficient education system and a shrinking labour market.

  • South Sudan, a territory of Nilotic peoples

History of South Sudan conflict: The territory of South Sudan was colonized during the fifteenth and nineteenth centuries by the migrations of Nilotic peoples, that is, inhabitants of the central and upper valley of the Nile River. Slender black settlers of great stature, with predominantly African cultures, and animistic and Christian beliefs. A people composed of several tribes, but different from its northern neighbors in the nineteenth century. We are talking about the Arabs of Muslim faith who occupied the territory of Egypt, a state then a vassal of the Ottoman Empire.

From the mid-1800s, the Ottoman Empire began to falter in its sovereignty and allowed the penetration of the British Empire into the territories of Egypt.

When was Sudan founded? The British found that the Egyptians had invaded in 1820 the lands south of the Nile River, in what is now the territories of Sudan and South Sudan.

The colonization advance of the British was soon accepted by the inhabitants of present-day Sudan, while the southerners of the territory imposed considerable resistance. Faced with the dichotomy encountered, the English preferred to devote their efforts to develop and modernize the lands of the north, while in the south they hardly tried to maintain order, in a region already affected by the kidnapping of settlers enslaved by the Egyptians.

In Sudan history the territory south of Egypt was known since the late nineteenth century as the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, bathed by the Nile River, controlled by the British, but formally ascribed to the Egyptians.

Despite the unity of the territory, it was divided into two administrations. In the north the Arabic language prevailed, and in the south English was implemented. In addition, the youngest country in the world.  This is all about Sudan History facts.

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