WHAT IS THE HISTORY OF SLOVENIA?
Slovenia history Timeline: Times The oldest proof of human existence on Slovenian territory are two stone tools from the Cave in Loza near Orehk, some 250,000 years old. From the Würm ice age, when Neanderthals lived on the territory of Slovenia, the most important find was the whistle from Wild Bab near the village of Šebrelje in Idrija-Cerknica. In the younger Stone Age and the Copper Age, the inhabitants were already engaged in livestock farming and farming. On the transition from bronze to the Iron Age, there was a culture of urn graves. The Halštat period is characterized by fortified settlements on the hills, called the castle, and beautifully made iron objects (e.g. situles) and weapons (Most na Soči, Vače, Rifnik, Šentvid pri Stični). Their inhabitants are ethnically indefinable.
Celts and Romans Slovenia History
In the 4th and 3rd centuries BC, the territory of present-day Slovenia was occupied by the Tribes of Celts, who formed the first state formation here called the Norisko Kingdom. From this time come the names of many of today’s places (Bohinj, Tuhinj) and rivers (Sava, Savinja, Drava).
The Roman penetration into the territory of present-day Slovenia began after the establishment of Akvilea (181 BC) In the second half of the second half. The Romans subjugated Histre, Tavriske (129 BC) and Karna (115 BC) in the Istrian wars. Then, in the years 35-33 BC. n. No. no limit all the way to the Danube and around 10 BC. The Allied Norisko Kingdom was also peacefully annexed. The occupied areas were included in the provincial organization: western Slovenia with Istria was integrated into the 10th region of Italy, eastern part and Dolenjska were included in the province of Panonijo, the Alpine area and the Posavinje were in the middle of the 1st century. involved in the province of Norik.
Cities (Emona, Celeia, Poetoviona) were created, inhabited by immigrants from Italy and the populous Aboriginal people. A road system was built with the main isle of Akvileja-Emona-Celeia-Poetoviona-Carnuntum (Petronell on the Danube).
The first organized Christian churches were formed towards the end of the 3rd century; In the 4th, 5th and 6th centuries, dioceses formed, falling under the control of the metropolis in Akvileja.
In order to defend the border of Italy, the Claustra Alpium Iuliarum was formed on the karst edge in the 3rd century. In the 5th and 6th centuries, Roman rule on the territory of Slovenia began to be eeuted by the incursions of Germanic tribes moving towards Italy; the local population began to migrate from cities to the most places of refuge. In the mid-5th century, huns invaded Italy through Slovenia and devastated a number of towns along the way, and at the end of the 5th century, The Eastern Goths (Ostrogoths) seeded Italy and, by 536, Norik, Dalmatia and Panonia were included in their Ital kingdom.
Slavic tribal principality (Carantania and Karniola)
In 568, germanic Lombards moved from Slovenian territory to Italy. Avari and the Slavs began to settle in the empty space. The space, inhabited by the Slavs, was also inhabited by the remains of romanized aboriginals, who partly preserved Christianity. The settlement of Slavs in the Eastern Alps is confirmed by the collapse of dioceses in the Eastern Alpine region in the second half of the 6th century, the change in settlement and material culture, and above all the new, Slavic speech. The border with the Bavarcis had already temporarily stabilised in East Tyrol, and in the 8th century, the border with the Lombards settled on the edge of the Friuli Lowe and in Istria on the karst edge. The Slavs in the Eastern Alps, like the Slavs in Pannonia, were subordinated to the authorities of the Avarcanese. In the early 7th century, as the Avaric authorities weakened, the relatively independent “landscape of Slavs” (“marca Vinedorum”) with its prince developed. In 623 she probably joined the Alpine Slavs under the leadership of King Sam. After the collapse of the Samoan Tribal Alliance in 658, the “landscape of the Slavs” with its centre at Krn Castle north of today’s Klagenfurr, which has already begun to be called Carantania, maintained its independence. When the Karantas asked the Basque party to help defend themselves against Avar, they had to acknowledge their predombancy, sending their son Prince Bould, Gorazdaz, and the Prince’s nephew Hotiman, who were christianized by the Bavars. With the reign of The Khus of Hotii, 751, the Christian ity of the Carantas began, triggering three failed uprisings. After the defeat of Bavarian Ktylaus Tasila III in 788, Carantania was also incorporated in the Franco-State of Karla hh. When the Prince of Slavonic Slavs Ljudevit Posavski began rebellion in 819 due to his dissatisfaction with the Franco-Friuli Border Count, the Karantas joined him. After the suffocation of the rebellion in 828, the Franks reorganized the administration and the local Slavic princes replaced the Frank countess. From the time of Carantani, until 1414, a special ceremony of the ology of the Dukes of Carinthni was preserved, which took place in The Slovene language.
