History of Spain

The History of Spain

The history of Spain and the culture of Spain have been very popular over the years, due to the great events that have occurred throughout history, we present a small summary about the most important periods in Spain 1,500,000 B. C. First human findings on the Iberian Peninsula.

History of Spain, It has been argued that they were the migrating tribes that arrived on the peninsula between 3000 and 2000 BC. But where the Iberians came from and how they got there is open to dispute. Some believe the origin of the Iberians was that they crossed the Strait of Gibraltar from North Africa, others favored the European origin, which they entered through the eastern end of the Pyrenees and advanced along the Mediterranean coast. Some suggest that – like the Tartessians – they were survivors from the lost continent of Atlantis, or that they came from America. Some historians now propose that the origin of the Iberians may have been that they were descendants of the Neolithic and early Bronze Age people who earlier inhabited the coastal regions of Iberia.

The Romans arrived in Iberia shortly before 200BC and occupied the Peninsula for over 600 years, however it took them 200 years to defeat some of its fiercest tribes, particularly the Basques in the north.

Roman Spain’s involvement in Iberia began during the Second Punic War. Hannibal’s attack on the Iberian city of Sagunto gave Rome the pretext to declare war on Carthage. The eventual victory of Rome gave them control of all Carthaginian territory in Iberia. The subsequent expansion of Roman Spain into the Iberian Peninsula was met by fierce resistance from the native Iberian tribes. It was not until the reign of Augustus that the entire peninsula was brought under Roman rule.

Rome divided Spain into two provinces: Hispania Citerior Centralia Catorior (right here Spain) in the north, Hispania Ulterior Middleania Ulari (Fareth Spain) in the south, and later the province of Lusitania in the west, which was in line with modern Portugal. But it took the Romans a hundred years to cross all the major areas of resistance and another hundred years to subdue the entire peninsula. The Lusitanians led the heroic Variatus for a long time, around 140 BC. They temporarily recovered a lot of territory from the Romans. The History of Spain

Moorish Spain

The Moors were a nomadic people from North Africa; They were originally the inhabitants of Mauretania. They invaded Spain, taking their Islamic religion and culture with them, in 711, where they invaded Visigothic Spain . They spread north through the Pyrenees into France, but were brought back by Charles Martel and his Frankish knights in 732.

In southern Spain, the Moors established the Umayyad caliphate in Córdoba. The court grew in wealth, power, and culture. Other cities full of Moorish culture were Toledo, Granada and Seville. The Moors never established a stable central government. In the 11th century the caliphate fell, and Moorish Spain was captured by the Almoravids, who were supplanted in 1174 by the Almohads. During this period, Christian rulers continued their efforts in northern Spain to recapture the south. In 1085 Alfonso VI of León and Castilla recaptured Toledo. Córdoba fell in 1236, and one by one the Moorish strongholds surrendered. The last Moorish city, Granada, was captured by Fernando V and Isabel I in 1492. Most of the Moors were expelled from Spain, but two groups remained, the Mudejars and the Moriscos.

Muslim Empire Ended in Spain

During the reign of Sultan Almoravid in the 11th century, Granada was at its peak in terms of power and influence. In 1238, Christian armies began conquering many parts of Spain, defeating the Moors and occupying them. Because of this, most Muslims from the rest of the country began to settle in the areas of Granada in southern Spain. Gradually, the empire of Granada became the single largest bastion of the Moorish civilization. Muslims lived here on a large scale. This state was considered very powerful.

Armada Defeat
Spain Civil War: Armada Defeat

Then the Muslim Moore Empire came to an end forever

During these two hundred years, there was a lot of cultural and economic development of Granada. The monarchy of Christian kings Ferdinand and Isabella emerged in Spain in the late 15th century. He destroyed this Muslim empire forever. Since then there has never been Muslim rule in Spain again.

Muslims who did not become Christians were expelled from the country

On 2 January 1492 King Boabdil, the last Moore ruler of Granada, handed him over to the Spanish forces. After this, in 1502, the Spanish rule forced all Muslims to convert to Christianity. Although many people of Moore descent did not abandon Islam, such people were expelled from Spain. More than 500 church-built mosque buildings were re-built.

Spain became a great colonizing kingdom with Columbus’s discovery of America by Spain in 1412. Spain became the most powerful nation in Europe during the 16th century due to its presence in the Americas with much wealth, But after the defeat of the Spanish Armada at the hands of England in 1588, Spain was reduced to a small peninsular power . In 1939 General Franco waged a dictatorship on a politically and economically damaged and weak country. After the death of Franco in 1975, a constitutional monarchy was established here. Spain’s civil war was one of the defining moments of the 20th century.

The Spanish Golden Age

By 1600, Spain had reaped substantial monetary benefits from New World resources. Gold and silver began to connect European nations through trade, and the Spanish money supply ballooned, which signified the beginning of the economic system known as capitalism. The new riches ultimately created mass inflation and economic distress. However, Spain gained creative capital from their new global reach. These developments catapulted Spain into the Golden Age, or Siglo de Oro.

