Timeline of Russia History Facts Fashion and Culture
History on Russia
- Capital of Russia: Moscow
- Language of Russia: Russian is official language of Russia.
- Total Area of Russia: Russia with a total land area of 17,075,200 km2. LOCATION AND SIZE. In terms of territory, Russia is the world’s largest country. With a total area of 17,075,200 kilometers (6,592,735 square miles), Russia covers about one-eighth of the world’s land surface.
- Currency of Russia: Ruble is divided into 100 kopek
- Continent of Russia: Russia is considered to be both in Europe and Asia with 23 percent in Europe and 77 percent in Asia. Therefore, Russia is part of both the Eurasian and Asian continents.
b. Religion Percentage in Russia
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Early History of Russia in Brief
Russia’s history timeline: The oldest traces of human habitation on the territory of Russia were found in Siberia, the North Caucasus and the Kuban region and belong to the period of about 3-2 million years BC. In the VI-V centuries BC. e. on the Black Sea coast there were Greek colonies, which later turned into the Scythian and Bosporan kingdoms.
Slavs and Their Neighbors
By the V century AD, Slavic tribes occupied lands on the shores of the Baltic Sea, along the Dnieper and along the Danube, and in the upper reaches of the Oka and Volga. In addition to hunting, the Slavs are engaged in agriculture, trade is gradually developing. The main trade routes are rivers. By the IX century, several Slavic principalities were formed, the main of them were Kiev and Novgorod. Timeline of Russia history.
Timeline of Russian History
The history of Russia dates back to 862. This year was marked by the coming to the reign of Rurik. This prince began to rule Novgorod and all the northern regions. In 864, Rus was divided into two centers: the northern lands, under the rule of Rurik from Novgorod, and the southern, under the rule of Askold and Dir from Kiev. In 882, Oleg the Prophet captured Kiev, thereby uniting the southern and northern regions. Kiev was chosen as the capital. As a result, the new state was called Kievan Rus. Many glorious princes ruled the state in those days. With eternal glory, they covered Russian weapons, bravely fighting for the interests of the Motherland.
However, by the middle of the 12th century, Kievan Rus was fragmented into small principalities. This happened because of the huge number of princes, each of whom wanted only one thing – power. As a result, separate appanages were formed, which were ruled by individual princes, independently making all decisions. Kiev formally retained its dominant position over the cities until 1240, when the Mongol-Tatars razed the city to the ground. Thus, a new form of statehood was formed – Rus Udelnaya. This period is often referred to by historians as a period of feudal fragmentation. Timeline of Russia history.
The Russian State
In 882, the Novgorod prince Oleg captured Kiev, and, combining the Slavic north and south, created the Old Russian state. Kievan Rus is considered both in Byzantium and in neighboring western states. Under Oleg’s successor Igor, the son of Rurik, a treaty was concluded with Byzantium to protect its borders from nomads.
In 988, under Prince Vladimir, the Baptism of Pagan Rus takes place. The adoption of Orthodoxy strengthens ties with Byzantium, along with the new faith, Greek culture, sciences and art spread among the Slavs. In Russia, a new Slavic alphabet is used, chronicles are written. Under Prince Yaroslav the Wise, the first set of laws of the Kiev state was drawn up – “Russian Truth”. Since the 30s of the XII centuries, the fragmentation of the united state into a number of independent principalities begins. Timeline of Russia history.
From the beginning of the XIII in the huge army of Genghis Khan Temuchin devastated Asia and Transcaucasia. Having conquered and taxed the peoples of the Caucasus, the Mongol army first appeared in Russian history, defeating in 1223 the combined forces of the Slavic princes and Cumans on the Kalka River. After 13 years, the grandson of Genghis Khan Batu comes to Russia from the east and separately defeats the troops of Russian princes, in 1240 he takes Kiev, goes to Western Europe and, returning, founds his state – the Golden Horde – in the lower reaches of the Volga, and taxes the Russian lands with tribute.
From now on, the princes gain power over their lands only with the sanction of the khans of the Golden Horde. This period went down in Russian history as the Mongol-Tatar yoke.
Grand Duchy of Moscow
Since the beginning of the XIV century, largely through the efforts of Ivan Kalita and his heirs, a new center of the Russian principalities – Moscow – was gradually formed. By the end of the XIV century, Moscow had become strong enough to openly oppose the Horde. In 1380, Prince Demetrius defeated the army of Khan Mamay on the Kulikovo Field. Under Ivan III, Moscow ceased to pay tribute to the Horde: Khan Akhmat during the “standing on the Ugra River” in 1480, did not dare to fight and retreated. The Mongol-Tatar yoke is coming to an end. Timeline of Russia history.