The Slavic tribal principality of Karniola developed from the 8th to 9th centuries also south of the Karavanks, on the territory of central Slovenia. In 795, the only presumptive Prince Vojnomir was exhiported. Carniola was incorporated into the Franconian Friuli Marko at the end of the 8th century, but maintained its tribal regime until 828, when the Franks turned it into a border county after the unsuccessful rebellion of the Panonian Slavic Prince Ljudevit Posavsky.
After the unsuccessful
Bulgarian penetration of Pannonia and its recapition, King Louis German awarded Pannonia around 840 in a feud to a refugee from Moravska Pribina. In 847 Pribina was appointed count and the territory of Lower Pannonia became its property. The seat of power was in Blaten kostel in present-day Hungary. In 861 Pribino was succeeded by his son Kocelj and ripped out of the Frankic influence. Kocelj supported the Slavic mission of St. Cyril and the Holy Method and hindered the operation of salzburg missionaries. However, it was removed around 876, ending a brief period of autonomy for the Lower Pan-Pan-Slavic Principality. The territory has been re-incorporated into the East Mark. During the government of Arnulf Carinthia, Carinthia became the centre of the Eastern March and gained considerable autonomy within the Empire. Feudalization was intensified on Slovenian territory, but the process was halted by the penetration of hungarians at the end of the 9th century. After the defeat of the Bavars in the battle of the Hungarians near Bratislava in 907, the territory of central Slovenia fell under Hungarian rule for about a century. The feudal system was thus formed only after the defeat of the Hungarians at Augsburg in 955 and the reintegration of this territory into the Empire, in the 10th and 11th centuries.
In the Empire
After the new conquest, the administrative organization was also changed, based on the border counties (marches or landscapes). Emperor Oton II, who became a duchy in 976, subjugated the neighbouring border counties: the Carantana Marko, Podravska and Savinjsko marko, Kranjska, Istrian Marko and Friulian and The Verona Marko. This semi-independent formation existed until the beginning of the 11th century, when the lands began to form. During this period, the feudal system was consolidated, important noble lineages were settled, the first castles were created and the hub system of sharing arable land was established. Brižine monuments also originate from this time.
In the high Middle Ages, the historical regions of Styria, Carinthia, Kranjska, Goriška, Trieste and Istria were formed in the High Middle Ages in Slovenia, incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire.
The arrival and consolidation of the Habsburgs after the extinct Dukes
of Austria, The Babenberžani, and in 1269 the Carniola and Carinthian Spanheimi, the Czech King Otokar II. Přemysl, who tore from Styria and Koroško in 1260, established himself in Slovenia. Since 1254, he has held Austria with his hands and became Friulan’s general captain in 1272, he has controlled territories from the Czech Republic to the Adriatic Sea. However, Emperor Rudolf I of Habsburg did not recognise these acquisitions and began a war that ended with the defeat of Isle of Isary in 1278. In 1282, Rudolf gave his sons Albreht and Rudolf to the feuds Austria and Styria, carinthia and Carniola were given the Majnhardin (Tyrol) branch of the Counts of Gorizia. When this large family died out in 1335, the Habsburgs acquired Carniola and Carinthia, and in 1374 the Istrian Paterian County and Slovenska marko were inherited after the second branch of Goriška. In 1382, trieste was eventually acquired and thus the exit to the Adriatic Sea.
