A Concise History Of Poland Warsaw
A Concise History of Poland Warsaw: Poland is one of the biggest countries in Central Europe with an area of 312,679 sq km (120,726 sq mi). This makes it the 9th largest country in Europe and the 63rd largest in the world. The country is bordering Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and Lithuania and the Russian enclave of Kaliningrad to the northeast. Its northern frontier constitutes the Baltic Sea. Poland`s shape is roughly square, measuring 400-440 miles across.
History of Warsaw Poland
Area: 312,583 km²
Population: 38,434,786 people.
Official EU languages: Polish
EU Member State: since 1 May 2004
Currency: Zloty. Poland is currently preparing to adopt the euro.
Schengen: member of the Schengen area since 21 December 2007.
All about Poland
History of Poland: Officially, the name of the country is Republic of Poland and the local language is Polish, also called polish language, spoken by about 60 million people and close to the Slovak and Czech language.
The capital of the country is Warsaw and its time zone is +4 hours in relation to Brasilia time and +5 hours during daylight saving time, which in 2018 takes place from March 25 to October 28.
The state is in the zone of moderate climate, which makes the cold days, which extend from October to April, are full of frost, snow and temperatures that reach -20ºC. On the other hand, the hot days can reach 30ºC, especially in July. History of Poland
Where Poland is located
Poland is part of Central Europe and borders Germany to the west, Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and Lithuania, Russia (Oblat of Kaliningrad) and Baltic Sea to the north.
The total territory has 312,679 km², being the 69th largest country in the world and 9th largest country in Europe. Its population, in 2017, was 38,422 inhabitants, with a density of 122 inhabitants per square kilometer. History of Poland.
Origin of Poland
History of Poland: To know well the history and origin of Poland, it is first necessary to know what it is like and where it is located. Due to its geographical location, Poland (Polska) is a transitional country between Central and Eastern Europe. Due to its character, intensely focused on its traditions and history, it is an extraordinarily peculiar country. History of Poland.
Poland stretches from east to west between the Bug and Oder-Neisse rivers of Lusatia and from south to north between the southern mountain ranges (Western Carpathians and Bohemian Massif) and the Baltic. History of Poland.
Its lands are bathed to the north in the Baltic Sea, and are bordered on the west by Germany, on the northeast by Russia and Lithuania. To the east with Belarus and Ukraine, and to the south with the Czech Republic and Slovakia. History of Poland.
For centuries, peoples of different languages, cultures and religions, such as Germans, Hungarians, Russians and Austrians, have been found in its territory, without the Polish nation ever losing its identity. Although it was already an organized state in the tenth century, Poland has known moments of expansion and decline; it even disappeared as a free political entity between 1815 and 1918.
In 1945, and as a result of the partition of Europe by the victorious powers in World War II, the country had a communist regime. He remained in power until 1989, the year in which the first multiparty elections were held. History of Poland.
First settlements in the territory
Pre History of Poland: According to Slavic tradition the brothers Lech, Czech and Rus arrived in the lands between the Vistula River and the Oder. On a hill they saw an oak tree with an eagles’ nest and Lech decided to take up residence there, choosing a white eagle for his shield. Czech, on the other hand, went to the South where he would found his country (the Czech Republic) and Rus went to the East, where he would later create Russia.
The first indications of inhabitants in the region of present-day Poland are found in the krzemionki Opatowskie site and are dated to more than 3500 years a.C old, is located in what is now the Kielce region and was a quarry for the extraction of flint, a mineral that once carved was used for the manufacture of tools and weapons. History of Poland.
It is known that the first known city in the region dates from the second century AD.C. Kalisz was located in the province where the city of Poznan is currently located and was an important center of commercial exchanges within the Amber route between the Baltic and the Mediterranean. History of Poland.
It is around the sixth century AD.C., after the fall of the Roman Empire, when the barbarian tribes that inhabited the territories north of the border of the Impero moved to the South. This migration is what causes the Slavic tribes that inhabited the region north of the Carpathians to occupy these territories that the barbarians had uninhabited north of what was the ancient Roman Empire. One of these tribes, the Polans, would be the one that settles on the territory of present-day Poland and gives the name to the nation.
Prehistory and Antiquity
History of Poland: In Poland, remains of human presence have been preserved during the Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic. The culture of Lusatia represents at the end of the Bronze Age an aspect of the prehistoric cultures between the Elbe and Vistula rivers.