Time of Ivan the Terrible
Under Ivan IV the Terrible (officially the first Russian tsar since 1547), the collection of lands lost as a result of the Tatar-Mongol yoke and Polish-Lithuanian expansion was actively carried out, and a policy of further expansion of state borders was also pursued. The Russian state includes the Kazan, Astrakhan and Siberian khanates. At the end of the XVI – the middle of the XVII centuries, with a strong delay in comparison with the countries of Central Europe, serfdom was formalized.
In 1571, Moscow was burned down by the army of the Crimean Khan Devlet-Giray. In the following year, 1572, the 120,000-strong Crimean-Turkish army marching on Russia was destroyed, which actually put an end to the centuries-old struggle of Russia with the steppe. Timeline of Russia history.
The Time of Troubles and the First Romanovs
With the death in 1598 of ivan the Terrible’s son Fyodor, the Rurik dynasty was interrupted. The Time of Troubles begins, the time of the struggle for the throne and the Polish-Swedish intervention. The Troubles ended with the convocation of a nationwide militia, the expulsion of the Poles and the election to the tsardom of Mikhail Fyodorovich, the first representative of the Romanov dynasty (February 21, 1613). During his reign, Russian expeditions began the development of Eastern Siberia, Russia went to the Pacific Ocean. In 1654, Ukraine became part of the Russian state on the rights of autonomy. Under Alexei Mikhailovich, the influence of the West is growing. Timeline of Russia history.
Tsar Peter I radically reformed the Russian state, establishing an absolute monarchy headed by an emperor to whom even the church is subordinate. The boyars turn into the nobility. The army and the education system are being modernized, and much is being arranged according to the Western model. As a result of the Northern War, Russian lands seized by Sweden at the end of the XVI century were returned to Russia.
At the mouth of the Neva river, the port city of St. Petersburg was founded, where the capital of Russia was transferred in 1712. Under Peter, the first newspaper in Russia” Vedomosti was published and a new calendar was introduced on January 1, 1700, where the new year begins in January (before that, the year was counted from the first of September).
After Peter I, the Era of Palace Coups begins, the time of noble conspiracies and frequent overthrows of unwanted emperors. Anna Ivanovna and Elizaveta Petrovna reign longer than others. Under Elizaveta Petrovna, Moscow University was founded. Under Empress Catherine the Great, the development of America begins, Russia wins turkey access to the Black Sea. Timeline of Russia history.
Russian Napoleonic Wars
In 1805, Alexander I went to war with Napoleon I, who declared himself Emperor of France. Napoleon wins, one of the conditions of the peace agreement is the cessation of trade with England, to which Alexander I has to agree. In 1809, Russia seized Finland, which belonged to the Swedes, which was part of the Russian Empire. A few years later, Russia resumed trade with England, and in the summer of 1812, Napoleon with an army of more than 500,000 people invaded Russia. More than twice as small as the Russian army retreats to Moscow. The people rose up to fight the invaders, numerous partisan detachments arose, and the war of 1812 was called the Patriotic War.
At the end of August, near Moscow, near the village of Borodino, the largest battle of the war took place. Casualties on both sides were enormous, but the numerical advantage remained on the side of the French. The head of the Russian army, Field Marshal Mikhail Kutuzov, decides to surrender Moscow to Napoleon without a fight and retreat in order to save the army. Moscow, occupied by the French, is almost completely destroyed by fires. With the retreat to the borders of Russia, Napoleon’s army gradually melts away, the Russians pursue the retreating French, and in 1814 the Russian army enters Paris. Timeline of Russia history.
The Emergence of Civil Society
In the XIX century, under the influence of liberal ideas of the West, a stable diverse group of educated people arose, which itself created liberal and democratic values, later called the intelligentsia. Its most famous representatives were Belinsky, Chernyshevsky, Dobrolyubov.
After the end of the war, the revolutionary ideas that penetrated into Russia resulted in the failed Decembrist Uprising in 1825. Fearing new uprisings, the state tightens control over the political, economic and cultural life of the country.
In the course of long wars with the mountaineers in the first half of the XIX century, Russia annexed the Caucasus, and – partly by peaceful, partly by military means – the territories of Central Asia (Bukhara and Khiva Khanates, Kazakh zhuzy). Timeline of Russia history.
2nd half of the XIX Century
In 1861, under Emperor Alexander II, serfdom was abolished in Russia. A number of liberal reforms were also carried out, which accelerated the modernization of the country.
Late XIX — early XX Century
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Russia was actively developing the Far East, which caused concern to Japan, the government of the Russian Empire believed that a “small victorious war” against the background of growing revolutionary sentiments would improve the internal situation. Japan, however, preemptively defeated part of the Russian ships, the lack of modern technical equipment of the Russian army and the incompetence of the senior officers complete the defeat of Russia in the war. Russia’s position in the international arena is extremely difficult. Timeline of Russia history.
In 1914, Russia enters the First World War. The February Revolution of 1917 put an end to the monarchy: Tsar Nicholas II abdicated, power passed to the Provisional Government. In September 1917, the Russian Empire was transformed into the Russian Republic. Timeline of Russia history.
