The History of Scotland Timeline
The Scotland history timeline: Located in the mid-west of Europe, Scotland may be small but we have plenty to shout about! Occupying the northern third of Great Britain we share a border with England in the south and pack some of the most stunning scenery in all of the UK into our borders. From wild coastlines and pristine beaches to rolling valleys and towering mountains, Scottish geography is a huge part of its appeal. If that’s not enough, we are strategically placed near the best of Europe and beyond, making us the perfect destination for work and play.
As well as a mainland jam-packed with things to see and do, Scotland is also home to almost 800 small islands. In the north of the country, you’ll find the majestic Shetland Isles and Orkney Isles, both steeped in a magical mix of Scottish, Celtic and Norse history and culture.
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Covering the northern third of the island of Great Britain, mainland It has a 96-mile (154-kilometre) border with England to the southeast and is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, the North Sea to the northeast.
Prehistory of Scotland
Early history of Scotland Timeline: People lived in Scotland for at least 8,500 years before Britain’s recorded history. Occasionally, during the last interglacial period (130,000-70,000 BC), Europe had a warmer climate than today, and it is possible that the first humans made their way to Scotland, with the possible discovery of pre-Ice Age axes in Orkney and mainland Scotland. Then glaciers made their way through most of Britain, and only after the ice retreated did Scotland become habitable again, around 9600 BC.
Upper Paleolithic hunter-gatherer camps formed the earliest known settlements, and archaeologists have dated a camp near Biggar to around 12000 BC. Numerous other sites found around Scotland build a picture of people using boats and making tools out of bones, stones and antlers. The oldest house for which there is evidence in Britain is the oval structure of wooden poles found at South Queensferry near the Firth of Forth, dating to the Mesolithic period, around 8240 BC.
The oldest stone structures are probably the three hearths found in Jura, dating from around 6000 BC. Neolithic agriculture brought permanent settlements. Evidence of this includes the well-preserved stone house at Knap of Howar in Papa Westray, dating from around 3500 BC. C. and the village of similar houses at Skara Brae in West Mainland, Orkney about 500 years later. Settlers introduced tombs with chamber cairns around 3500 BC. C., as in Maeshowe, and about 3000 BC. of which it is 16 feet (5 m) tall. These were part of a pattern that developed in many regions of Europe at about the same time.
The creation of megalithic landmarks and monuments continued until the Bronze Age, which began in Scotland around 2000 BC. As elsewhere in Europe, hill forts were first introduced in this period, including the occupation of Eildon Hill near Melrose on the Scottish border, around 1000 BC. C., which housed several hundred houses on a fortified hill. From the Early and Middle Bronze Age there is evidence of round stone cell houses, as at Jarlshof and Sumburgh in Shetland.
There is also evidence of the occupation of crannogs, circular houses built totally or partially on artificial islands, usually in lakes, rivers and estuarine waters. At the beginning of the Iron Age, from the seventh century BC. C., cell houses began to be replaced in the northern islands by simple Atlantic circular houses, substantial circular buildings with a dry stone construction.
Approximately from 400 BC. More complex Atlantic circular houses began to be built, as at Howe, Orkney and Crosskirk, Caithness. The most massive constructions dating from this time are the circular broch towers, which probably date from around 200 BC. This period also saw the first rudders, a rotunda with a characteristic outer wall, within which was a circle of stone pillars (resembling the spokes of a wheel), but these would flourish more in the era of Roman occupation. There is evidence of around 1,000 Iron Age forts in Scotland, most located below the Clyde-Forth line, which have suggested to some archaeologists the rise of a society of small rulers and warrior elites recognizable in Roman accounts.
The Romans Invade on Scottish
The first Roman incursion across the Channel dates back to 55 BC. The Romans, however, never managed to completely subdue the Picts (as the Romans themselves had baptized the local populations) and never conquered the Highlands; Hadrian’s Wall testifies to this. The Romans withdrew from Scotland (formerly called Caledonia) around 155 AD and returned there for a short period until 163.
Around 500 Scottish was inhabited by Picts and Celts influenced by Roman culture; these populations spoke Celtic languages, from which Welsh and Breton originated. In this period new populations of invaders arrived in Scotland: the Scotti, of Irish origin, from whose language modern Gaelic originates, the Angles from the Continent who spoke Scots, a Germanic language in some ways similar to modern English, and the Vikings who came to the Orkney Islands around 800 from neighboring Scandinavia.
