History of Singapore Timeline
A Brief History of Singapore Timeline: The Port of Temasek or “City of the Sea”, as it was once called, was destroyed by the Javanese in the fourteenth century and renamed Singapore, “City of the Lion”, by Prince Parameswara, the Malaysian “Alexander the Great”, founder of the Sultanate of Malacca. Singapore called before Temasek (old name of Singapore).
|Facts About Singapore|
|Total Area of Singapore||733.1 km²|
|Singapore Official Language||English, Malay, Chinese Mandarin and Tamil|
|Capital Of Singapore||Singapore|
|Population of Singapore||
|Legislative Assembly Name||Parliament of Singapore|
|Singapore Independence Day||August 9, 1965|
|Current President of Singapore||Halimah Yacob|
|Old Name of Singapore||Temasek|
These are 5 of the main religions in Singapore.
HISTORY OF SG
Singapore was originally a fishing village until 1819, when British sailor Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles bought it on behalf of the East India Company from the Sultan of Johor to open a route to China and prevent the Dutch from advancing in the region.
In 1823, the Company incorporated Singapore into the British Principality of Bengal. In 1826, along with Malacca and Penang, it became part of the Straits Settlements, then dependent on the British government. In 1837, it became the capital of the Colonies, replacing Penang. The History of Singapore.
Its strategic position and freeport status made Singapore an important commercial center that attracted many Chinese immigrants who quickly overtook the Malay population. The History of Singapore.
A must between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific, and a stopover for British ships between the metropolis and Hong Kong, Japan and Indochina, Singapore has experienced a great commercial boom to become the world center of rubber. This importance became all the greater with the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869.
THE BATTLE OF SINGAPORE AND THE JAPANESE OCCUPATION (1942-1945)
HISTORY ON SINGAPORE
The History of Singapore: Many civilians died because of these sieges. On December 7, 1941, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, and the Pacific War began in earnest. One of the objectives of the Japanese was to take Southeast Asia to secure the supply of natural resources and fully supply the needs of their army and industries. Singapore had the main Allied base in the region, making it a clear military objective. British military commanders in Singapore believed that the inevitable Japanese attack would come from the south by sea, as the dense Malayan jungle of the north would serve as a natural barrier against invasion.
Even though the British had prepared a defense plan to deal with an attack from the north, preparations were never completed. The army was convinced that that fortress of Singapore would withstand any Japanese attack, and this confidence was reinforced with the dispatch of Force Z, a British squadron of warships sent for the purpose of the defense of Singapore, among the warships were the battleship HMS Prince of Wales and the cruiser HMS Repulse. The aircraft carrier HMS Indomitable was to accompany the squadron in the defence of Singapore, but ran aground during the voyage, leaving the squadron without air cover.
On December 8, 1941, Japanese forces landed at Kota Bharu in northern Malaya. Just two days after the invasion of Malaya, Prince of Wales and Repulse were sunk 80 kilometers off the coast of Kuantan, in Pahang, by a bomber and a torpedo boat of the Japanese air forces, in the defeat of the most embarrassing British navy of the entire Second World War. Allied air support did not arrive in time to protect the two main ships. After this incident, Singapore and Malaya suffered constant air strikes, including several targeting civilian structures such as hospitals or homes, causing from tens to hundreds of casualties in each attack.
This is the greatest failure of the British forces in its history. The Japanese army was rapidly advancing south through the Malay Peninsula, pulverizing or circumventing Allied resistance. Allied forces did not possess tanks as they considered them unsuitable for the rainforest, and the infantry proved powerless against the Light Tanks of the Japanese. As the resistance proved ineffective in the attack, the Allied forces were forced to retreat south towards Singapore. By January 31, 1942, just 55 days after the invasion, the Japanese had already conquered the entire Malay Peninsula, and the attack on Singapore was imminent.
