The History of Uganda Timeline

The History of Uganda Timeline

Uganda is a landlock country of Africa. Uganda is understood here in its current dimensions, that is, as the space comprising South Sudan in the north, Rwanda and Tanzania in the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the west and Kenya in the east. Uganda takes its name from the Kingdom of Buganda after becoming a British protectorate in 1894. Its origins date back (as far as is known) to the early sixteenth century, then known as the empire of Bunyoro-Kitara, which was divided into independent kingdoms.

History of Kampala Timeline
History of Kampala Timeline

A Brief History of Uganda

A Summery of History of Uganda: In colonial Uganda, Buganda received special treatment for having chosen, as early as 1880, to welcome Anglican and Catholic missionaries. In the “protectorate” established in 1894, Buganda was the model: the Uganda Agreement of 1900 established the rules for indirect administration in Buganda and allocated a large part of the land to the sovereign and chiefs, although later the tenants obtained security of tenure and a modest rent of the land. The same system was applied, to a lesser degree, to Bunyoro and two kingdoms “built” by the colonizers: Toro and Ankole. Earlier than other regions, Buganda expanded cash crops and attracted immigrants, notably from Rwanda and Burundi. History of Uganda.

This unequal treatment caused increasing tensions between North and South as independence approached (1962). The Bagandas tended to close in their particularism. The impracticable Constitution of 1962 established a parliamentary system but maintained the privileges of the kingdoms and made the King (kabaka) of Buganda the President of the Republic of Uganda. History of Uganda.

History of Idi amin Uganda: The winner of the elections, the leader of the Uganda People’s Congress, Milton Obote, Langi very hostile to the Bagandas, came into conflict with the kabaka, who had to flee (1966). In this conflict, Obote had to rely on the army and in particular on its leader, General Idi Amin Dada, a Sudanese Muslim from the West Nile, who took power in 1971. To reward his troops, with ethnic recruitment, he drove out in 1972 the Indians (more than 80,000) and reigned terror in the South. The economy sank into chaos. The invasion of northwestern Tanzania by Ugandan soldiers led to the Tanzanian intervention and the re-establishment of Obote (1979). History of Uganda.

His second presidency was bloodier than the regime of Idi Amin: repression in Buganda took turns of genocide, while the economy continued to deteriorate. The army, passed to the Acholis, drove him from power (1985). Maquis were formed and, under the authority of Yoweri Museveni, a Nkore, formed the National Resistance Army. In January 1986, Museveni entered Kampala. He set about the task of rebuilding the country. History of Idi amin of Uganda.

The long crisis has put Ugandan society at great risk (crime, smuggling and black market, spread of AIDS). The political stability and the good opinion of the country held by the international financial institutions are serious assets, with the support of international organizations, which are nevertheless concerned about the obstacles to the functioning of a multi-party system which, however, had not prevented the civil war. Moreover, the result of the presidential election of March 2001, won by Musevini with 69.2% of the votes cast, was contested by his opponents. History of Uganda.

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Early History of Uganda

Prehistory of Uganda: The first human inhabitants of the area now known as Uganda were hunter-gatherers. There are still a few peoples who have preserved this nomadic way of life, including the Pygmies in the west of the country. Sources on the first historical period of the region are few and are mainly based on archaeological excavations. The most common hypothesis concerning the settlement of the region shows two successive waves of migration. History of Uganda.

Between, approximately, -2,000 and -1,500 BCE, Bantu-speaking populations, apparently from Central and West Africa, migrated and settled in most of southern Uganda. The Nilotic populations, which include the Luo and ateker, entered the region from the north, probably around the first century AD. It is mainly shepherds and farmers who have settled in the north and east of the country. Some Luo migrated to the Bunyoro region and were then assimilated with the Bantu.

They thus established the Badiito dynasty of present-day Omukama of Bunyoro. Luo emigration continued into the sixteenth century, with some settling in the eastern Bantu regions while others settled on the shores of Lake Victoria. The Ateker (Karimojong and Teso peoples) settled in northeastern and eastern Uganda. Some merged with the Luo in the northern regions of Lake Kyoga.