This culture, which remained until the fifth century BC. C., raised the material level of polish lands. Around 300 BC. Celtic tribes arrived, who introduced new techniques, and in the second centuries BC and I BC. Ancient civilizations attributable to the West Slavs prospered.
The Slavic tribes participated in the great emigrations, which caused the depopulation and decline of Poland, in whose southern part Huns (fifth century) and Avars (sixth century) made incursions. History of Poland.
Birth of the Polish State
A History of Poland: Agricultural progress and demographic increase determined its revival between the seventh and ninth centuries. By 875 the Vislans of Krakow were Christianized and subjected to the Great Moravian Empire, and in the tenth century it passed into Bohemian rule. History of Poland.
The birth of the proto-feudal Polish state was the work of the Polans, established around Gniezno, in Greater Poland, and their independence was secured by the first national dynasty, the Piasts. Mieszko I (960-992), the first historical Piast ruler, allied himself with Bolesław I of Bohemia and stimulated the Christianization of the country. Reconciled with Emperor Otto I, he snatched the Bohemians Silesia and Krakow.
His son and successor, Bolesław I (992-1025), made Poland the most powerful state in Eastern Europe and consolidated its rule over Eastern Pomerania. In addition, he promoted the evangelization of Prussia, established the ecclesiastical organization of Poland and conquered Moravia (1003), Lusatia and Milsko. History of Poland.
The Middle Ages
The History of Poland: In the tenth century is crowned by the Pope of Rome the first Polish sovereign, Mieszko I, belonging to the Piast dynasty and who would reign Poland until 1370. Under the Piast dynasty Poland converts to Christianity, the first capital of the Kingdom is established in Gniezno (Poznan) and it is when the territories of Pomerania, Silesia, Lesser Poland (Krakow) are conquered, occupying an extension similar to the territory of present-day Poland. History of Poland.
In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries the Kingdom is exposed to the incursions of the Tatars and the struggles against the Teutonic knights. As a consequence, the Piast dynasty decided to move the capital of the Kingdom to Krakow. The Kings favored the repopulation of the territories that had been depopulated because of the wars favoring the establishment of German settlers and giving shelter to a large number of Jews who at that time were persecuted throughout Europe. History of Poland.
Kazimierz the Great is the monarch with whom the era of splendor of Poland begins. Under his reign the University of Krakow was founded in 1364 and Wawel Castle was rebuilt. History of Poland.
On his death, the Kingdom would be left without a legitimate heir (since Kazimierz had no descendants), so that the Polish aristocratic class decided to unite the Kingdom of Poland to the Duchy of Lithuania giving rise to a Federal State that became known as the Polish-Lithuanian Union (or Republic of the Two Nations) and thus initiating the new dynasty of the Jagiellons. .
The new state would last four centuries and in its time would be the largest territory in Europe spanning from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea and occupying part of Ukraine and Belarus. History of Poland.
This unified Kingdom will fight the Teutons. The Thirteen Years’ War ended with the Battle of Grunwald in which the Teutonic army was defeated and Poland regained for itself the city of Gdansk and the territory of East Prussia after the signing of the Treaty of Torun in 1466. History of Poland.
Unification and divisions (XII-XIV centuries)
His successors witnessed a period characterized by civil strife and wars with neighboring states (Bohemia, Hungary, Kiev) in which conquests and territorial losses alternated. History of Poland.
The rule of the nobility plunged the country into anarchy and disintegration until the advent of Bolesław III (1102-38), who unified Poland, ended German tutelage, annexed Pomerania and, in conflict with the emperor, extended its borders to the Elbe.
Kingdom of Poland (XIV-XVI centuries)
In 1384 the Polish oligarchy brought to power Princess Hedwig (1384-99), who married Jagiellon, Grand Duke of Lithuania, jointly elected by his marriage, King of Poland (1386-1434). This union broke the political and territorial balance in Eastern Europe and gave the Poles enough strength to confront the Teutons. History of Poland.
The Modern Age
Modern History of Poland: From the sixteenth century begins a time of prosperity for Poland. Once the great wars with the neighboring countries are over, the country has a prosperous economy built around a dynamic bourgeoisie. After the Union of Lublin in 1569, Poland and Lithuania now have a single Sovereign with a decision-making power controlled by Parliament.