The Allied side, intending to stop the advance of Japanese troops, destroyed the overpass linking Johore with Singapore. However, several days later the Japanese managed to cross the Johore Strait in inflatable boats. During this period some heroic struggles of the Allied forces and several volunteers of the population of Singapore against the Japanese army were carried out, such as the Battle of Pasir Panjang.
However, with most of the defenses shattered, and supplies exhausted, Lieutenant General Arthur Ernest Percival surrendered and had no choice but to surrender Singapore to General Tomoyuki Yamashita of the Imperial Japanese Army on Chinese New Year’s Day, February 15, 1942. About 130,000 Indian, Australian, and British troops became prisoners of war, many of whom were later transported to Burma, Japan, Korea, and Manchuria, for use as slave labor and transported through prisoner ships called “hellships.” The defeat at Singapore was the biggest failure of British forces in their history.
Singapore was renamed Syonan-to (Japanese: Shōnan-tō, “Light of the South Island”) and the Japanese occupied it between 1942 and 1945. This stage is the darkest in the history of Singapore, as the Japanese army imposed harsh measures against the population. Japanese troops committed numerous atrocities, especially by the Kempeitai, the Japanese military police. They were the perpetrators of the Sook massacre, where many Chinese civilians died, for having supported the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Mass executions took between 25,000 and 50,000 lives in Malaya and Singapore. The rest of the population went through great difficulties during the three and a half years of Japanese occupation. The History of Singapore.
Singapore POST-WAR (1945-1955)
History of Singapore Post War: After the surrender of Japan on August 15, 1945, Singapore was for a time in a state of anomie, and during that time a multitude of vandalism, looting, and vengeful murders were committed. On 15 September 1945 British troops, led by Louis Mountbatten, returned to Singapore to officially recognize the surrender of the Japanese forces of Seishirō Itagaki, representing Hisaichi Terauchi, and a British military administration was formed to rule the island until March 1946.
Most of the urban infrastructure had been destroyed by the war, including water and electricity supplies, telephone services, and facilities at the Port of Singapore. Severe food shortages caused severe malnutrition problems and led to a rampant wave of disease, crime, and violence. High food prices, unemployment, and worker discontent culminated in a series of strikes in 1947, crippling public transport and many other services. By the end of 1947, the economy began to catch up its course, accelerated by the growing global demand for cork and tin, but it would still take several more years for the economy to reach pre-war levels.
History Of Singapore Independence
A History of Singapore Independence: The British failure to defend Singapore took away all the credibility they possessed as infallible rulers. In the decades following the war there was a political awakening on the part of the local population, and anti-imperialist and nationalist sentiments emerged, embodied in the slogan “Merdeka”, which in Malay means “independence”.
The British, for their part, were willing to gradually increase the country’s self-management. On 1 April 1946, the Straits Colonies seceded, and Singapore became a separate crown colony, ruled by a civilian administrator. In July 1947, executive and legislative councils were established, and elections of six members of the legislative council were scheduled for the following year. The History of Singapore.
FIRST LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL (1948-1951)
In March 1948 the first elections took place in Singapore, and were limited to the election of only six of the twenty-five seats of the legislative council. In addition, only British subjects had the right to vote, and of those, only 23,000 (approximately 10%) registered to vote. The other representatives of the legislative council were elected by the government or by the chambers of commerce. Of the six seats the people could choose, three of them went to the Singapore Progressive Party (SPP), a conservative party led by wealthy businessmen, who rejected independence as an immediate option. The other three seats were occupied by different pro-independence parties.
Three months after the election, several communist groups carried out an armed uprising in Malaya, and the British imposed harsh control measures in order to keep leftist groups in Singapore and Malaya under control, and a controversial law was imposed that allowed the government the right to arrest and detain without the need for a prior trial people suspected of being “security threats”. As leftist groups were the main detractors of the colonial system, the progress of self-government was paralyzed for several years.