It was these migrants who brought with them agriculture, iron work and new ideas of social and political organization. There is little information on the period following migration, up to the fifteenth century. We then see the development of kingdoms whose particularity is an early political centralization. Among these kingdoms, the kingdom of Bunyoro-Kitara dominated the others: Ankole, the Sese Islands and Buganda. History of Uganda before independence. History of Uganda.

Colonial History of Uganda Since Independence

The British in Uganda: In 1875 the explorer Henry Stanley arrived in Uganda. At that time Uganda was divided into kingdoms. Soon after, the first missionaries arrived in Uganda. The first Anglican missionaries arrived in Uganda in 1877. The first Catholic missionaries arrived in 1879. Catholics, Protestants and Muslims tried to convert Ugandans.

However, there was much hostility towards the new religions. In 1885, James Hannington, the first bishop of East Equatorial Africa, was assassinated.

However, in the wake of the missionaries came trade. In 1888 the British government gave the British East Africa Company control of Uganda. Meanwhile, the European powers decided to divide Africa among themselves. In 1890 Germany and Britain signed an agreement confirming that Uganda was in the British sphere of influence. History of Uganda.

The History of Uganda Timeline
The History of Uganda Timeline

Gradually the company took control of Uganda and the local chiefs were reduced to puppet rulers.

Finally, in 1894, the British government made Uganda a protectorate (colony). However, the traditional chiefs remained as puppets.

In 1904 cotton was introduced to Uganda and by 1914 huge quantities of cotton were exported. In addition, in the 1920s large quantities of tea and coffee were grown in Uganda. History of Uganda.

Meanwhile, missionaries provided schools for Ugandans and literacy became increasingly common. In 1920 executive and legislative councils were formed in Uganda. The country continued to develop and in 1929 a railway linked Toror and Soroti.

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During World War II, Uganda exported timber for the war effort. However, Ugandans were becoming restless. Riots took place in 1945 and 1949. However, in 1945, the first three Africans were appointed to the legislative council. In 1950 the number of African members increased to 8. History of Uganda.

In addition, after World War II, Governor Sir John Hall (1944-1951) promoted mining in Uganda. In 1954 a hydroelectric power station was opened at Owen Falls on the Nile. Meanwhile, coffee and cotton exports soared.

A 1948 census showed that there were nearly 5 million African Ugandans, nearly 37,000 Asians and fewer than 3,500 Europeans. (From the late nineteenth century many Asians migrated to Uganda and formed a middle class of merchants and shopkeepers between natives and whites.) History of Uganda.

UGANDA BECOMES INDEPENDENT

However, a “wind of change” was blowing through Africa in the early 1960s and Uganda gained independence from Britain on 9 October 1962. The first constitution was federalist. The first president of Uganda was Mutesa, king of Buganda and the first prime minister was Milton Obote.

However, Milton Obote had no intention of sharing power with the president. In 1966 he staged a coup and the president fled abroad. Obote became dictator. However, in January 1971, when Obote was in Singapore attending a meeting, Idi Amin staged a coup.

Amin turned out to be one of the worst tyrants of the twentieth century. The number of people he murdered was at least 100,000 and possibly many more. Apart from ugandans who were shot, others were tortured to death or beaten to death with sledgehammers or iron bars.

Amin also decided to help himself with the wealth of Ugandan Asians. There were about 70,000 Asians in Uganda in 1972, many of them merchants and businessmen. Amin gave them 90 days to leave the country. They were forced to leave most of their properties and they were shared among Amin’s cronies.

However, as a result of the loss of the skills of Asians and the murders of many Ugandan professionals, the economy collapsed. Infrastructure, such as roads and water supply, deteriorated.

To distract attention from Uganda’s dire economic situation, Amin decided to invade Tanzania on October 30, 1978. However, the war became a disaster for Amin. In early 1979 Tanzanians invaded Uganda and Amin’s forces fled.

Unfortunately, Amin was never brought to justice for his terrible crimes. He fled abroad and died in 2003.

