A Short History of Myanmar Burma Timeline
The history of Myanmar (also known as Burma) Through the ages, a succession of ethnic groups has dominated the current territory of Myanmar, where the Bamar only had preeminence in the eleventh century. After its independence from Britain in 1948, a civil war broke out between minorities, and turmoil continues today in the most remote areas of the country. After nearly 50 years of military rule, Myanmar is emerging and embarking on the path of democracy and economic growth. History of Myanmar.
Brief History of Myanmar
Archaeologists believe that this region was populated around 75,000 BC.
In 2003, the discovery of a 45-million-year-old fossil (probably the ankle bone of a large, ape-like animal) in the center of the country would place the region as the cradle of the human race. This research suggests that our primate ancestors may have come from Asia, not Africa. What is not disputed is that 2500 years ago the area was an important land communication route between merchants from China, India and the Middle East. The ancient Greeks also knew the country. History of Myanmar.
First Burmese Empire
History of Myanmar First Burmese Empire: Bagan was almost 200 years old when its “golden period” began, marked by King Anawrahta, who ascended the throne in 1044. His conquest of the Mon kingdom and the adoption of Buddhism infused a creative energy in Bagan, which soon became a city of splendid temples and the capital of the first Burmese Empire. History of Myanmar.
Anawrahta’s successors (Kyanzittha, Alaungsithu and Htilominlo) lacked his vision for the future, and the power of the kingdom began to decline. In 1273, King Narathihapate made a diplomatic mistake by attacking Kublai Khan’s growing power by executing his emissaries. When the Mongols invaded the territory in 1287, Narathihapate fled south and took refuge in Pyay (Prome), where he committed suicide. In the ensuing chaos, the Shan tribes of the eastern hills, linked to the Siamese, seized a portion of the lowlands; while the Mon, in the south, freed themselves from the power of the Bamar and re-founded their own kingdom.
Second Burmese Empire
It was not until 200 years later that the Bamar managed to regroup to organize a second empire. In the meantime, a Bamar refugee settlement in central Taungoo managed to survive, surrounded by the Mon to the south and the Shan to the north and east, and managed to pit these two powers against each other.
In the sixteenth century, the kings of Taungoo extended their power northwards, to very close to the Shan capital at Inwa, and then southward, seizing the Mon kingdom and moving their own capital to Bago. In 1550, Bayinnaung ascended the throne, reunified all of Burma, and defeated its Siamese neighbors so conclusively that it took many years before the old frictions between the two nations resurfaced.
After Bayinnaung’s death in 1581, Bamar’s power declined again. In 1636, the capital was moved north to Inwa. Far from the sea, communications within the kingdom were interrupted and eventually contributed to Myanmar’s defeat by the British. History of Myanmar.
Third Burmese Empire
King Alaungpaya boosted the third and final Burmese dynasty by confronting the Mon when they took Inwa in 1752. Some claim that his sense of invincibility served as an inspiration for resistance against the British. After Alaungpaya’s brief and bloody reign, his son Hsinbyushin lashed out at Thailand and razed Ayuthaya, forcing the Siamese to relocate their capital to what would become Bangkok. He was succeeded by Bodawpaya, his brother, who also aspired to glory and subdued the Rakhine. This fact ended up causing tensions with the British, who had economic interests in that territory, after which the dynasty ended up succumbing.
Wars against Britain
History of Myanmar Colonial: With an eye on Southeast Asian markets, Britain seized Burma through three decisive blows. In the three Anglo-Burmese Wars, the British seized Tanintharyi (Tenasserim) and Rakhine (Arakan) in 1824, Yangon (Yangon) and southern Burma in 1853, and Mandalay and the north in 1885.
The first broke out when the Burmese army, under the orders of King Bagyidaw, made an incursion from Rakhine to Assam (India), controlled by the British, to pursue refugees. General Maha Bandula achieved some victories using guerrilla tactics, but in 1824 he fell victim to a cannon shot, after which the Burmese army surrendered. Rakhine and Tenasserim passed into the hands of the British through the Treaty of Yandabo, with the help of missionary and translator Adoniram Judson. History of Myanmar.
