The History Of Panama Timeline
A Brief History on Panama: Panama makes up the waist of America and has played a strategic role in the history of the Western Hemisphere. In other times it was a land trade route between ancient Peru and Mexico, and the Panama of the post-Columbian conquest became the way to transport Inca treasures. Nestled between two oceans, traffic has long been a crucial issue for the country. Just as the Panama Railroad brought gold prospectors to California in the time of the fever, the canal has become the engine of world trade.
History on panama
- Total Area of Panama: 75,417 km (29,119 sq mi)
- Capital of Panama: Panama City
- Language of Panama: Spanish
- Panama in Which Continent: Central America
Rank Religion Population (%) 1 Roman Catholic 85 2 Protestant 15
Who Discovered Panama
In 1501 the discovery of Panama by the Spanish explorer Rodrigo de Bastidas marked the beginning of the era of conquest and colonization on the isthmus. However, it was his first companion, Vasco Núñez de Balboa, who would be immortalized in the history books after his discovery of the Pacific Ocean 12 years later.
On his fourth and final voyage to the New World in 1502, Christopher Columbus landed in present-day Costa Rica and returned from the meeting claiming to have seen “more gold in two days than in four years in Spain.” Although his attempts to establish a colony at the mouth of the Belén River failed because of fierce local resistance, Columbus asked the Spanish Crown to appoint him governor of Veraguas, the stretch of coast from Honduras to Panama.
History Of Panama City fl
In 1519 the Spaniard Pedro Arias de Ávila (Pedrarias) founded Panama City on the Pacific side, near present-day Panama City. The cruel governor is remembered most for acts such as ordering the beheading of Balboa in 1517 on a false accusation of treason, in addition to numerous attacks against the indigenous population.
Nevertheless, Pedrarias made Panama an important Spanish settlement, a commercial center and a base for further exploration, including the conquest of Peru. From Panama, enormous riches – such as Peruvian gold and oriental spices – were transported through the isthmus on foot to the city of Venta de Cruces, and then by boat to Nombre de Dios, along the Chagres River. Vestiges of this famous trade route, known as the Las Cruces Trail, are still seen all over Panama.
The History Of Panama Canal
History of the Panama canal: The new government concluded with the United States, under the presidency of J. Cárter, a treaty (1977) that guaranteed the return of the Canal Zone on December 31, 1999.
In 1978 General Torrijos abandoned the exceptional powers granted to him by the 1972 Constitution and the National Assembly elected Aristides Royo president of the Republic, who accumulated the functions of head of government.
Guillermo Endara won the 1989 legislative elections, but the results were annulled by General Noriega, who appointed a provisional government. After the U.S. military intervention in December 1989, Endara took office again and Noriega was taken to the United States, where he was tried and sentenced to 40 years in prison for drug trafficking.
With the country plunged into a deep economic crisis Ernesto Pérez Balladares, candidate of the Torrijista Democratic Revolutionary Party, won the presidential elections of 1994 and carried out a program of total recovery of the sovereignty of the canal.
In September 1997, U.S. Southern Command headquarters in Quarrv Heights, in the Canal Zone, moved to Miami as a first step toward returning the canal to Panama. History on Panama.
During the term of Mireya Moscoso, widow of Amulfo Arias and elected president of the government of the Republic of Panama in 1999, the U.S. renounced the lease, withdrew its troops from the Canal Zone and transferred to Panama the management of the waterway on December 31, 1999.
On November 3, 1903, Panama gained independence from Colombia, encouraged by the United States. President Theodore Roosevelt was eager to dig a canal through Panama. The United States signed a treaty with Panama that gives them sovereign rights over the canal zone. Work on the canal began in 1904.
A huge force of migrant workers from different countries were brought to Panama to work in the canal and many of them died of diseases such as yellow fever. Among the workers were Native Americans, Indians, and Chinese.
However, on January 7, 1914 the first ship sailed through the Panama Canal. The Panama Canal was officially opened by President Woodrow Wilson on July 12, 1920.
Later Panama was an oligarchy, ruled by a number of wealthy families.
In 1936 a new treaty was signed between the U.S. and Panama, but resentment over U.S. rights over the canal zone grew. Finally, on January 9, 1964, the students mutinied in Panama. Twenty people were killed in the riots. (January 9 is now Martyrs’ Day in Panama.)
Then, in 1968, an army coup overthrew president-elect Arnulfo Arias. Later General Omar Torrijos became leader of Panama. In 1977 he succeeded in persuading U.S. President Carter to sign a treaty that would give Panama full control of the canal by December 31, 1999.