The following centuries were characterized by conflicts between different populations, all with great warrior traditions. The first Scottish saint, San Ninian, worked to convert the Picts, but it was then San Colombano, a Gaelic-speaking Scotto who arrived in Scotland in 563 on the island of Iona, who resumed the work of conversion.
The spread of Christianity made relations between Pitti and Scotti much more peaceful and mixed marriages spread. Later followed the union of the two Kingdoms that gave rise to the Kingdom of Alba which, through conquests and marriages, extended to include, already around 1000, a large part of the current territory of Scotland. but it was then St. Columban, a Gaelic-speaking Scotto who arrived in Scotland in 563 on the island of Iona, who resumed the work of conversion.
From the Kingdom of Alba to the 18th century
1034 is the year of the death of the so-called “First King of Scotland” who made it the royal title in all respects hereditary. Some sovereigns succeeded one another up to Malcon III who introduced feudalism in the region, which however did not replace the concept of clan. The spread of Christianity continued with the construction of several abbeys such as that of Melrose and Kelso.
In 1286 Alexander III died, who had only one heir, his niece Margherita, a very young child. Edward I of England, Margaret’s great-uncle, decided on a marriage between Margaret and her son; in 1290 Margaret’s tutors approved the solution, but during the journey from Norway to Scotland the child lost her life.
History of Scotland and England
Union with England (1707-1870)
The royal community necessitated a rapprochement between the two countries, and with the uncertainty of the English succession, the foundations were laid for the creation of Great Britain. The English again feared seeing Scotland as a springboard for a Catholic Counter-Reformation, while the Scots, for their part, recognized the commercial advantages of closer ties to England. For a long time, however, the Union had the character of a marriage of convenience. Thus, the Treaty on European Union was aimed only at political integration (i.e. the dissolution of the Scottish Parliament), while the church and the legal system remained unchallenged.
The defeat at Culloden in 1746 marked the end of the clans as a force, but at the same time opened up the possibility for Scotland to be a more equal partner in the union.
The spillover from England was now noticeable in all areas of social life. The introduction of the fodder plant turnips ensured a significantly higher fold yield, which provided the basis for an expansion of the lucrative beef cattle exports. Conversely, the entry of market forces into the highlands meant a massive transition to sheep farming and a depopulation of the old clan area. The Scots gained access to the world market and the infrastructure was expanded.
From the end of the 1700s, extensive canal construction tied the country together, and with the advent of the railway in the 1830s, even remote areas could take part in economic development. Trade was initially centered on groceries such as tobacco and cotton, but with the large deposits of iron and coal, there was a rapid shift towards heavy industry and shipbuilding around Glasgow and on the Clyde River.
The largest referendum
The largest referendum ever held in Scotland on whether Scotland should be declared an independent nation. About 42 lakh 85 thousand voters decided in favor of England and Britain and Scotland decided to live together for 307 years.
The result of the referendum in Scotland went in favor of England and Great Britain continued to exist. Although there was not much difference between those who wanted independence and those who did not, more people saw their future with Great Britain. A referendum was held in Scotland on whether Scotland should be declared an independent nation. About 42.85 thousand voters took part in this referendum, which is about 97 percent of the population of Scotland.
In this referendum, citizens above the age of 16 were also given the right to vote. It is the largest referendum ever held in Scotland. This is the first time in British history that a referendum has been held to declare Scotland an independent nation. Had the majority of Scotland been on the side of an independent nation, Scotland would have become an independent nation on 24 March 2016 following negotiations and agreements with the rest of the UK.
In fact, the background for this referendum was set in October 2012, when British Prime Minister David Cameron and Scottish First Minister Alex Salmond (Scottish National Party) signed the Edinburgh Agreement, under which Scotland was declared an independent nation in 2014. Was declared. Agreement to hold a referendum. Earlier also referendums were held in Scotland in 1979 and 1997.
The History of Scotland Yard
One of the most famous police forces in the world, The Metropolitan Police Services, or Scotland Yard, serves London. The headquarters currently stands alongside the River Thames north of Westminster Bridge. It became famous through novels and for its detective work to solve murders and other heinous crimes. In this essay, the backstory of this notorious police force will be uncovered in an effort to educate readers.
Scottish Yard The beginning
In 1829, the London police force was created. Before the initiation of this service, there was a system of watchmen. But it was determined by an act in Parliament that formal patrols by officers were to take place. The headquarters at that time was located in Whitewall, which had an entrance to the Great Scotland Yard. This place was called so because “it stood on the site of a medieval palace that had housed Scottish royalty when the latter were in London on visits”
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