Spanish Colonization

Spanish explorers first landed on the shores of North America in 1492, but their exploratory trips into the interior of the American continents did not reach New Mexico for another fifty years. By 1598, Juan de Oñate, the first Spanish governor of New Mexico, and his entourage of Spanish settlers traveled the Rio Grande as a northern extension of El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro (the Royal Road of the Interior Land) to colonize the Santa Fe area. The Camino Real entered New Mexico through El Paso. While a Spanish colony was established to the north around Santa Fe, the general sentiment about the Tularosa Basin, named the “Land without Water,” was one of general avoidance until the nineteenth century. Its lack of reliable water resources was a primary deterrent which caused traveling parties to prefer to brave the a deadly section of the Camino Real through La Jornada del Muerto (Journey of the dead one) on the western slopes of the San Andres and Organ Mountains, than to enter the Tularosa Basin. It was also the primary stronghold of local Apaches who would routinely exploit the livestock of Pueblo and Spanish settlements during raids. These raids were costly and fatal to the settlers and bred tense and often adversarial relations between the Apaches and settlers.

When Spaniards did enter the Tularosa Basin it was along established the salt trails that led to the salt flats north of Alkali Flat. Although prominent in the basin today, there is little mention of the “Great White Dunes” in Spanish records, but physical proof of their presence can be found in the material they left behind. A Spanish carreta (cart) was discovered eroding out of a sand dune on Watson Ritch’s ranch which is within the park’s boundaries. This artifact indicates a traveling group entered the basin with an oxen cart at some point during the Spanish influence. The carreta is currently on display at the New Mexico Farm and Ranch Heritage Museum in Las Cruces, New Mexico. History of United State

Today’s Spain

Spain has a total area of ​​504,030 km² making it the second largest country in Western Europe after France in the European Union. Spain is a democracy formed as a parliamentary government under a constitutional monarchy. … It is a member of United Nations, European Union, NATO, OECD and World Trade Organization.

Modern Spain, History of Madrid
Modern Spain

Spain’s political system

Spain’s strength was so much that in the American continents, besides America, Canada and Brazil, all the countries were ruled by Spain. Because of this, Spanish is still spoken in all countries except Brazil in South America. Spain has faced many situations politically.

For the first time in 1873, democracy came into force in Spain. But the next year in 1874, the monarchy came again. Democracy ran again from 1931 to 1936, and in 1936, the army coup. General Francesco Franco took power. After the death of Franco in 1975, there were attempts to introduce democracy again and in 1978 a new constitution was implemented. Spain has a parliamentary monarchy. In this system, the king is the head of the country. He is also the head of all the armies. Philip is the King of Spain since 2014. The head of the government is the Prime Minister. The name of the Parliament is Cortes Generales which consists of two houses. The Upper House is called Senate consisting of 208 elected and 58 nominated members who are from different communities. Read History of Germany

The lower house is called the Congress of Deputies which consists of 350 elected members. Deputies are chosen from the voting system of proportional representation. In the election, only the parties fight the election, not the candidates. The party that gets the percentage of votes gets the same percentage of seats. For this, it is necessary to get at least five percent of the vote. The term of deputies is four years. The Prime Minister is the leader of the party or coalition with a majority in this House. The Congress of Deputies has more powers than the Senate and can overturn any decision of the Senate. 208 senators are also elected by election process. Party candidates are in the fray in this election. Seats are divided according to population. Read Oldest Religions in The World

History of Spain Timeline

Spain History Timeline

  • 1,500,000 B. C. First human findings on the Iberian Peninsula
  • 40,000-15,000 B. C. Altamira cave paintings. History of Spain summary

Spain before the Romans

  • 1,200-800 B. C. Indo-Europeans, Phoenicians and Greeks invade the Iberian Peninsula
  • 800-500 B. C. Tartessus

Roman Hispania (218 B. C.-409 A.D.)

The Visigothic Kingdom (472-710)

Moorish Spain (710-1492)

  • 756-929 Umayyad emirate
  • 929-1031 Caliphate
  • 1031-1090 Taifa kingdoms
  • 1090-1146 Almoravid invasion
  • 1146-1224 Almohad invasion
  • 1224-1232 Marinid invasion
  • 1232-1492 Nasrid kingdom of Granada

Christian Spain (710-1492)

  • 803 Kingdom of Navarre
  • 1137 Crown of Aragón
  • 1230 Kingdom of Castile and Leon
  • 1479 Union of the Crowns of Castile and Aragón with the Catholic Monarchs
  • 1492 Conquest of Granada, Columbus’ discovery of America and the publication of the first Spanish grammar text (Gramática Castellana)
  • 1512 Incorporation of Navarre
  • 1535-1545 Viceroyalties of Mexico and Peru

House of Habsburg (1516-1700)

  • 1516-1556 Charles I
  • 1526 Treaty of Madrid
  • 1556 Philip II
  • 1571 Battle of Lepanto
  • 1598-1621 Philip III
  • 1605 Don Quixote.
  • 1621-1665 Philip IV
  • 1640 Secession of Portugal
  • 1659 Treaty of the Pyrenees
  • 1665-1700 Charles II