The Sejm, or Diet (Parliament), was made up of elected members of the aristocratic class from all over Poland. The noble class in Poland enjoyed great privileges compared to the aristocratic classes of other nations. Despite having a King, Poland was called a “Republic” as it was really an aristocratic Republic because the King was elected by all the deputies of the nobility. Both the King and Poland were regarded as the property of the noble class that had great power in this society. History of Poland.
History of Poznan Poland
The Renaissance in Poland has its origin in Krakow under the reign of the Jagiellonian family when King Sigismund I commissioned the construction of a chapel in the Royal Castle to two Italian artists, the building of the town hall of Poznan and the construction of Zamosc was built and it became quite common among the wealthy classes to commission buildings and castles from Italian artists.
The spread of Renaissance ideas also brings openness to new humanist influences such as Copernicus and the ideals of the Protestant Reformation. In the year 1573 the equality of religions is proclaimed so that the territory becomes a refuge for heretics who in those days were persecuted throughout Europe: Roman Catholics and Orthodox have 40% of the practitioners each, being the remaining 20% followers of Judaism, Islam and Protestantism. History of Poland.
Seventeenth century: decline and partition of Poland
Due to lack of heirs, the Jagiellon dynasty would end up becoming extinct, so it is up to the nobles to choose who will be the new monarch. The candidates for the throne tried to win the support of the nobility by granting them more and more privileges and powers that would eventually lead to the weakening of the state, as the nobles looked more to their particular interests than to the interests of the nation.
As used to be common at the time, the fact that the monarch was a foreigner did not pose any kind of problem to access the throne, so in the first half of the XVII Poland will be ruled by a Catholic branch of the Vasa of Sweden. History of Poland.
At this time the plague ravages the country and religious wars follow with the Tatar neighbors, Orthodox (Russians and Ukrainians), the Turks and will end with the great Swedish invasion that devastated the country between 1655 and 1660.
In the eighteenth century and after a long period of decline Poland would come under the rule of the neighboring powers: Prussia, Russia and Austria. In 1772 the first division of the territory of Poland between these three nations takes place. Even so, Poland continues to retain its identity and between the years 1788 and 1792 it is possible to convene the Diet of the four years from which the Constitution of May 3 would come out, promulgated in 1791 and which is the first in Europe of this type and second in the world after that of the United States.
In the year 1792 the second partition of Poland takes place, and in 1795 the third, with which Poland would definitively lose independence for a long period of time. Throughout the nineteenth century there will be uprisings and rebellions against the occupiers with more or less success but the definitive independence will not be achieved until after the First World War. History of Poland.
Twentieth century: Wars, independence and Communism.
At the end of the twentieth century and during World War I, Germany and Austria-Hungary occupied all of what in the past was Polish territory after taking it from Russia.
In 1918 the command of polish territory is transferred by the Germans to Jozef Pilsudski, who would be in charge of forming the new independent nation after more than a century and it will be after the Treaty of Versailles, which ends the First World War, when the sovereignty of the Republic of Poland is recognized internationally.
The agreement defines the new western border of the country and creates a Polish corridor, which was a narrow strip of land that constituted the only outlet to the sea and that years later in World War II would be the pretext that Germany would use to start the war with Poland since it separated its western territory from East Germany (Prussia).
The issue of the delimitation of the eastern borders is another matter. In the years following the end of World War I, the atmosphere in the Eastern European region was somewhat tense and unstable, mainly due to territorial issues. In that region of Europe there were a large number of nationalities and political interests that sought to create their nation, so it was necessary to gain territories and Poland was not going to be less. History of Poland.
After having wars with Ukraine, Lithuania, Russia and Czechoslovakia it will not be until 1921 after the vistoria in the war against Russia and with the signing of the Treaty of Riga when the eastern limits are defined and would end up incorporating for itself the western part of Ukraine, part of Lithuania (including Vilnius) and other territories of the Sudetenland won from the Czecholovaks.
Even with the signing of treaties and pacts between the countries of the region, in the following years the atmosphere in the area was heating up since the solutions taken in previous years did not satisfy everything to some and not all countries had been happy with what had touched them in the marking of the new borders. History of Poland.