Torrijos died in a plane crash in 1981. In 1983 he was replaced by Manuel Noriega. Noriega introduced a repressive regime. However, relations with the United States deteriorated. In 1987 the US began to apply economic sanctions.
Then, in 1988, Noriega was indicted on drug charges in the United States. In 1989 presidential elections were held in Panama and were won by Guillermo Endara. However, Noriega simply annulled the election results.
Finally, on December 20, 1989, the United States invaded Panama. They bombed Panama City. However, on December 25, 1989, Noriega took refuge in the Vatican embassy. He was captured in January 1990.
Meanwhile, Guillermo Endara, winner of the 1989 elections, was named president of Panama. In 1994 he was replaced by Ernesto Pérez Balladares. Then, in 1999, Mireya Moscoso became Panama’s first female president. Also in 1999 the Panama Canal was delivered to Panama.
Origin Of Sea Haven Panama City Beach
Origin of seahaven panama city beach: Paradise in true form. The Origin at Seahaven boasts all the conveniences of home with miles of breathtaking ocean views and picturesque white sandy beaches. If you’re looking for the perfect condo for your next getaway, you’ve come to the right place! With private beach access to the crystal-clear waters of the Gulf of Mexico, the Origin attracts year-round visitors looking to bask in the sun and enjoy first-class resort accommodations and amenities. History on Panama.
Origin Of Panama Hats
This garment1 has its origin in indigenous culture2 of the Ecuadorian region of Jipijapa, where they began to be manufactured3 from 1630. The Spanish conquistadors began to market them in Europe in the same seventeenth century. But jipijapa is also fiber4 used for knitting5 these hats. In fact, its original name is “jipijapa hat”. Why then are they known by the name of “panama”? The answer is simple: its use became popular in the nineteenth century with the construction of the Panama Canal. Currently, Ecuador is still the main producer of these hats and the most important cities are Montecristi and Jipijapa (in the province of Manabi).
Why Was The Panama Canal So Important To The US?
The opening of the Canal meant great benefits for world trade, allowed appreciable savings in transport costs, led to the emergence and consolidation of important trade flows, made possible a better use of merchant fleets, reduced investment requirements and favored the development of certain areas by shortening the economic distance between certain centers of production and consumption. History on Panama.
THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT
Historically, the opening of the Canal was of paramount importance for the expansion of North American trade with Latin America in the first decades of the century. Subsequently, after World War II, the position of the United States in international economic relations was substantially altered.
Trade with Japan and other countries in Asia and Oceania acquired an unusual preponderance, while military activities expanded beyond the defense requirements of the Canal, as evidenced by the establishment of the ‘Command of the Armed Forces of the United States’ within the Zone and the conversion of the latter into the most important military strategic center in Latin America.
THE TARIFF POLICY
Apart from that, the tariff policy that has been established since the Canal began operations and the practice of keeping toll levels unchanged over the next six decades — despite currency depreciations and significant increases in ocean freight, insurance and average freight prices that have occurred since then — has translated, in practice, in a considerable and increasing insurance subsidy to commercial traffic.
A CHANNEL FOR THE BENEFIT OF THE UNITED STATES
Being the United States the main user of the canal’s services and being under its complete domination, it is natural that this country is the most favored with its exploitation.
Of course, for the Canal to pour on the American economy the expected benefits, the Canal Company had to be an institution of the U.S. government that was not governed by the usual rules of capitalist enterprise.
Which means, in other words, that behind the ‘non-profit character’ of the Canal (‘ on a non profit basis ‘) lies the savings of military expenses and the enormous pecuniary advantages that favor American industrialists and merchants and the merchant navy of that country. History on Panama.
Therefore, any study of the significance of the Canal for the United States must start, if it is to be scientific, from indirect rather than direct benefits as a cornerstone for understanding the real importance of the Canal for the American economy. History on Panama.
These benefits are highly variable over time, and difficult to quantify, but should be considered as the decisive and determining factor in the adoption of the methodology of further studies on this point. It must even be said that ECLAC, in my opinion, has not raised the problem in its proper dimension.
THE CANAL AND THE WORLD WARS
According to ECLAC estimates, on the other hand, during World War II the Canal was used by about 5,300 warships and 8,500 vessels that transported troops and military supplies. History on Panama.
It also facilitated the military operations and logistical support of the U.S. military in the Korean War, estimated at 22% of the total tonnage sent to that country from the east coast of the United States, the cargo transported through the Panama Canal. History on Panama.
Between 1964 and 1968, dry cargo increased by 640% and shipments of fuels and lubricants through the Canal by 430% in support of military operations in Southeast Asia. History on Panama.