House of Bourbon (1700-1808)

  • 1700-1746 Philip V
  • 1713 Treaty of Utrecht
  • 1746-1759 Ferdinand VI
  • 1759-1788 Charles III
  • 1760-1790 Enlightenment and reform
  • 1788-1808 Charles IV
  • 1805 Battle of Trafalgar
  • 1807 Treaty of Fontainebleau

Dissolution of the Old Regime and the Peninsular War (1808- 1814)

  • 1808 Abdication of Charles IV and Ferdinand VII in Bayonne. Entry of Joseph Bonaparte I in Madrid.
  • 1810-1812 The Cortes and Constitution of Cádiz

Liberal reaction and Revolution (1814-1833)

  • 1814 Arrival of Ferdinand VII in Madrid
  • 1814-1820 First Absolutist Restoration
  • 1820-1823 The Uprising and Liberal Triennium
  • 1823-1833 Second Absolutist Restoration

Regency periods (1833-1843)

  • 1833-1841 Death of Ferdinand VIl and Regency of Maria Christina Carlist War
  • 1834 Royal Statute
  • 1837 Liberal Constitution
  • 1841-1843 Regency of Espartero

Reign of Isabella II (1843-1868)

  • 1843-1854 Moderate Decade
  • 1845 Constitution
  • 1854-1856 Liberal Biennium
  • 1856 “Non nata” constitution
  • 1856-1868 Moderate Predominance

Revolutionary Six Years (1868- 1874)

  • 1869 Constitution of 1869
  • 1869-1871 Regency of General Serrano
  • 1871-1873 Reign of Amadeus of Savoy
  • 1873-1874 First Spanish Republic
  • 1874 Coup staged by Martínez Campos on behalf of Alfonso XII.

Restoration (1875-1923)

  • 1875 Entry of Alfonso XII in Madrid
  • 1876 Constitution
  • 1881 Liberal government
  • 1885 Death of Alfonso XII Regency of Maria Christina
  • 1890 Universal suffrage
  • 1898 Spanish-American War and Treaty of Paris
  • 1902-1931 Reign of Alfonso XIII

Dictatorship of Primo de Rivera and the fall of the Monarchy (1923-1931)

  • 1931 Municipal elections (14 April) and Proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic

Second Republic and Spanish Civil War (1931-1939)

  • 1931 Republican Constitution
  • 1933 Electoral victory of CEDA
  • 1936 Electoral victory of the Popular Front (February) and military coup (July)
  • Civil War (1936-1939)

General Franco’s regime (1939-1975)

  • 1959 Stabilization Plan
  • 1969 Appointment of Prince Juan Carlos as successor

Democratic transition

  • 1975 Death of Franco Proclamation of King Juan Carlos I
  • 1976 Common Law on Political Reform (November) and Referendum (December)
  • 1977 General elections (15 June) Relative majority for the UCD President Adolfo Suárez (4 July) Spain requests membership in the EEC (28 July)
  • 1978 Constitutional referendum (6 December) Constitution sanctioned by H.M. the King on 27 December in Parliament Enters into force on 28 December

Constitutional Monarchy

  • 1979 General elections (1 March).
  • 1979 Congress approves Spain’s accession to NATO (29 October)
  • 1982 General elections. Absolute majority for the PSOE (28 October). New government with Felipe González as president (3 December)
  • 1985 Signature of Spain’s treaty of adhesion to the EEC (12 June)
  • 1986 Spain and Portugal become full EEC members (1 January). Prince Felipe swears allegiance to the Constitution in Parliament (30 January). Positive results in the referendum on Spain remaining in NATO (12 March). General elections. New absolute majority for the PSOE (22 June)
  • 1989 Spanish presidency of the EC (first half). European elections (15 June). General elections. Victory for the PSOE (29 October). Felipe González takes the presidential oath of office before Parliament (5 December)
  • 1993 General elections (6 June). Relative majority for the PSOE. Felipe González takes the presidential oath of office before Parliament (9 July)
  • 1995 Spanish presidency of the European Union (second half). The European Council of Madrid approves the name of the future European currency: the euro (15-16 December)
  • 1996 General elections (relative majority for the PP). José María Aznar is sworn in as president before Parliament (3 May)
  • 2000 General elections (victory with an absolute majority for the PP). José María Aznar takes the presidential oath of office before Parliament (25 April)
  • 2002 Spanish presidency of the European Union (first half)
  • 2004 General elections (victory for the PSOE with a relative majority). José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero takes the presidential oath of office before Parliament (17 April). European elections (13 June)
  • 2005 European Constitution Referendum (20 February)
  • 2008 General elections (victory for the PSOE with a relative majority). José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero takes the presidential oath of office before Parliament (8 April)
  • 2010 Spanish presidency of the European Union (first half)
  • 2011 General elections (20 November). Victory for the PP with an absolute majority. Mariano Rajoy takes the presidential oath of office before Parliament (20 December). This is a brief history of Spain.
Altamira cave paintings
Altamira cave paintings

References : https://www.disfrutamadrid.com/historia Read Eva Maria Perez Spanish Models Fashion in Spain.

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