History of Thailand Timeline
The History of Thailand Timeline: Thailand has only been the “land of the Thais” for about a thousand years. Before the arrival of the Thais from southern China, there were several successive or competing Indianized kingdoms in the region, they were Mon, Khmer or Malay.
Geography Of Thailand
It is situated on the Asian continent. It borders Burma, Laos, Cambodia and Malaysia. Surrounded by two seas, on one side the Indian Ocean and on the other the Gulf of Sion.
Area of Thailand Surface
513 115 km2.
Population of Population
About 61 million inhabitants, of which 75% Thai, 11% Chinese and 3.5% Malaysian.
Language of Thailand (Tongue)
Religion of Thailand
Agriculture, industry, tourism and natural resources. Government and Legal System: Thailand has been a constitutional monarchy since 1932.
BRIEF HISTORY OF THAILAND SUMMARIZED
A Brief History of Thailand: The ancient Indian name of Thailand is Shyamdesh. Laos and Cambodia on its eastern border, southern border Myanmar is on the western border. It is also known as Siam. Hindus and Buddhists here in ancient times Simultaneously it was in vogue but now it is not a Buddhist nation.
The current Chakri dynasty of Thailand has been calling itself Rama, the same Rama who is worshiped by Hindus as Lord Rama, an incarnation of Vishnu. Let us tell you what this whole thing is. Also why this dynasty uses Rama in its name
The present king of the Chakri dynasty is called Rama ‘Dasam’. Earlier in this dynasty, the king has been applying the title of Ram with his name, but it was not so ten generations ago. There has been a European influence behind adding a digit to the Ram. That is, the sixth king of this dynasty, Vajiravudh, while studying in England, read the names of the rulers there like George V, Louis II, then he got this idea.
Vajiravudh first called himself Rama ‘Sixth’. After this the practice of giving a number to the kings of this dynasty along with Rama started. Some experiments were done even before the title of Rama was attached to the name.
KEY INFORMATION ABOUT THAILAND
- Nickname: Thai Prathet, the land of free men
- Capital: Bangkok (~11.5 million inhabitants in January 2010)
- Area: 513,120 km²
- Language: Thai
- Languages and other dialects: dialects of ethnic minorities, Issan Thai, Northern Thai, Southern Thai, Chinese, English…
- Number of provinces: 76
- Thai anthem: Phleng Chat
- Currency: baht (฿ / THB)
- Government: Constitutional Monarchy
- King: Rama IX, Bhumibol Adulyadej
- 1st Minister: General Prayut Chan-O-Cha (since 22 May 2014)
PREHISTORY OF THAILAND
Prehistory of Thailand: Siamese prehistory began nearly 700,000 years ago with the development of hunter-gatherer societies. 4,000 B.C, the first rice cultivation took place, then it was in 3,000 B.C that the practice of metallurgy began, followed by the Bronze Age a millennium later. The Iron Age, which took place in 500 B.C, changed many things in the development of Siamese civilization. Finally, it was not until the beginning of the Christian era that the first Thai states entered the history of the country.
ANCIENT THAILAND OF THAILAND
The Ancient History of Thailand: The first inhabitants of what is now Thailand were hunter-gatherers. However, about 4,000 b.C. began to cultivate. They grew rice. At first farmers used stone tools, but about 3,000 BC .C. of bronze was discovered. Since 500 B.C. the people of what is now Thailand used iron.
At first what is now Thailand was divided into small states called Meuang. By 100 AD.C. they were already practicing Theravada Buddhism.
However, it is believed that the ancestors of modern Thais come from southern China. They migrated to Thailand between the tenth and thirteenth centuries A.C.
Meanwhile, between the ninth and thirteenth centuries, much of what is now Thailand was ruled by the Khmers, a people of what is now Cambodia.
However, in the thirteenth century several small states of Thailand, in the mekong river valley, united to form a kingdom called Sukhothai. It is considered to be the first Thai kingdom. However, the first Thai kingdom did not last long. It declined at the end of the fourteenth century.