The Habsburg authorities, however, temporarily threatened the rise of the native family, the Counts of Celje. This began in the second third of the 14th century: in 1333 they inedided the Vovbržani, in 1341 they were given the earl’s title, and the connection with emperor Sigismund of Luxembourg allowed them to extend their possessions to Hungary and Croatia. In 1436, Sigismund promoted them to the state principals, allowing the development of a special land, the Principality of Celje. The promotion also sparked a war with the Habsburgs, which in 1443 ended with a settlement between Frederick II. The Celan and Frederick III. With the settlement, the families entered into an inheritance agreement, but after the death of the last Celje Ulrik II in 1456, the Habsburgs had to defend it in the War of The City of Celje Heritage. (until 1460).
At the end of the Middle Ages, in the 15th and 16th centuries, events in the area were marked by Turkish invasions. Dissatisfaction with the under-feudal defence against the Turks and the introduction of new, especially natural taxes and pressures, have also caused peasant revolts in Slovenia. The largest was 1515 covered almost all Slovenian territory. In 1572/73 Slovenian and Croatian farmers were linked in a joint revolt. The riots continued with bloody defeats until the first half of the 18th century.
From the Reformation to the
Spring of the Peoples In the mid-16th century, the Reformation of the predominantly Lutheran direction was being reformed in Slovenia, laying the foundations of the Slovene literary language and thus the creation of the Slovenian language community. Primož Trubar published the first slovene books in 1550, Alphabet and Catechism. Protestants published about 50 other books in Slovene, including the first Slovene grammar and in 1584 Dalmatian translation of the entire Bible.
In the early 17th century, princely absolutism and the Catholic Church suppressed Protestantism and for a long time suppressed literature in the Slovene language. The enlightened civilisational action in Central Europe, especially in the Habsburg monarchy, also had major positive effects for the Slovenian people. It has accelerated economic development and enabled the emergence of Slovenian bourgeoisies.
During the reign of Maria Theresa and her son, Emperor Joseph II (1765-1790), when the general school obligation was introduced and basic education was introduced in The Slovene language (1774), the cultural linguistic campaign of Slovenian educated people began to form the Slovenian people.
At the end of the 18th century, Slovenian lands were achieved by clashes of the French Revolutionary Wars. In 1797, at the end of the first coalition, French troops briefly occupied parts of today’s Slovenian territory. After the signing of the Campoformian peace, the entire Slovenian ethnic territory came within the framework of the Habsburg monarchy, as the Habsburgs, in exchange for Lombardy and the Austrian Netherlands, received the former Venetian Istria and the Beneces. But even after the defeat in the third coalition war and the signing of Bratislava Peace (1805), the monarchy lost both provinces that had fallen to the French Italian Kingdom.
After the new defeat of the Austrian Empire in 1809, Napoleon, with schönbrunn peace, tore from the Habsburg monarchy from the southwestern Slovenian lands (to Sava) and, in the territory of Western Carinthia, Carniola, Goriška, Trieste, Istria, Dalmatia and Croatia south of Sava, founded the Illyrian Province (1809-1813) with the capital in Ljubljana. The short-lived French rule changed taxes, introduced law reforms (Code Napoleon) and improved the position of Slovene in schools, and did not abolish feudalism, even though it had planned it.
The improved position of Slovene and some other influences of the French occupation of about half of today’s Slovenia, as well as the influences of the ideas of the French Revolution, have further accelerated the creation of awareness of the existence of a special Slovenian nation. Anton Tomaž Linhart in hisneery, Jernej Kopitar in linguistics and some others helped to promote the notion of ethnic unity of the Slavic people of Carniola, the southern part of Styria and Carinthia and Gorizia and part of Istria and the Tržaška hinterland. However, such beliefs were mainly characteristic of a part of the educated, and among the wider class the French occupation remained remembered mainly after high taxes.