Two Burmese reigns later, King Min of Bagan debuted like many of his predecessors: with mass executions to eliminate his potential rivals. In 1852, the alleged kidnapping of two captains in the English navy gave the British the perfect reason to start another conflict and gain more territory; they soon conquered all of southern Burma, including Yangon and Pathein (Bassein), and then headed north to Pyay (Prome), without encountering much resistance. History of Myanmar.
The Last Two Kings
The unpopular King Min of Bagan was overthrown by the more skilled and respected Mindon Min, who moved the capital to Mandalay. Palace intrigues, including the murder of Minton’s powerful half-brother at the hands of Minton’s sons, restrained the king from naming a successor. When Mindon died suddenly following a bout of dysentery in 1878, a new king, Thibaw Min, ascended the throne almost reluctantly, spurred on by his ruthless wife and scheming mother-in-law. News of the ensuing massacre of relatives (79 opponents of the king) appeared in many British newspapers.
Other previous kings had not had to face the consequences of attracting world attention: this massacre led British public opinion to consent to the last and decisive war against the Burmese. In 1885, it took only two weeks for the British to conquer Upper Burma, exile Thibaw in India, and control the entire country. Direct colonial rule was established only in places where the Bamar were in the majority, such as in the central plains. The mountainous states of Chin, Kachin, Shan, Karen and Kayah retained much of their autonomy, influencing the process towards independence from 1948. History of Myanmar.
The impact of British rule
Burma was henceforth administered as part of “British India”. The country received a flood of Indian immigrants who acted as second settlers, creating companies and snatching the few low-level official positions from the hostile indigenous population. In 1927, the majority of Yangon’s population was Indian. Chinese immigration was also encouraged, making the Burmese people feel even more subjugated and marginalized. Thanks to the profits of rice, many cheap British products entered the country, to the ruin of national business. The colonizers renamed many important cities and towns: Yangon became Yangon, Pyay was Prome, and Bagan was called Pagan.
Much of Burma was considered an ungrateful fate by colonial officials, for whom the Burmese were a difficult people to govern. On the other hand, many British officials were incompetent and insensitive, refusing to respect local customs. Exacerbated by opposition to colonial rule, unemployment and the loss of the traditional educational role of Buddhist monasteries, the country recorded the highest crime rate in the entire British Empire. History of Myanmar.
Rise of nationalism
The History of Myanmar : Burmese nationalism flourished in the early twentieth century, often led by Buddhist monks. On the national holiday of 1920, students in Yangon staged a strike to protest against the elitist university entrance requirements created by the British. The students treated each other as thakin (lord), claiming to be the rightful masters and lords of Burma.
Faced with growing demands for self-government and opposition to colonial rule, the British were forced to make a few concessions. In 1937, Burma seceded from India and a new legislative council was formed that included elected Burmese ministers. However, the country remained divided by the struggle between political parties and the sporadic outbreaks of violence against India and China.
Aung San and World War II
A History of Myanmar : Most famous in the West for being the father of Aung San Suu Kyi, General Bogyoke Aung San is considered a national hero. He was born in Natmauk, in the center of the country, on February 13, 1915, and was the youngest of six children in a farming family.
As a child he was already noted for his intelligence, and later studied at the University of Yangon, where he edited the newspaper and led the national student union. At age 26 he formed a group called the Thirty Comrades and sought support abroad for the independence movement. Although at first they intended an alliance with China, they ended up negotiating with Japan and receiving military training in that country. The Thirty Comrades were the first soldiers of the Burma National Army (ENB) and returned to the country in 1941 along with invading Japanese troops.
By mid-1942, the Japanese had managed to get both Indo-British forces and the Chinese Kuomintang (KMT) to withdraw from much of the country. But the behavior of the Japanese troops began to arouse antipathy among the Burmese. Aung San filed her complaints with the headquarters of the 15th Division of the Japanese Army, based in Maymyo (present-day Pyin U Lwin).
Aung San and the ENB switched to the Allied side in March 1945. Thanks to the help of the ENB and the brave operations carried out behind enemy lines by the Chindits, a special army of the Allies, they were able to prevail over the Japanese in Burma two months later. Aung San and his comrades had an opportunity to dictate the post-war conditions for their country.
Colonial History of Myanmar: In January 1947, Aung San travelled to London as colonial vice-president of the Governor’s Executive Council. In a meeting with British Prime Minister Clement Attlee he signed a pact whereby Burma would have self-government within a year.