Meanwhile, during the fourteenth century, another kingdom emerged in Thailand called Ayuthaya and annexed the kingdom of Sukhothai. During the fifteenth century Ayuthaya continued to grow.
In 1675 a Greek named Constantine Phaulkon became a court official of Thailand. He allowed the French to send soldiers to Thailand. However, he was removed from power in 1688 and the French were expelled. Subsequently, Thailand adopted an isolationist policy. The Thais cut off contact with Europe until the early nineteenth century.
In 1765 the Burmese invaded Ayuthaya and captured the capital in 1767 and destroyed it. However, in 1769 a general named Phraya Taksin became king and made a new capital at Thonburi, across the river from Bangkok. He also built an empire. It conquered much of Laos and other parts of Southeast Asia.
However, King Taksin began to have delusions and was expelled in a coup d’état in 1782. A general named Chao Phraya Chakri replaced him as king. (It is known as Rama I.) He had Taksin executed. It also made Bangkok the capital.
In 1809 Rama I was succeeded by his son Rama II (1809-1824). It was followed by Rama III (1824-1851). During their reigns Thai culture flourished.
The next king Rama IV or Mongkut allowed the British to live in Thailand. It also allowed them to trade freely. He also signed treaties with many other Western countries and encouraged the study of Western science.
Rama V (1868-1901) abolished the custom that subjects must prostrate themselves in the presence of the king. He also abolished slavery and the corvee (a tax paid at work). Rama V also reformed the government of Thailand.
In the nineteenth century, Thailand avoided being colonized by Europeans. However, in 1893, Rama V was forced to cede Laos to France. He also ceded Cambodia to France in 1907 and in 1909 was forced to cede territory in Malaya to Britain.
Why All King of Thailand Called With Rama
King in History of Thailand: All kings in the current Chakri dynasty of Thailand are often referred to as Rama. The name Rama was adopted from the name of the Hindu God Rama, an avatar of Vishnu. The use of the name “Rama ‘n’th” is in line with Thai practice of giving numbers to the king in the current dynasty.
THE KINGDOM OF SUKHOTHAI
It was in the 13th century that the Thais of Sukhothai gained political independence and the first king was crowned. It was Rama Khamheng, the 3rd son of this king, who marked the history of Thailand in 1292 by enthroned the founding act of the country. Other kingdoms coexisted with Sukhotai, such as Lan Na (or Lanna), which was ruled by King Mengrai who founded Chiang Mai in 1296, again the Kingdom of Phayao, led by King Ngam Muang.
But it was in 1298 that the kingdom of Sukhothai broke with the death of Rama Khamheng to become a small state again. But this period of history was essential for the development of the culture and identity of the Thai nation. Indeed, this allowed the appearance of Thai writing, the development of an original art and the spread of Theravada Buddhism. History of Thailand.
THE KINGDOM OF AYUTTHAYA
In 1350, King Rama Thibodi I created the Kingdom of Ayutthaya, based on the city of the same name. Two essential contributions were then made to Thai history: the establishment of Dharmashastra, a code based on Thai customs and Hindu rules, and the promotion of Theravada Buddhism.
With 34 reigns of different kings over four centuries, Ayutthaya has become one of the most important cities in Asia, in terms of area and wealth. In 1765, the Burmese attacked the kingdom of Ayutthaya and two years later destroyed the capital, its temples, monuments and religious statues
History Of King of Thailand
As a result of these fights, the personality of a man emerged, that of Taskin who restored the independence of the kingdom and drove out the Burmese. General Taskin decided to settle in Thonburi, located on the right bank of the Menam Chao Phraya River, and abandon Ayutthaya. History of Thailand.
THE CHAKRI DYNASTY
In 1769, Taskin was then proclaimed king, but he was executed and replaced in 1782 by General Chakri, due to reckless behavior. Thus General Chakri became the first king of the Chakri dynasty, Rama I, and decided to move the capital of Thailand to Bangkok.