In the pre-March period, the modernization of the village continued and the first industrialisation began.
The greatest Slovenian poet France Prešeren helped to transcend linguistic regionalisms, established a unified literary language for all Slovenes and defended it from attempts to intow into some artificial Illyrian-Yugoslav language. In the European Spring of Nations, March and Aprila 1848 the first Slovenian political programme called “Zedinjena Slovenija” was created, which required the merging of all the countries inhabited by Slovenes into one country, Slovenia.
Austro-Hungarian Parliament in
1867, Slovenian Members already won a majority in the regional elections in Carniola. That year, with the division of the state into the Hungarian and Austrian half, Austro-Hungarian was formed. Most of today’s Slovenian territory remained in the Austrian part of the monarchy, but Prekmurje remained in the Hungarian part. Already in 1866, after the lost war with Italy and Prussia, Italy was given the Beneria; Venetian Slovenes thus came under Italy, which was confirmed by a formal plebiscite.
The Slovenian political movement during this time marked the first common ethnic struggle of all Slovenes (period of stylisticity), and later political differences deepened, especially in the 1980s and 1990s, which is the period of cultural struggle between the clerical and liberal channel of bourgeois politicians. In the early 20th century, socialist political associations were also claimed, led by rationalists, and colleagues were sought during the increasing number of work. The reflections of the political relationships then set can be traced back to 100 years, at the beginning of the 21st century.
The Programme of United Slovenia remained a red line for the next 60 years in the national political efforts of the Slovenian people in the Habsburg monarchy. From this period it is typical that Slovenes were not recognized in the world, although many famous Slovenes achieved the world’s peak with their work (Stefan, Potočnik, Jakopič, Cankar, Puh, Rusjan, Plemelj, Miklošič, Pregl, Vidmar…)
I During the First World War, which hit Slovenia hard, especially through the Bloody Sox Front and the imperialist politics of superpowers, which threatened to dismember The Slovenian territory between several countries (London Agreement, 1915), the Slovenes were already trying to settle their national position in a joint national unit with croats and Serbs in the Habsburg monarchy.
The request, known as the May Declaration, was made by Slovenian, Croatian and Serbian Members in the Vienna Parliament in the spring of 1917. The ruling circles of the Habsburg monarchy initially rejected the request, and subsequent government initiatives to federalise the monarchy (e.g. Emperor Karla’s October manifesto) were rejected by most Slovenian politicians who were already leaning towards independence. The preservation of the reformed country was longest defended by the former chief of the Slovenian People’s Party and carniolan provincial governor, Ivan Šusteršič, who had few supporters and influence.
The period between the world wars
After the defeat of Austro-Hungarian and Central Forces, the Croatian saboteur in Zagreb and the people’s rally in Ljubljana on 29 October 1918 proclaimed the national liberation and establishment of an independent State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs with a centre in Zagreb. Danger from Italy, on 1 December 1915, the unification of the SHS with the Kingdom of Serbia in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, which was called the Kingdom of Yugoslavia from 3 October 1929, resulted in the unification of the SHS state with the Kingdom of Serbia in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, which was called the Kingdom of Yugoslavia from 3 October 1929.
In 1919, Yugoslav troops occupied the Prekmurje and annexed it to the Kingdom. After the lost Carinthia plebiscite in 1920, southern Carinthia fell to Austria. After the signing of the Rapal Treaty (1920), the border with Italy was arranged, which was given to the whole of Western Slovenia.
The majority of the Slovenian people in the Yugoslav state, which was fully centralistly regulated, did not enjoy any constitutional autonomy, but because of its compact ethnic settlement and the dominance of the political SLS party, which advocated autonomy, it actually lived a fairly autonomous national life, which even the centralist Belgrade legislation could not undermine. Slovenia developed economically and culturally well. In her political life, until the introduction of the Sixth January Dicatature (1929), there was a fierce battle between the Slovenian People’s Party and the liberal Yugoslav Democratic Party.