In February of that year, Aung San met with the leaders of Shan, Chin and Kachin states in Panglong, Shan State, and together they signed the famous Panglong Agreement guaranteeing ethnic minorities the freedom to decide their political destiny if after 10 years the situation did not satisfy them. The agreement also broadly covered absentee representatives from Karen, Kayah, Mon and Rakhine states.
In the assembly elections, Aung San’s Anti-Fascist League for People’s Freedom (LALP) won a landslide result: 172 seats out of 225. The Burmese Communist Party won seven and the Bamar opposition, led by U Saw, three. The latter, who had been Prime Minister of Burma between 1939 and 1942, had to go into exile in Uganda until the end of World War II for having secretly communicated with the Japanese after a failed attempt to get the British to accept the self-government of the Burmese. The remaining 69 seats were divided among ethnic minorities, including the four won by the Anglo-Burmese community.
On July 19, 1947, 32-year-old Aung San and six of his aides were shot in a conspiracy attributed to U Saw. Some speculate whether the military was involved, as Aung San had plans to demilitarize the government and apparently U Saw wanted the post of prime minister; However, the British hanged him for the murders in 1948. History of Myanmar.
U Nu and the first misfortunes
As Myanmar mourned the loss of its hero, Prime Minister Attlee and Aung San’s protégé, U Nu, signed an agreement to effect the transfer of power in October 1947. On 4 January 1948, Burma gained independence and left the British Commonwealth. Almost immediately, the new government had to face the disintegration of the country, led by rebels, communists, gangs and anti-communist forces of the Chinese KMT, which had US backing.
The tribal peoples of the mountains, who had supported the British and fought against the Japanese during the war, were suspicious of the Bamar majority and allied themselves with the armed opposition. The Communists withdrew from the government to attack it. Muslims in the Rakhine area also clashed with the new government. The Mon, who for a long time seemed integrated with the Burmese, joined the uprisings. Diverse factions, private armies, World War II resistance groups and simple insurgents further complicated the picture.
By early 1949 almost the entire country was in the hands of rebel groups and fighting reached as far as the suburbs of Yangon. The government was on the verge of surrendering to the communist forces, but gradually counterattacked and between 1950 and 1951 managed to regain control of much of the country.
With the fall of Chiang Kai-Shek’s KMT forces to Mao Zedong, the spoils of the KMT retreated into northern Burma, from where they prepared raids into China’s Yunnan province. As they could not with the Chinese communists, the KMT decided to establish its own fiefdom on Burmese territory. History of Myanmar.
The first military government
By the mid-1950s, the government had entrenched its power in the country, but the economy was going from bad to worse. U Nu managed to stay in power until 1958, when he willingly handed over the reins to a military government headed by General Ne Win. The change was viewed favorably, due to the pride that the Burmese army aroused in most of the country, after having contributed to independence.
Free from the “democratic” burdens of a civilian government, Ne Win made remarkable gains during the 15 months of his military rule. A certain level of law and order was restored, rebel activity was reduced, and a general clean-up was carried out in Yangon.
In The River of Lost Footsteps, Thant Myint-U argues that Ne Win’s first term was for some “the most efficient in modern Burma history”. Unfortunately, the same cannot be said of his second, much longer, term at the helm of the country. History of Myanmar.
The Burmese Road to Socialism
Free elections were held in December 1960 and U Nu regained power with a much larger majority, in part because it had turned Buddhism into a state religion. This, coupled with the destabilizing actions of various ethnic minorities to leave the Union of Burma, provoked a military uprising in March 1962.
U Nu was imprisoned along with several ministers, until he went into exile in 1966. Ne Win created a 17-member Revolutionary Council and announced that the country would “move towards socialism by the Burmese way.” He confiscated most of the private property and handed it over to state-owned military-run enterprises.
Nationalization meant that everyday products could only be obtained on the black market and thousands of workers were fired. Ne Win also banned international aid organizations, foreign-language publications, privately owned national newspapers, and political parties. The sad result of all this was that the world’s largest rice exporter before World War II in 1967 was unable to feed itself. History of Myanmar.
Riots and street protests
Opposition to the Ne Win government erupted in May 1974 with a strike by oil workers and other sectors, and riots during the funeral of former UN Secretary-General U Thant. The Government responded with firmness, firing and arrests to control the situation and continued to impoverish the people with successive currency devaluations.