SECOND LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL (1951-1955)
In 1951 a second election to the legislative council was held. On this occasion, the number of seats represented in the elections amounted to nine. The elections were again dominated by the SPP, which won six seats. While it is true that this fact contributed to the creation of a local government in Singapore, the power of colonial administration was still dominant. In 1953, with the Communists finding themselves totally repressed in the region, a British commission, headed by George William Rendel, proposed a limited form of Singapore’s self-government. The History of Singapore.
The legislative council was replaced by a new legislative assembly consisting of thirty-two seats, twenty-five of which were elected by suffrage. The cabinet would consist of a council of ministers and the head of government, so it would be a parliamentary system. The British would retain some control in several areas, such as internal security, foreign relations, and veto power over legislation.
Elections to the legislative assembly were held on 2 April 1955. They turned out to be very active and participatory, with the entry of new political parties. However, this time the voters were registered directly, which did not happen in the previous elections, and thus expanding the electorate over 300,000 participants. The SPP turned out to be the big loser of the elections, winning only four seats. The party that won the most votes was the newly formed left-leaning Labour Front, winning ten seats and forming a coalition with the UMNO-MCA Alliance, which won three seats. Another newly formed party, the leftist People’s Action Party (PAP), won three seats.
SELF-GOVERNMENT (1955-1963) -PARTIAL AUTONOMY (1955-1959)
David Marshall, leader of the Labour Front party, became Singapore’s first head of government. He presided over a government with high instabilities, receiving little or no collaboration from both the colonial government and the rest of the political parties. Social discontent was on the rise, and in May 1955, the Hock Lee revolt broke out, causing four deaths and discrediting the Marshall government. In 1956 the revolt of the Chinese High School broke out among its students, further increasing the tension between the local government and the Chinese students and unions, with clear communist tendencies. The History of Singapore.
In April 1956, Marshall led a delegation in London to negotiate full autonomy, but the discussions ended unsuccessfully, as the British were unwilling to relinquish control of Singapore’s internal security. The British were very concerned about possible communist influences and the numerous strikes that could cause Singapore’s economy to destabilize, and they thought that Singapore’s local government had proved ineffective in the face of previous unrest. Marshall resigned after the breakdown of negotiations.
The new chief minister, Lim Yew Hock, launched an offensive against communist and leftist groups, imprisoning numerous trade union leaders and pro-communist members of the PAP on charges of “disrupting security”. The British government gave the go-ahead to these measures, and when negotiations resumed in March 1957, the British government finally gave the green light to Singapore’s complete self-government. The State of Singapore was thus created, with its own citizenship. The legislative assembly expanded to fifty-one members, all elected by popular election, and the prime minister, along with the cabinet, would control all aspects of government except foreign relations and defense. The governor was replaced by a Yang di-Pertuan Negara (Head of State). The History of Singapore.
TOTAL AUTONOMY (1959-1963)
New elections for the legislative assembly were held in May 1959. The People’s Action Party (PAP) swept the elections winning forty-three of the fifty-one seats. Its success was based on winning the acceptance of the Chinese-speaking population, especially the trade unions and radical student organizations. Its leader, Lee Kuan Yew, a young lawyer who studied at Cambridge University, became Singapore’s prime minister in 1961. The History of Singapore.
Businessmen, both local and foreign, welcomed the PAP’s victory with some discouragement, as many party members were pro-communist, and many companies were displaced to Kuala Lumpur for this reason. Despite this, the PAP government embarked on an ambitious project that focused on solving Singapore’s economic and social problems. The History of Singapore.
Economic development was overseen by the new Minister of Finance Goh Keng Swee, whose strategy was to encourage both local and foreign investment with various measures, including tax incentives or the construction of a large industrial estate in Jurong Se reformed the education system for skilled labour training, and promoted English ahead of Chinese as the official language of instruction.
The unions were consolidated into a single central organization, called the National Congress of Trade Unions (NTUC), in order to eliminate labor unrest. With regard to social reforms, an aggressive housing project was carried out, as this had been a serious problem for some time. During the first two years of the program, more than 25,000 low-cost skyscrapers were built. The History of Singapore.