Since then, several generations of rulers have succeeded each other until today with King Rama IX (Bhumibol Adulyadej). Each king has made his contribution to the development of Thailand and the happiness of Thais. We can remember in particular the kings Rama IV and Rama V who inspire a lot of respect from the Thais.
Rama IV (Mongkut) left the throne to his brother, Rama III (Poramin Maha Jessadabodindra) over a period of 27 years, during which time he became a Buddhist monk. After studying Latin, English, Pali, and Sanskrit, Rama IV returned to power to modernize the country by opening it commercially and culturally to the West.
Then King Rama V came to power to replace him on his death, Chulalongkorn, his son and successor, continued this modernization and openness by applying many economic, social and administrative reforms. History of Thailand.
The Malaysian Peninsula
The Malay Peninsula has long been part of the maritime trade network that connects China and India, sometimes referred to as the “Maritime Silk Road.” The port cities of the peninsula adopt Indian cultural and political models. History of Thailand.
In 1932, the constitutional monarchy replaced the absolute monarchy in a coup. The monarchy that loses all its powers must then ally itself with the power of the military. In September 2006, the head of the Thai army carried out a coup, dissolved the government and took full power. In the 1st referendum in the country’s history, Thais accepted the new Constitution by 58%.
After a year of provisional government, the 2007 elections restored constitutional and democratic order. It is the P.P.P., led by Samak Sundaravej, which wins an important victory (233 seats) against the Democrats (166 seats). But in 2008, it is the Democratic Party that leads the government, with the presence of Abhisit Vejjajiva as 1st minister.
On Friday, August 5, 2011, Yingluck Shinawatra was elected Prime Minister, the sister of former leader Thaksin Shinawatra and the first woman to hold the post in Thailand. Following numerous protests across the country, she was removed from office on 7 May 2014.
The military junta, led by General Prayut Chan-O-Cha, then took power on May 22, 2014, in order to put things back in order. It began by instituting martial law, in order to calm the camp of the reds and yellows, but it also condemned the government of Yingluck, for corruption, in particular through the costly subsidy plan to rice farmers. History of Thailand.
Aged 87 (in 2015), Rama IX is the last king of this constitutional monarchy, which remains a certain guarantee to national unity.
THAILAND ART AND CULTURE
Before Thailand became a solid kingdom in the 12th century, the region was inhabited by the Khmer, Mon and Myanmas. In the time of immigration, from southern China to Indochina, the Thais established small principalities among those villages by which artistic expressions, properly Thai, are the product of these encounters.
History on Thailand Culture
Thai art coincides with its religious base. Buddhism has inspired art and architecture since its inception as a nation. In short, the geographical situation of Thailand and the historical evolution of the small principalities of the Thais, constitute the landmark of development of Thai art. History of Thailand.
Theatre and Dance
The traditional Thai theater performs itself on the basis of dances and distinguishes 5 types. If you have the opportunity, be sure to enjoy at least a representation of these wonderful shows, the best known is khon, a dance in which the actors wear masks. The works depict scenes from Ramkian, the Thai version of the Ramayana from India. The expressions of drama, represented by men, are realized through slow dances in which gestures prevail over dialogues. The works are accompanied by music from drums, bells, gongs, xylophones and flutes. History of Thailand.
A Chronology of Thailand Key Events
Seventh-tenth AD percent – Hindu and Buddhist Dvaravati culture, thought to be of the mon ethnic people, predominates.
10th-14th – Southern Thailand is ruled by mainly Mon Lavo Unido, but with the growing influence of the neighboring Khmer Empire. (Present-day Cambodia). The Tai people – the background of modern ethnic Thais – begin to move south to the area.
1238-1448 – Thai-speaking kingdom of Sukhothai expands its rule further south, coming to dominate much of modern Thailand, before being eclipsed by a rival Thai kingdom in the south, Ayutthaya.
1350-1767 – Ayutthaya kingdom gradually brings Thailand under its control and becomes a great power in Southeast Asia. At its largest extent around 1600, it excludes parts of modern Cambodia, Laos and Burma. History of Thailand.