Although Ne Win left the presidency of the republic at the end of 1981, he continued to govern through his position as chairman of the Burmese Socialist Programme Party (PSBP), the only legal party under the 1974 constitution, and his successor, San Yu, whose rule continued Ne Win’s policy.
In 1988 people took to the streets again, insisting that Ne Win had to go. The citizens’ protests reached their peak on August 8, 1988 (8-8-88), but the government did not cease in its eagerness to crush all opposition: it is estimated that some 3000 people died and many more were arrested. Tens of thousands of people, mostly students, fled the country.
SLORC holds elections
The military coup of September 1988 (believed to have had the blessings of Ne Win) brought with it the formation of the State Council for the Restoration of Law and Order (SLORC) and the promise of free elections within three months.
Although 235 parties participated in the elections, postponed until May 1990, from the beginning it was seen that the clear winner would be the National League for Democracy (NLD). NLD was led by several former generals and Aung San Suu Kyi (daughter of Aung San), who had already impressed the public at the 1988 demonstrations.
In the run-up to the elections, the SLORC attempted to placate the masses with construction projects, repainting many buildings in Yangon and abandoning socialism in favor of a capitalist economy. In 1989, he changed the country’s name to Myanmar, placed Aung San Suu Kyi under house arrest and detained numerous supporters of democracy.
Convinced that it had finally gotten rid of opposition, the Government went ahead with its plans to hold the first national elections in 30 years. The turnout was 72.59%, the highest in the country’s history. The NLD won overwhelmingly, with 392 of the 485 possible seats (60% of the vote), while the military-backed Party of National Unity (PUN) won only 10 seats and 25% of the vote. History of Myanmar.
Myanmar after 1990
Attack on NLD
SLORC prevented elected members of Parliament from taking office by decreeing that a state-approved constitution must first be put to a national referendum. In October 1990, the military stormed the offices of the NLD and arrested its leaders. Five years later, SLORC considered that the release of Aung San Suu Kyi was no longer risky; at the same time, many other dissidents, including NLD’s Tin U and Kyi Maung, were also released from prison.
In May and September 1996, an NLD congress was held in a bold political tactic to show that the party was still alive. The military junta responded by arresting hundreds of congress attendees and the street leading to Suu Kyi’s house was blocked to prevent her from delivering speeches from her home.
In 1998, Suu Kyi attempted to leave Yangon to meet her supporters, but was intercepted by the military and returned to the city. The second attempt by “La Dama” (as she is affectionately known) to travel by car to Mandalay in September 2000 ended with her arrest at a roadblock and subsequent house arrest. Except for a year and days (from May 6, 2002 to May 30, 2003), he would spend the next decade locked up. History of Myanmar.
Than Shwe takes power
Due to the boycott of tourism promoted by NLD and other organizations, the Board’s campaign “Visit Burma Year 1996” had a disappointing result. The increase in sanctions on the country forced the government to seek another type of income: trade with China, India and Thailand.
Khin Nyunt, the feared head of military intelligence, became prime minister in 2003. Known as the Prince of Darkness, he took the lead in the junta’s plan “toward a flourishing and disciplined democracy.” But a year later, hardliner General Than Shwe overthrew Khin Nyunt and many other intelligence officers; in a secret trial Khin Nyunt was sentenced to 44 years in prison.
Than Shwe promised to continue the transition to democracy, but his moves revealed an interest in negotiating million-dollar economic deals with China, India and Thailand, and importing arms and military know-how from Russia and North Korea.
In 2005 a new capital was created in the arid fields near Pyinmana. The junta named the city under construction Nay Pyi Taw (“royal capital”) and made it clear to everyone that Than Shwe thought and was inspired more by the Burmese kings of the past than by the modern world.
The Saffron Revolution
In mid-2007, the price of natural gas rose by 500% and that of oil by 200%, leading to widespread price increases from bus tickets to rice. In late August, a group of “generation of 1988” protesters were arrested for organizing a march against inflation. Protests escalated after September 5, when monks denounced rising prices at a demonstration in Pakokku.
In response, the All Burma Alliance of Monks (ABMA) was formed, which called the government a “malign military dictatorship”, refusing to accept handouts from the military (a practice called pattam mikkujana kamma). By September 17, protest marches were happening daily, with an increasingly massive participation in large cities such as Yangon, Mandalay, Meiktila and Sittwe.