After the war elections were held and Obote became prime minister again. However, the election was rigged, so Obote’s opponents formed a guerrilla army to fight him. It was called the National Resistance Army and soon controlled a large part of western Uganda.

Meanwhile, Obote tried to become dictator again. He introduced a repressive regime, imprisoning anyone who opposed him and gagging the press. Western journalists were expelled from Uganda.

However, the National Resistance Army occupied more and more territory. Finally, in 1986, they entered the capital and seized all of Uganda, except for parts of the north. However, Obote’s supporters in the north were eventually persuaded to lay down their arms.

With the return of political stability, economic growth began again in Uganda and during the 1990s Uganda prospered. Many of the Asians who had fled to Britain were persuaded to return to Uganda. History of Uganda.

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However, new President Yoweri Museveni refused to allow political parties until 2005.

History of education in Uganda Makerere University
History of education in Uganda Makerere University

UGANDA IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY

Today, Uganda remains primarily an agricultural country and its main export is coffee. However, Uganda’s economy is growing steadily and there are many reasons to be optimistic about its future. At present, the population of Uganda is more than  45 million.

History Of Fashion In Uganda

Alexandra Jordan Gray
Alexandra Jordan Gray

Fashion has always been and will be a reflection of society; it cannot happen in a vacuum. In the 1960s, women wore minis, teetered on platform heels, some boldly went braless (the mind boggles) and the huge afros were the in-thing.

African states were getting independence from white colonialists and in America, the black civil movement was embraced,”

Many women adopted suits, hats and body stockings as their signature wear throughout the early 1960s. They also wore long dresses mimicking the British conservative culture.

Even for brides, the fashion was not exceptional, on her wedding in 1965, Mpanga’s changing dress had a full length coat, with a hat and gloves. Among the upper class traditional wear remained a reserve for traditional ceremonies.

Women elevated their height with the closed platform shoes nicknamed Gabon, which also gave them a chic look. Those shoes have now been replaced with the sharper stilettos, pumps and wedges. History of Uganda. 

Come the 1990s and we see women’s fashion softening a bit as both men and women came to the realisation that women were not mere visitors at the top be it social, corporate, political or economic. Uganda has experienced all these changes along with the rest of the world, albeit in her own context. The 1990s ushered in plenty of glamour and lots of freedom. History of Uganda. 

There is no so much fear in revealing clothing or rather exposing their undergarments. Women are more visible in all arenas now and they have disposable income that allows them to shop where they want, wear what they want and vote for whom they please.

With political representation and the women’s movement, the woman now had a voice and can fight for her rights. That could be the reason why she is now free to expose as much flesh as she wants. History of Uganda.

Naks Jozey
Naks Jozey
Lake Victoria

Lake Victoria is a mythical lake, because it is where the Nile originates. This lake is a huge expanse of 70,000 km² of surface. It is the largest lake on the continent and is located at an altitude of more than 1000?m. Shallow, just by admiring this lake makes us generate a great sensation. This lake is rich in fish and we often let ourselves travel through its waters as far as the eye can see. On a trip to Uganda to discover this great treasure, also take the opportunity to explore the Ssese Islands. It is an archipelago made up of 84 islands and is home to pretty beaches or water activities. History of Uganda.

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References:

https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Histoire_de_l%27Ouganda

http://www.afrique-planete.com/ouganda/histoire.htm

https://lesobservateursdesgrandslacs.wordpress.com/2014/02/02/histoire-de-louganda/

https://lhistoirestuncombat.net/diffuser-les-savoirs/documentaires/afrique/afrique-de-lest/ouganda/

https://quehistoria.com/africa/uganda/

https://www.10emtudo.com.br/artigo/historia-da-uganda/

https://franciscojaviertostado.com/2015/03/23/uganda-la-historia-de-un-pais-africano/

https://africa.la-croix.com/qui-sont-les-saints-martyrs-de-louganda-fetes-le-3-juin/

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https://afriquetimes.com/histoire-et-evolution-de-la-mode-africaine/

https://www.urban-comics.com/une-breve-histoire-de-louganda-24/

https://ugfacts.net/uganda-fashion/