Thus, on September 1, 1939, Nazi Germany invaded Poland and, days later, as a result of the alliances signed in the interwar period, France and England declared war on Germany, starting World War II.
Later the Soviet Union enters the conflict and, in theory allied with Poland, invades the country from the East while the Nazis enter from the West. Germans and Soviets divide Poland and, because of the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact, at least during the initial period of the war they will not attack each other. As the war progresses and the issue intensifies, that will be the moment when the pact or anything is no longer worth and that is when the Russians and Nazis show their teeth and begin to give each other firewood based on good.
At the end of the war and after the victory of the Allies, Poland fell under the rule of the Soviet Union. With the new borders Poland lost its Eastern territories (what is now western Ukraine) including the important city of L’wów and Lithuania but instead gained a part of East Prussia, territories and cities such as Wroclaw, Poznan or Sczeczin and got more kilometers of sea gained from Germany.
For more than 30 years Poland will be under the rule of the communist regime imposed and supported by the Soviet Union. Although it was not a communism as extreme as the one in the USSR, all opposition to the regime was eliminated and any protest was put down.
Still, the years of communism will be remembered for the workers’ acts of protest and the role the Church played in supporting the church of those who opposed the regime. It is in the 80s when the revolts intensify to the point that the country came to be in a state of siege and Russia about to enter the country with its tanks. History of Poland.
Democracy and the European Union
The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 would mark the symbolic end of the experience of communism at least in Europe. The Warsaw Pact is dissolved and after a period of economic stabilization and transition to a free market economy Poland begins to enter international institutions such as NATO in 1999 and in 2004 in the European Union and with plans to adopt the Euro in 2012.
Today Poland is a Parliamentary Republic where people like to do basically the same as people from other countries: some give for sports, others like to drink beer, others are dedicated to art, to work, to pay for a flat, others download movies from the internet, etc in short, as everywhere, there is everything and should never be generalized in extreme and less without knowing . History of Poland.
People Culture And Fashion Of Poland
Unlike other Slavic countries, Poland offers quite good living and working conditions, such as high medical coverage rate, well educated, good salaries and high social standards. For this reason, Polish women are quite picky and demanding for employer. They know they’re pretty, and they behave accordingly. She will appreciate that you have a good sense of humor and that you have had some success in your life. Polish women are also very smart.
Polish women’s lifestyle includes their strong traditional values and patience. Even abortion is prohibited by the government and national culture in Poland. Polish women are very polite and undemanding when it comes to first dates. The one thing you rarely find about Polish women is particularly telling: they always dress in style. Translated with
Polish women generally dress modestly, giving preference to practical everyday things. Young people will prefer rather informal youthful clothes of a sporty type, which unfortunately will hide all the advantages of a feminine figure and which are quite popular. We notice that the younger generation does not follow fashion like the older generation. Apparently, Poland in this regard is trying to be like its western neighbors. It is extremely rare to see high-heeled shoes. Modest make-up, impeccable handkerchief (only fabric) and a discreet aroma is the highest class of corporate dress code, which also accompanies Polish workers in offices. Clothing sets are chosen in such a way that you can easily transfer business negotiations from the office to the restaurant.