The Soviet State
However, even after the revolution, it is not possible to restore order in the country, taking advantage of the political chaos, the Bolshevik Party under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin seizes power, in alliance with the Left SRs and anarchists. After the October Revolution, on October 25 (November 7), 1917, the Russian Soviet Republic was proclaimed in the country. The Soviet Republic begins the abolition of private property and its nationalization. In an effort to establish control, the Bolsheviks are not alien to extreme measures, subjecting religion, Cossacks and other forms of social organization to repression. Timeline of Russia history.
The peace concluded with Germany cost the Soviet state of Ukraine, the Baltic States, Poland, part of Belarus and 90 tons of gold, and served as one of the causes of the civil war. In March 1918, the Soviet government moved from Petrograd to Moscow, fearing the capture of the city by the Germans. On the night of July 16-17, 1918, the royal family was shot in Yekaterinburg, the bodies were thrown into the mine of the collapsed mine. Timeline of Russia history.
Russian Civil war
During 1918-1922, supporters of the Bolsheviks fought against their opponents. During the war, Poland, the Baltic republics (Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia) and Finland seceded from Russia. Timeline of Russia history.
On December 30, 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Transcaucasian Federation) was formed. In 1921-1929, the New Economic Policy (NEP) was carried out. The winner in the internal political struggle that flared up after Lenin’s death in 1924 was Joseph Stalin (Dzhugashvili). In the 1930s, Stalin carried out a “purge” of the party apparatus. A system of corrective labor camps (GULag) is being created. In 1939-1940, Western Belarus, Western Ukraine, Moldova, Western Karelia, and the Baltic States were annexed to the USSR. Timeline of Russia history.
The Great Patriotic War
On June 22, 1941, the Great Patriotic War began with a sudden attack by Nazi Germany. In a relatively short time, German troops were able to advance far into the depths of the Soviet state, but could not capture Moscow and Leningrad, as a result of which the war, instead of Hitler’s planned blitzkrieg, turned into a protracted one. The battles of Stalingrad and Kursk turned the tide of the war, and Soviet troops launched a strategic offensive. The war ended with the capture of Berlin in May 1945 and the surrender of Germany. The number of deaths during hostilities and as a result of occupation in the USSR reaches, according to historians, 26 million people. Timeline of Russia history.
As a result of the war with Japan in 1945, South Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands became part of Russia. Timeline of Russia history.
The Cold War and Stagnation
As a result of the war, the countries of Eastern Europe (Hungary, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the GDR) fell into the Soviet zone of influence. Relations with the West are deteriorating sharply. The so-called Cold War begins – the confrontation between the West and the countries of the socialist camp, which reached a peak in 1962, when a nuclear war (the Cuban Missile Crisis) almost broke out between the USSR and the United States. Then the intensity of the conflict gradually declines, there has been some progress in relations with the West, in particular, an agreement on economic cooperation with France is being signed. Timeline of Russia history.
In the 70s, the confrontation between the USSR and the United States weakened. Treaties on the limitation of strategic nuclear weapons (SALT-1 and SALT-2) are being concluded. The second half of the 70s is called the “era of stagnation”, when, with relative stability, the USSR is gradually lagging behind the advanced countries of the West in technological terms.
Perestroika and the collapse of the USSR
With the coming to power of Mikhail Gorbachev in 1985, the USSR announced a policy of perestroika, in order to solve problems in the social sphere and social production, as well as to avoid the impending economic crisis caused by the arms race. However, this policy leads to the aggravation of the crisis, the collapse of the USSR and the transition to capitalism. In 1991, the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) was created, which includes the RSFSR, Ukraine and Belarus. Timeline of Russia history.
Significant Events Timeline of Russian History
The history of Russia continued in the Soviet era, having many important historical moments, the main of which, without any exaggeration, can be called the victory of the Soviet people in the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945. The USSR existed for a total of less than a century, but at the same time managed to stand firmly on its feet, falling apart only because of a handful of people lobbying for their interests. As a result of the fall of the USSR, a new form of statehood was formed, called the Russian Federation. The development of this state is taking place right before our eyes. Timeline of Russia history.
Russia History Timeline
Among the key dates are the following:
- 862 – beginning of Rurik’s reign
- 988 – Baptism of Russia by Prince Vladimir krasno Solnyshko
- 1480 – standing on the Ugra River
- – 1547 – Ivan the Terrible assumes the title of Tsar
- 1721 – Proclamation of Russia as an Empire
- 1783 – annexation of Crimea
- 1799 – foreign campaigns of A.V. Suvorov
- 1812 – Patriotic War against France
- 1917 – October Revolution and the victory of the Soviets
- 1941-1945 – Participation of the USSR in the Second World War.
- 1991 – Collapse of the USSR and formation of the Russian Federation
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