1448 – King Ramesuan joins Ayutthaya and Sukhothai in personal union. History of Thailand.
1590-1605 – Reign of Naresuan. Seen as the greatest king of Ayutthaya, he ends a period of Burmese sovereignty and briefly conquers Cambodia and parts of southern Burma. History of Thailand.
1767 – Invading Burmese forces bag the capital, Ayutthaya, putting an end to the kingdom.
1768-1782 – Under Taksin the Great, an ethnic Thai, Chinese, briefly the duration of control Thonburi Kingdom reinstates Thai. Taksin is overthrown by a coup d’état launched by General Chao Phraya Chakri, who founds a new dynasty centered in Bangkok.
Rise of Modern Thailand
1782 – Beginning of the Chakri dynasty under King Rama I, who rules to this day. The country is known as Siam. New capital Bangkok founded. History of Thailand.
1804-1868 – Kingdom of King Mongkut (Rama IV), which encompasses Western innovations and initiates modernization of Thailand.
1868-1910 – Kingdom of King Chulalongkorn. Employment of Western advisers to modernize the Siam administration and trade. Railway network developed.
1917 – Siam becomes Britain’s ally in World War I. History of Thailand.
1932 – coup d’état against the absolute monarch King Prajadhipok. Constitutional monarchy introduced with the parliamentary government. History of Thailand.
1939 – Siam changes its name to Thailand (“Land of the Free”).
1942 – Thailand declares war on Britain and the U.S., but the Thai ambassador to Washington refuses to hand over a statement to the U.S. government.
1945 – End of World War II. Thailand forced to return territory they had taken from Laos, Cambodia and Malaysia. Exiled King Ananda returns.
1946 – King Ananda murdered.
1947 – Military coup by pro-Japanese war leader Songkhram, Phibun. The military retains power until 1973.
1965 – Thailand licenses the U.S. to use bases there during the Vietnam War. Thai troops fight in southern Vietnam.
Short-lived civilian government
1973 – student demonstrations in Bangkok bring about the fall of the military government. Free elections are held but the resulting governments lack stability. History of Thailand.
1976 – Military takes over again. History of Thailand.
1978 – The new Constitution promulgated.
1980 – General Prem Tinsulanonda takes power. History of Thailand.
1983 – Prem gives his military position and heads a civilian government. He was re-elected in 1986.
1988 – General Chatichai Choonhaven replaces Prem after the elections.
1991 – Military coup, the 17th since 1932. A civilian, Anand Panyarachun, is installed as prime minister.
1992 – New elections mark replace Anand with General Suchinda Kraprayoon. There are demonstrations against him, forcing him to resign. Anand is temporarily reinstated. Elections in September see Chuan Leekpai, leader of the Democratic Party, chosen as prime minister. History of Thailand.
1995 – collapse of the government. Banharn Silpa-archa of the Thai Nation party, elected prime minister.
1996 – The Banharn government resigns, accused of corruption. Chavalit Yongchaiyudh of the aspirational new party wins elections.
1997 – The Asian financial crisis: The baht falls sharply against the dollar, leading to bankruptcies and unemployment. The steps of the IMF pol Chuan Leekpai becomes Prime Minister. History of Thailand.
1998 – Tens of thousands of migrant workers are sent back to their countries of origin. Chuan engages the opposition in his government in order to push for economic reforms. History of Thailand.
1999 – Economy begins to pick up again. Thai high media highlight cost of drug treatments for AIDS and HIV. Thailand begins to put pressure on drug companies to find ways to make drugs cheaper. History of Thailand.
January 2001 – New Thai Thai love party wins elections after partial re-run poll. Leader Thaksin Shinawatra forms coalition government. History of Thailand.
June 2001 – Burma, Thailand border crossing, which was closed after clashes between troops from the two countries in February, reopens after Burma visits Thaksin. History of Thailand.
May 2002 – Burma closes border with Thailand again after Thai Army fires Burma projectiles during the battle between Burmese army and ethnic Shan rebels. Border reopens in October. History of Thailand.
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