History of Poland Timeline
|Here is a summary of the history of Poland. It helps you identify the films to which stage of the story they belong.|
|966||The Prince of polans, Mieszko, converts to Christianity. Poland is born.|
|992||After the death of Mieszko I, his son Bolesław (the Brave) continued his father’s policy: he unified the Polish tribes and created a Modern State.|
|1138||Beginning of the division of Poland into small duchies, Bolesław III divided the territory among his sons.|
|1226||The Teutonic Order settles in Poland.|
|1320||Władysław the Dwarf unites the Kingdom.|
|1333||Kingdom of Casimir the Great.|
|1364||The University of Krakow is founded.|
|1385||Poland and Lithuania are united.|
|1386||The Prince of Lithuania, Jagiello, summoned to the throne of Poland adopts the name of Władysław giving rise to the dynasty of Jagellon.|
|1410||The Polish and Lithuanian Armies defeat the Teutonic Knights at the Battle of Grunwald.|
|1413||It is confirmed of the union of Poland and Lithuania.|
|1433||“Promulgation of privilege Neminem Captivabimus Nesi Jure Victum”|
|1444||On the battlefield of Varna perishes Władysław Jagellon, king of Poland and Hungary.|
|1471||The Jagellon dynasty reigns in Hungary.|
|1490||The Jagellon dynasty reigns in Bohemia.|
|1543||Nicolaus Copernicus’ book De Revolutionibus Orbis Celestium (About the Revolutions of the Celestial World) appears, where he maintained the double movement of the planets on itself and around the Sun.|
|1569||The union between Poland and Lithuania is formalized.|
|1572||End of the Jagellon dynasty|
|1573||“The first free choice; confirmed freedom of confession.”|
|1596||An agreement is signed between the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church.|
|1610||The Polish army occupies Moscow.|
|1634||“Peace treaty between Poland and the Moskva empire; the maximum extent of Poland’s eastern border.”|
|1648||Insurrection of the Cossacks in Ukraine.|
|1652||The Liberum veto (Free, I oppose) appears. Expression designating the right of members of the Polish Parliament to oppose their veto.|
|1654||Ukraine surrenders under the protection of Móscova.|
|1655||War with Móscova and Sweden.|
|1657||Poland renounces its right to the fief of the Duchy of Prussia.|
|1683||Victory of Vienna.|
|1772||First cast of Poland.|
|1791||Promulgation of the Constitution of May 3, the first in Europe. Stanilaw August Poniatowski stables the Order of Virtuti Militari, the highest Polish decoration.|
|1793||Second cast of Poland.|
|1794||Insurrection led by Tadeusz Kosciuszko against Russia and Prussia.|
|1795||Third cast of Poland.|
|1797||The Polish Legions are formed in the service of France.|
|1807||Emperor Napoleon forms the Duchy of Warsaw.|
|1815||The Congress of Vienna proceeds to a new division of Poland by constituting the Polish Kingdom ruled by the king who is Tsar Alexander I.|
|1830||“Insurrection in the Polish Kingdom; the war against Russia ends in the defeat of the insurgents and the liquidation of the autonomy of the Kingdom. ” Rex regant sed non at (The king reigns, but does not rule). Words of Jan Zamoyski in a speech delivered at the Diet (Parliament) of Poland, reproaching King Sigismund III. Thiers, in the program of the National Party.|
|1831||September 16: L ordre regne a Varsovie (Order and Peace reign in Warsaw). Words of the French Foreign Minister when questioned about the situation in Poland. Warsaw had capitulated after 2 days of bloody fighting.|
|1846||Liquidation of the autonomy of the city of Krakow established by the Congress of Vienna.|
|1848||“Polish insurrection in the Prussian area; liquidation of the Duchy of Posnapia established by the Congress of Vienna.”|
|1861||The Austrian area called Galicia obtains autonomy.|
|1863||January insurrection in the Russian zone.|
|1864||End of the process of granting the right of land ownership to peasants on Polish lands.|
|1892||The Polish Socialist Party is formed.|
|1897||The National Democratic Party is constituted.|
|1905||Revolution in the Russian zone.|
|1914||Formation of the Legions of Józef Pilsudski.|
|1918||The Polish state is formed. Marshal Josef Klemens Pilsudski is elected president.|
|1919||War between Poland and the Soviet Union.|
|1920||August 16: Miracle on the Vistula. Polish troops under Marshal Pilsudski in numerical inferiority defeat the Red Army between the Vistula and Bug rivers.|
|1921||October 12: The Peace of Riga is signed that ends the war between Poland and the Soviet Union. “Adoption of the Constitution; Peace Treaty with the Soviet Union.”|
|1926||August 12 – Marshal Pilsudski assumes power in a coup d’état. Professor Ignacy Moscicki is elected President of Poland.|
|1932||A non-aggression pact is signed with Germany.|
|1933||Ignacy Moscicki is re-elected president and held that position until the beginning of World War II.|
|1934||A Non-Aggression Pact is signed with the Soviet Union.|
|1939||At 4.45 a.m. on Friday, September 1, the guns of the German battleship Schleswig-Holstein open fire on the Polish site of Westerplatte, World War II begins.
On Sunday, September 18 The Soviet Union attacks Poland.
On Wednesday 27 Warsaw capitulates.
On Thursday 28 the Fortress of Modlin surrenders.
On October 6, Fort Koch, the last bastion of Polish resistance, capitulates.
|1940||The Clandestine National Representation of the Government of Poland is constituted.