SINGAPORE CAMPAIGN FOR MERGER WITH MALAYSIA
Despite the success achieved in the previous government, PAP leaders thought that Singapore’s future lay in annexing with Malaya. In his view, the historical and economic ties between Malaya and Singapore were too strong to remain separate nations, and they fought vigorously for the merger. On the other hand, the pro-communist members of the PAP were firmly opposed to the merger, fearing a loss of political influence and thus being overshadowed by Malaya’s majority party, the UMNO, which was also a party that recognized itself as anti-communist. The History of Singapore.
For their part, UMNO leaders were also skeptical of the idea of annexation because they had serious doubts about the PAP’s role in government, and furthermore, due to the high Chinese population in Singapore, the merger would alter the racial balance on which its political power depended so much. The merger was not taken into account until, in 1961, Ong Eng Guan, the pro-communist minister of the PAP, left the party ranks. The Communists defeat the PAP in the by-elections, threatening to dismantle Lee’s government.
After this fact, the UMNO, frightened by the possible seizure of power by the communists, accepts the merger. On May 27, Malayan Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman proposed the idea of forming the Federation of Malaysia, which included the already existing Federation of Malaya, Singapore, Brunei, and the British Borneo territories of Sabah and Sarawak. UMNO leaders believed that the high malay population rate in the Territories of Borneo would compensate for Singapore’s Chinese population. The History of Singapore.
Malaysia’s proposal intensified disputes between communists and moderates within the PAP. The Communists, led by Lim Chin Siong, leave the PAP and form a new party, called Barisan Sosialis (Socialist Front), to fight against annexation. By contrast, Lee called a referendum on the merger and campaigned intensely on his proposal, taking advantage of the great influence the party had over the media. The referendum, held on September 1, 1962, ended with 70% of the voters in favor of annexation. The History of Singapore.
On July 9, 1963, the government leaders of Singapore, Malaya, Sabah and Sarawak, officially signed the Malaysia Agreement, thus establishing the Federation of Malaysia. The History of Singapore.
INCORPORATION OF SINGAPORE INTO MALAYSIA (1963–1965) – ANNEXATION
On September 16, 1963, Malaya, Singapore, Sabah and Sarawak officially formed Malaysia. The union benefited Singapore economically by creating a common free market, eliminating tariffs and alleviating unemployment. The British government approved the merger, convinced that Singapore’s internal security would be strengthened by the formation of Malaysia. The History of Singapore.
Problems arose from the beginning. A party associated with UMNO participated in the 1963 Singapore General Election, despite the UMNO making a pact with the PAP so that the former would not participate in Singapore’s political life during Malaysia’s early formative years. Although UMNO did not get a great result, relations between UMNO and PAP deteriorated, and pap, as revenge, ran in the 1964 federal elections as part of the Malaysian Solidarity Convention, winning a seat in the Malaysian Parliament. The History of Singapore.
SEPARATION OF SINGAPORE
In the absence of alternatives to avoid continued bloodshed, Malaysian Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman decided to expel Singapore from the federation. On 9 August 1965 the expulsion from Singapore was put to a vote in the Malaysian Parliament, ending with a landslide 126–0 in favour. That same day, a tearful Lee Kuan Yew announced at a televised press conference that Singapore was a sovereign and independent nation. The conference was also very emotional at times, quoting verbatim:
For me, this is a time of anguish. All my life, my adult life, I have believed in the fusion and unity of both territories.
The new state became the Republic of Singapore, and Yusof bin Ishak was appointed the first president. The History of Singapore.
REPUBLIC OF SINGAPORE 1965-1979
History of Singapore: After gaining independence in such an abrupt way, Singapore’s future is fraught with incentidumbre. The confrontation with Indonesia continued, and the most conservative faction of UMNO opposed separation, as Singapore was in serious danger of being attacked by the Indonesian army and could be forcibly readmitted to the Malaysian federation under unfavorable conditions. The History of Singapore.