World War II
Germany was preparing to attack the Soviet Union after Hitler tried to extend the triple pact to the foursome, but the conflict of interest of Germany and the Soviet Union prevented this, as the two had strong territorial aspirations for the Bosphorus and Dardanelles. Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania also joined the Triple Pact in 1940. This greatly increased the pressure on Yugoslavia for her, too, to sign an approach, which Hitler, who wanted to protect the southern side from the invasion of the North. On 25 March 1941, the signing of the Treaty of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia with Germany, followed two days later, on 27 March, by the puč led by the air general Dušan Simović. The Regent Prince Paul was deposed and the successor (who was he?) was declared an adult. The interim leadership has been taken over by the general. Hitler was thus no longer found reliable by Yugoslavia, and thus on 6 April 1941, according to the military plan of Marita and without a military announcement, the enemy invaded the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The attack began with the famous bombing of Belgrade, killing 20,000 people. The resistance of the Yugoslav royal army was purely symbolic, as they were able to collect only half of the conscripts due to the slow mobilisation, and the military equipment and doctrine of Serbia from the Balkan wars and the First World War were obsolete. Thus, On 10 April Germany passed Zagreb and Belgrade on 12 April. The Italian army only launched its attack on April 11, when Hungary also joined. At the time, the German army was already in Karlac. The Italian army split into two parts: the part penetrated against and Ljubljana and beyond kočevja, and the second part penetrated through Dalmatia. The German army also invaded from Bulgaria, easily preventing the withdrawal ofthe U.S. Army on the Thessaloniki Front. Thus, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia was occupied by 4 occupiers and the Slovenian territory was divided between Germany, Italy, and Hungary. The Croatian authorities earned the right to establish the NDH, but the territory was still under the occupier’s control. The NDH was controlled by the Germans and the South by the Italians. Shortly after the occupation, the Slovenian National Council was created, led by Dr. Marko Natlačen, who called for the peaceful surrender of weapons and surrender to the occupier, which, of course, the military command refused. Hungary occupied most of Prekmurje and Medžimurje, while the fourth occupiers of the first Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, occupied eastern Macedonia. Large Albania was connected parts of eastern Montenegro and Macedonia.
The Italians led the world’s most welcoming politics on their occupied territory, which was at odds with the inter-war happenings, when they tried to destroy the 300,000 Slovenes who remained outside the borders of their home country. Thus, during the period of occupation, bilingualism was introduced into schools only as a subject, all non-political, cultural and sports associations were launched. The German form of occupation was the most severe of all three, as all Slovenian newspapers were banned, the German language was introduced into schools as a teaching language, adults were forcibly enrolled in the Styrian Homeland Union and the Carinthic People’s Union or their armed divisions. The official language has also become German. They forcibly took away 600 children who seemingly met the criteria of the Aryan race and assigned them to Lebensborn (Lebensborn: please find some other translation), they introduced Nazi laws, and later began military mobilization of the population, which was contrary to international law,…
On 26 April 1941, the Anti-Imperialist Front was established in Ljubljana (renamed the Liberation Front in the time of Germany’s invasion of the Soviet Union), which launched an armed fight against the occupiers. The founding groups of the Anti-Imperialist Front were: the Communist Party of Slovenia, part of the Christian Socialists, the democratic part of the liberal Sokol Gymnastics Association and part of the cultural ists, but they were unconnected. On 22 June 1941, the Main Command of partisan forces was established, and on the same day the Slogans of the Liberation Movement of. Later, on 1 November 1941, the Fundamental Points of the OF were published, the 8th and 9th points of which were written under the influence of the Atlantic Charter. The leading role in the Liberation Front was taken over by the Communist Party of Slovenia, which took over all power in the bloody NOB itself, with the signing of the Dolomite Declaration on 1 March 1943.
In 1943, a substantially liberated territory was created in Kočevje, where the OF organised the Kočevski Zbor, where it elected the highest body of the Slovenian state, took the decision to join Primorska Slovenia and elected a delegation for the II session of AVNOJ.