Thousands of Polish Officers are killed in the Katyn Woods.
April: The Podhale Independent Shooters Brigade of Free Poland wrestling in Narvik and Ankenes.
April 30 – Major Henryk Dobrazanski dies, the legendary “Hubal”, the first partisan commander of World War II.
May 28: Polish airmen fight in the Battle of Britain, with the 303rd Squadron achieving the greatest fame in that confrontation. May 1940
The Forces of Free Poland defend Tobruk.
July 30: The Sikorski – Majski pact is signed which establishes cooperation between the Government of the Polish Republic in exile and the Soviet Union, in addition to the creation of the Polish Army in the territories of the latter.
August: Thousands of Poles are released from the Soviet Union to fight against the Germans.
The second Polish Army Corps is created in Iran.
|1941/42||Campaign in Africa|
|1943||General Sikorski dies in a mysterious plane crash.
The Forces of Free Poland fight alongside the English Eighth Army at El Alamein.
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising.
|1944||Campaign in Italy.
May 18: The Polish flag flies over the ruins of the Monastery of Monte Cassino, strategic point of defense of the Gustav Line of the Germans in Italy.
August 1st at 5 p.m. the Warsaw Insurrection begins.
October 2 Capitula warsaw, more than 200,000 people die, as a lesson Hitler orders to dynamite and burn what remains of the city.
August 22: The 1st Armoured Division of the Free Poland Forces of General Stanislaw Maczek participates in the Battle of Falaise, in Normandy.
|1945||“Yalta Conference; constitution of the Provisional Government of National Unity in Warsaw, the withdrawal of recognition of the Polish Government in London by the Western Allies. Poland becomes a satellite country of the Soviet Union.”|
|1948||Constitution of the POUP. History of Poland.|
|1952||Promulgation of the Constitution of the People’s Republic of Poland.|
|1956||“The “Polish October”; the return to power of Wladyslaw Gomulka; release of Cardinal Stefan Wyszynski, imprisoned since 1953.”|
|1970||“Bloody pacification of the strikes of the coastal workers; Edward Gierek at the head of the POUP.”|
|1976||After the workers’ strikes, the Workers’ Defence Committee (KOR) was formed.|
|1978||Karol Wojtyla is elected pope. History of Poland.|
|1979||Pope John Paul II travels to Poland for the first time.|
|1980||Solidarity is born, an independent union headed by electrician Lech Walesa.|
|1981||“General Wojciech Jaruzelski leads a coup d’état on December 13; Solidarity goes underground.”|
|1983||Lech Walesa receives the Nobel Peace Prize. History of Poland.|
|1989||“Round Table Negotiations; In parliamentary elections, Tadeusz Mazowiecki is elected Prime Minister (non-communist).|
|1990||“Lech Walesa is elected President of Poland, initiating the economic reform of Leszek Balcerowicz;”|
|1993||In the parliamentary elections, the Alliance of the Democratic Left triumphs.|
|1995||Aleksander Kwasniewski is elected President of Poland.|
|1999||Poland joins NATO. History of Poland.|
|2000||Aleksander Kwasniewski is re-elected President of Poland. History of Poland.|
|2004||Poland becomes a member of the European Economic Community.|
|2005||On April 2, after a long illness, John Paul II died.
Lech Kaczynski, until then the president of Warsaw, defeats the liberal candidate, Donald Tusk, and wins the presidential election.
|2010||Polish President Lech Kaczynski dies in a plane crash. The 97 people who were traveling on the plane, among which were dozens of senior officials of the country, died.
Bronislaw Komorowski is the new President of the Republic of Poland.
|2014||Donald Tusk assumes the presidency of the European Council.|
|2015||Bronislaw Komorowski loses in the presidential election to Andrzej Duda, who takes over as Poland’s new president. History of Poland.|
|2020||A major global crisis caused by the coronavirus pandemic begins. The first COVID-19 infection in Poland appeared on March 4. In July of the same year President Andrzej Duda in the Polish presidential election was elected to his second term.|
Read Also History of Lithuania
References 1. Poland (europa.eu)
- Poland: all about a country full of stories to tell (eurodicas.com.br)
- History of Poland – Timeline (cinepolaco.com)
- Origin and History of Poland | CurioSfera-Historia.com
- History of Poland (holapolonia.com)
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