Singapore immediately requested international recognition of its sovereignty. It entered the United Nations on 21 September 1965 and the British Commonwealth in October of the same year. Foreign Minister Sinnathamby Rajaratnam headed a new foreign service, assisted in signing Singapore’s independence, and maintained public relations with other countries. Later, on August 8, 1967, Singapore co-founded the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and in 1970 was admitted to the Non-Aligned Movement. The History of Singapore.
However, the small island state of Singapore was questioned by many and the media was skeptical about the country’s chances of survival. A multitude of problems were pressing on the country, such as high unemployment, problems of urbanization, education, and the lack of natural resources and geographical features. Unemployment hovered around 10%-12%, threatening to trigger further civil unrest.
Lack of public housing, poor sanitation, and high unemployment led to crime and health problems. The occupation led to security risks, and caused riots in 1961 in Bukit Ho Swee, resulting in the deaths of four people, and 16,000 homeless. The Housing Development Board, created before independence, achieved enormous successes and carried out a multitude of projects to build affordable public housing to alleviate the problem of occupancy. Within a decade, the majority of the population lived in these apartments. The Central Provident Fund (CPF), established in 1968, allowed residents to purchase flats through financial support, thus increasing Singapore’s homeownership.
British troops had remained in Singapore even after gaining independence, but in 1968 London announced its decision to withdraw troops in 1971. Singapore then set out to create its own army, the Singapore Armed Forces, and in 1967 a programe for national service was introduced.
Singapore during world war II
History of Singapore During WW II : In 1942, during World War II, Singapore was occupied by Japanese forces from Malaysia, who changed its name to Syonan or “Southern Light”. Three and a half years later, on September 6, 1945, Singapore was recovered by British troops. The History of Singapore.
In 1946, Singapore was granted British colony status, separated from Penang and Malacca.
Following several revolts, In 1959 Britain recognized the autonomy of the State of Singapore within the Commonwealth.
In 1963, Singapore gained full independence and became part of the Federation of Malaysia, but two years later, in 1965, it separated from the Federation due to disagreements with the federal government and became a sovereign state.
Since then, a neutral international policy and trade agreements have led this small state, the smallest of the countries of Southeast Asia (about 700 km², the same area as the island of Menorca), to a continuous demographic, commercial and financial growth.
This growth forced it to expand into its territorial waters, provoking diplomatic clashes with neighboring countries. Nine new islands arose from the sea, Changi Airport itself was built on land reclaimed from the sea. Singapore has been dubbed “the growing island”.
History of Singapore Towards Independence: The rise of nationalism led to autonomy in 1959. Indeed, the British gave Singapore its own constitution and Lee Kuan Yew was elected Prime Minister. The latter proposes the integration of Singapore into Malaysia but the strict will of the Malay government to privilege Malaysians did not agree with Singaporean aspiration to cultural mixing between Malaysians, Chinese, Indians and Eurasians (Read more about Singaporeans?). Soon after, in 1964, inter-ethnic riots broke out between Malays and Chinese. On 9 August 1965, the Parliament of the Federation gave Singapore its freedom.
Following a common agreement between the peoples, the Parliament proclaimed the independence of Singapore a few hours later.
History of Singapore Today: Singapore does not consist of a single island, but of a main island surrounded by 63 islets. The main island has a total area of 710.3 km². It is located 136.8 km north of the equator, between latitudes 103 degrees 38’E and 104 degrees 06’E. Singapore is close to Malaysia and Indonesia. In just 150 years, Singapore has become a thriving centre of commerce and industry.
Although its former warehouse role has diminished, it remains the most active port in the world with more than 600 shipping lines.
In addition, Singapore has a strong manufacturing base that developed mainly in the 1960s and evolved towards the production of high valueadded goods. It is also one of the world’s leading oil refining and distribution centers and a leader in ship construction and repair.