Suddenly, on September 22, the crowds led by the monks were allowed to pray with Aung San Suu Kyi in front of the door of her house. Two days later, between 50,000 and 150,000 people demonstrated in the streets of Yangon in what would come to be called the Saffron Revolution. Meanwhile, the Government observed and photographed the participants.
On 26 September, the army opened fire on protesters and imposed a curfew. By the end of the week, monasteries had been raided, some 3,000 people had been arrested and more than 30 had died, including a Japanese photographer whose death in central Yangon was videotaped.
Following the 2007 demonstrations, Than Shwe finalized the long-delayed new constitution, which had been under discussion since 1993, and announced a national referendum to approve it on 10 May 2008. But on May 2, Cyclone Nargis – the second deadliest in history – hit the Ayeyarwadi Delta. History of Myanmar.
Winds in excess of 195 km/h and the ensuing storm surge swept away villages of bamboo huts and left more than two million people without homes, food or drinking water. It is estimated that the damages amounted to 2400 million US$. Yangon was spared the worst, but winds of 129 km/h knocked down trees and the city was without electricity for two weeks. History of Myanmar.
The government’s clumsy reaction to the disaster was widely condemned. Humanitarian organizations encountered obstacles in accessing the country due to lack of visas and the Board refused to allow foreign planes to help the population. The people of the country filled the void by organizing their own relief teams. Meanwhile, the government maintained the scheduled date for the referendum, to the indignation of nationals and foreigners. History of Myanmar.
A new Constitution
History of Myanmar : Before the cyclone, activist groups and NLD members had called on the people to vote “no” in the referendum to change the constitution, fearing it would enshrine the power of the generals. Others were concerned that abstention would further intensify military power in the Government and leave no room for the participation of other political parties.
The vote took place in two rounds in May 2008, while more than 2.5 million people still needed food, shelter and medical assistance. The military announced that 98.12% of the electoral roll had voted and that 92.48% had approved the new constitution, although few citizens had been able to read the document before the referendum.
With Shwe’s agenda “towards a flourishing and disciplined democracy” poised and with one more reason to keep his eternal threat Aung San Suu Kyi in check, Myanmar’s first general election in 20 years was held in November 2010. History of Myanmar.
The road map to democracy
History of Myanmar government: More than 30 political parties overcame numerous obstacles to compete in the 2010 elections, including the National Democratic Force (FDN), a split from the NLD that, unlike the parent party, decided to participate in the elections. As expected, the Union Party for Solidarity and Development (USDP) triumphed in an election that the UN called “grossly flawed.” Logically, for many the change of government was largely cosmetic, but once the victory was confirmed, Aung San Suu Kyi was lifted from house arrest and allowed contact with the international media. History of Myanmar.
In February 2011, for the first time, a quasi-civilian parliament was held to replace the military regime’s State Peace and Development Council (SPDC). Former General and Prime Minister Thein Sein has been “elected” as the new president to replace General Than Shwe, Myanmar’s supreme leader for the previous two decades. Since then, his figure has been quietly blurred, and in December 2015 he even got to meet with Aung San Suu Kyi, his former contender. History of Myanmar.
After the 2010 elections
Given how glimmers of democratic hope for Myanmar had been so cruelly thwarted in the recent past, it is not surprising that many are wary of Thein Sein’s inaugural address, in which he promised significant reforms for the country, including fighting corruption and poverty. History of Myanmar.
But a year later, after the president met with Aung San Suu Kyi, political prisoners began to be released, censorship was relaxed, and several laws liberalizing the economy (such as floating the kyat) were passed, it became clear that positive changes were taking place in Myanmar. International sanctions were ended, several world leaders traveled to Yangon, and the country seemed to be emerging from isolation and prostration. History of Myanmar.
The ceasefire agreed with the Karen in 2012 also marked a parenthesis in the longest insurrection in contemporary history. However, violence in Rakhine State and central Myanmar has since tempered optimism about reforms in Myanmar, showing that the country still has enormous challenges to overcome. History of Myanmar.