At the end of the war, the Slovenian partisan army, together with the Yugoslav Army and the Soviet Red Army, liberated the entire Slovenian ethnic territory.
The formation of the Federative
Yugoslavia The Assembly of Envoys of the Slovenian People in Kočevju in October 1943 decided to integrate Slovenia into the new Yugoslavia, which was established at the AVNOja meeting in Egg in November 1943 and was declared fed two years laterThe People’s Republic of Yugoslavia (FLRJ). Slovenia was renamed the People’s Republic of Slovenia as an integral part of it. By 1947, all private activity was nationalised.
After the break with the Soviet Union in 1948, Yugoslavia began to introduce a milder form of socialism based on social property and self-governance. The city of Trieste with its surroundings came to Italy. In 1963, FLRJ was renamed the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRJ) and Slovenia was renamed the Socialist Republic of Slovenia.
Slovenia developed economically rapidly, especially in the 1950s, when the country was heavily industrialised. Following the economic reform and further economic decentralisation of Yugoslavia in 1965 and 1966, Slovenia was the fastest approach to a market economy among all six republics. Despite the dampening economic and social legislation, which was mainly laid down by the largest Serbian nation, which relied on underdeveloped republics in its centralist efforts, Slovenia maintained its greater economic development, better qualification structure, better work discipline and organisation than the national average.
Slovenia generated as much as 2.5 times the national average, which strengthened national self-esteem among Slovenes. This self-confidence was shown in both the economic and cultural spheres.
Slovenia After the
death of Josip Broz in 1980, the economic and political situation began to exacerbate, leading to the end of the SFR in 10 years. The first clear demand for slovenian independence was made in 1987 by a group of educated people in the 57th issue of the New Magazine. The demands for democratisation and resistance against centralist Yugoslavia were triggered by the arrest of three associates of the political weekly Mladina and the Deputy Officer of the JLA.
In 1988 and 1989, the first opposition political parties formed, demanding a sovereign state of the Slovenian people in the Majnica Declaration in 1989. In April 1990, the first democratic elections in Slovenia in which the opposition won were united in DEMOS. On 23 December of that year, more than 88 percent of voters opted for an independent and independent Slovenia in a plebiscite. On 25 June 1991, the Slovenian Parliament adopted a constitutional law to implement the Basic Constitutional Charter on Independence and Independence of Slovenia, the Declaration of Independence and several laws by which Slovenia assumed the previous powers of the Federation on its territory. The next day, the new country was attacked by the Yugoslav army. After the 10-day war, a ceasefire was reached with the Brijuni Declaration on July 7. On 18 July, the SFD Presidency decided to withdraw the JLA with weapons and equipment from Slovenia and in October 1991 the last soldier of the JLA left Slovenia. A denationalisation law was passed in November and a new constitution was adopted in December. Slovenia in the European Union in February 1999 entered into an association agreement with the European Union, Slovenia became a member of NATO on 29 March 2004 and a member of the European Union on 1 May 2004. Slovenia took over the common European currency the euro on 1 January 2007.
Read Also History of Slovakia
Are Slovenia and Slovakia the same?
Are Slovenia and Slovakia the same? Slovakia and Slovenia are different country.
What was Slovenia before it was Slovenia?
On the transition from bronze to the Iron Age, there was a culture of urn graves. The Halštat period is characterized by fortified settlements on the hills, called the castle. In the 4th and 3rd centuries BC, the territory of present-day Slovenia was occupied by the Tribes of Celts, who formed the first state formation here called the Norisko Kingdom. In the European Spring of Nations, March and Aprila 1848 the first Slovenian political programme called “Zedinjena Slovenija” was created, which required the merging of all the countries inhabited by Slovenes into one country, Slovenia. on 1 December 1915, the unification of the SHS with the Kingdom of Serbia in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, which was called the Kingdom of Yugoslavia from 3 October 1929, resulted in the unification of the SHS state with the Kingdom of Serbia in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, which was called the Kingdom of Yugoslavia from 3 October 1929.
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