In recent years, Singapore has become Asia’s leading financial centre, with more than 130 banks. Business transactions are facilitated by Singapore’s excellent communications network, which connects the nation to the rest of the world. And that’s partly why we went to study in Singapore! The History of Singapore.
Myths Of The Ancient Land Of Singapore
Myths About Singapore History: In translation, Singapore means lion (singa) and city (pura). There are many legends about why the lion is in the name of the city, because this animal was never found on the island. This city was given this name by the first prince of Malaysia, Sung Neela Utama. According to ancient chronology, after receiving the title of “God of the Three Worlds”, he left his hometown and moved to other lands. Along the way, his attention drew from a picturesque island, the edges of which were covered with white sand.
Locals said that this place (a small fishing village at that time) is called Tumasek. According to ancient chronology, when the prince and his entourage landed on the island, they met an unprecedented creature with a brown body and a large head. When I saw people, they hid. None of the Maharaja’s entourage knew what this strange animal was, and only a very old man said it was a lion.
A strange animal, strong, beautiful and agile, astounded the prince. So, after settling on this land, the prince changed the name of Tumasek Island to Singapore, which means the city of Singh. The History of Singapore.
History Of Construction
History of Singapore: There is an ancient legend, which says that a giant creature lived in the sea near this place with the body of a fish and the head of a lion. It saved the island and all its inhabitants from violent storms or attacks from enemies. Then Merlian floated to the surface, his eyes filled with red light and he burned everything that might have put people in danger.
At the initiative of the Tourism Council, in 1964 it was decided to make the symbol of Singapore Merrian. It was created by its designer Forayser Brunner. The symbolism is based on the origin of the city’s name. The History of Singapore.
The history of the monument began in the early 70s of the last century. The Singapore government decided to erect the statue as a mark of respect for the revered creature. Funds allocated from the treasury in the amount of 165,000 Singapore dollars, a significant amount for that time. The talented local sculptor Lim Nang Seng prepared to work on and carved the Merlian figure as a fountain based on the 1864 symbol. The History of Singapore.
The statue is cast of white alumina concrete, which is 8.6 meters high and weighs 70 tons, which was installed in 1972.
The sculpture was originally installed near the Explanade Bridge, at the mouth of the Singapore River. A park, also called Merlian, was laid around it. But then the bridge was reconstructed, as a result of which the statue was not visible from the riverbank. So, in 2002, it was moved more than 120 meters downstream and installed in front of the Fullerton Hotel. The History of Singapore.
In 2009, a terrible thunderstorm swept the city and lightning hit the statue, causing severe damage – a large piece of concrete was broken from the lion’s head. At present, everything has been carefully restored: the statue of Merlian, the pool located nearby, the surrounding area – a place where many tourists and locals come with pleasure. Here you can admire the fountain and relax on the picturesque banks of the river. The History of Singapore.
The statue of The Merlion is strictly oriented towards the east, as required by Feng Shui so that the city is prosperous and prosperous. The second little statue of half the fish, the half lion is not far away in a glass cube. It weighs three tons, and its height does not exceed two meters. The History of Singapore.
Contribution Of Indians In The Creation Of Singapore
Contributions of Indian in History of Singapore: Singapore was the second most important place after Calcutta in the ports of the Indian government till 1867 and in a way, one can say that, the expansion of the Indian colony was Singapore. The Indian people have played a very important role in the creation of Singapore and the indelible impression of the hard work of the Indian people in Singapore can be clearly seen. Asad highlighted the fact that, the British Govt had established colonial Singapore from Kolkata instead of London.
Religion Population Percentage in Singapore
|Religious Community||Population Percentage|
|Protestantism and other non-Catholic||12%|
These are 5 of the main religions in Singapore.
Read Also History of India
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HISTORY OF SINGAPORE | SINGAPORE (wordpress.com) The History of Singapore.
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