NLD in Parliament
History of Myanmar: In the April 2012 by-elections, all 42 NLD candidates won an uncontested victory, including Aung San Suu Kyi, who became de facto leader of the opposition. The economy grew strongly, as foreign investment rushed to take positions in a market isolated from the world for nearly half a century. The relaxation of censorship gave way to the massive irruption of new media, without complexes when documenting the multiple defects of the country, as well as its successes. In 2014, Myanmar chaired the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), a privilege it had been denied in 2006. History of Myanmar.
However, the initially cordial relations between Suu Kyi and Thein Sein soon soured. The president appointed the new parliamentarian as president of a commission to investigate a labour dispute at the Letpaudaung copper mine, which left many protesters injured by law enforcement. When in 2013, the commission’s report authorized the resumption of activity at the mine, with only a mild criticism of the police action, public outrage was notorious. History of Myanmar.
Suu Kyi and NLD’s silence in the face of violence between Buddhists and Muslims, first in Rakhine State and then elsewhere, also drew criticism. The party’s decision not to include Muslims among the more than 1,000 candidates in the 2015 national and regional elections only raised doubts about its supposed democratic will and anti-discrimination policies.
National Ceasefire Agreement
History of Myanmar: Upon coming to power, Thein Sein said his top priority was to end the civil wars that have ravaged Myanmar in the modern era. In October 2015, weeks before the national elections, 8 of the 16 main rebel ethnic groups that had participated in the four years of negotiations signed a ceasefire, which left the door open to political dialogue and the inclusion of other ethnic groups. History of Myanmar.
Thein Sein called the National Ceasefire Agreement (NCA) a “historic gift to future generations”; however, the communiqué ignored the fact that the Kachin Independence Army, Shan State Army and United Wa State Army had rejected it and continued to control most of the territory and weapons. In the run-up to the elections, the Tatmadaw continued to fight these rebel groups on several fronts. History of Myanmar.
History of Myanmar Govt: The government’s suspension of by-elections in 2014 and the dismissal in August 2015 of Shwe Mann as speaker of the lower house and chairman of the PSDU party (in the opinion of several former generals and other active military officers he had become too conciliatory with Aung San Suu Kyi) set off alarm bells about the November 2015 general elections. Even so, and despite a last-minute attempt to postpone the elections under the cover of flooding in Chin State, the vote was taken as planned. History of Myanmar.
Although far from being exemplary, local and international observers described them as free and fair. All had predicted good results for the NLD, but as the tally became public, the magnitude of the victory became apparent. Aung San Suu Kyi’s party won a landslide victory, winning 79% of the seats and a very large majority in both houses (235 in the lower house of representatives and 135 in the upper house of nationalities). When the president and the army admitted defeat and hinted that they would respect the result, people came out to celebrate across the country. History of Myanmar.
Why are the Rohingya so cruel?
History of Rohingya in Myanmar: Around the year 1400, these people are the first Muslims who settled in the Arrah province of Burma. Many of these but there were nine taxes in the royal court of the ruling Le Buddhist king Jaa Na Rami Khala (Min Sa Mun in Burmese). This king gave advice and courtesans in Muslim Was patronized. History of Myanmar.
There is often tension between Buddhists and Muslims in Rakhine province. Buddhists are the majority in the state. Most of the Muslims call themselves Rohingya. This group originated in a part of Bengal which is now known as Bangladesh. There have been many violent incidents in the cities bordering Bangladesh, in which the majority of the population is Muslim. A Rohingya human rights group says the violence was initiated by the Rohingyas. Rakhine Buddhists have said that the Rohingya are mainly to blame. The United Nations has described the Rohingya as a religious and linguistic minority in western Myanmar. History of Myanmar.
- The incident started after the rape and murder of several thousand young Buddhist women by Rohingya Muslims.
These are Muslims living in ancient Burma or present-day Myanmar who (by their nature) could not reconcile with the indigenous Buddhist citizens there and made very violent attacks on them. Although the people of Buddhist society have been considered to be very calm, but in Myanmar the attacks of these Rohingya Muslims increased so much that even those Buddhists had to abandon their path of peace and adopt the path of regress. This repulsion was so strong that those violently inclined Rohingya Muslims were forced to leave the country to seek refuge or infiltrate into neighboring countries to defend themselves. History of Myanmar.
Martial Law Imposed in Myanmar
Imposed Martial law in history of Myanmar: On 3 February 2021, the army in Myanmar has imposed martial law in many districts. After a uprising in February, the army seized power and Aung San Suu Kyi was arrested.