The History Of Palestine Israel Conflict 1949

The History Of Palestine Timeline

A History of Palestine: The word Palestine comes from Philistine. It originally referred to a coastal region around Gaza, occupied by Philistine invaders from beyond the seas. In ancient times, the coast and its hinterland had many other names. In common usage, the oldest is “land of Canaan” (Canaan refers to a people). The Jews called the region Eretz Israel, the land of Israel, which was divided after king Solomon’s death between the kingdoms of Israel in the north and Judah in the south.

The land that is generically called Palestine, and that corresponds more or less to the current Israel and Western Jordan, bordered to the north by Lebanon and to the south by the Sinai triangle, has been the object of conquest by many peoples throughout the known history. The first information we have is attributable to the Bible, although very few of the same have so far been reflected in archaeological research. History of Palestine.

The History Of Palestine Timeline
The History Of Palestine Timeline

The name Palestine appears for the first time in Greco-Latin literature, in Herodotus. Subsequently, it is the expression Palestinian Syria that is most often used to designate the coastal plain once inhabited by the Philistines, excluding, in general, Judea, that is, from the interior, the land of Judah. The Romans officially spoke of Judea. History of Palestine.

History On Palestine

  1. Total Area of Palestine: 6,020 km2 (2,320 sq mi)
  2. Capital Of Palestine Ramallah
  3. Currency of Palestine Palestine pound Currencies used in Palestine include the Jordanian Dinar and the US Dollar, but the most popular is the New Israeli Shekel (NIS).
  4. Language of Palestine Arabic
Religion Percentage in Palestine

History of Religions in Palestine:

Muslim 80–85% (predominantly Sunni)
Jewish 12–14%
Christian 1.0–2.5%, (mainly Greek Orthodox)
Other religious minorities include

When Palestine Was Created

Populated by ancient times, Palestine was and still is a sacred land for Jews, Christians and Muslims. Currently it is one of the most unstable regions of the planet, due to the serious tensions aroused, since 1948, by the birth of the State of Israel, which has deeply shaken the balance of the area giving rise to a still unresolved ‘Palestinian question’. History of Palestine.

From The Origins To The Ottoman Conquest

Home to thriving trading cities in the 3rd millennium BC.C., Palestine was subjugated by the Egyptians between the 15th and 13th centuries a.C. In the 13th century BC.C., when the Jews arrived, Palestine was dominated by the Philistines (a population that came by sea, perhaps from Crete, that same century). History of Palestine.

In the 10th century BC.C. the first independent Jewish state arose in the region, which then split into the two kingdoms of Israel and Judah. Beginning in the 8th century BC.C. Palestine fell under the control of the Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Greeks and Romans. The place of origin of Christianity, it became part of the Byzantine Empire in the 5th century.

It was then conquered by the Arabs around the middle of the 7th century and Islamized. Theater of the Crusades between the 11th and 13th centuries, in the sixteenth century it was absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, under whose rule it remained until the beginning of the twentieth century.

ARAB RESENTMENT

Palestine at Arab time: Between 1920 and 1930, during the British Mandate, tens of thousands of Jews emigrated to Palestine. The authorities surveyed, in 1922, 11% of the Jewish population out of a total of 750,000 inhabitants, and at the first ferments of war, in ’37, there were about 300,000 Jews who had already settled in Palestine. History of Palestine.

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Various episodes of violence were already recorded in those years, such as the clashes of August of ’29, which saw over hundred deaths on each side. The Palestinian ones almost all at the hands of the British police.

In 1936 there was even a general strike of the Palestinians, protesting the continuous terrorist actions [the term is used correctly] by armed Zionist groups, such as Irgun Zvai Leumi, who acted with the declared purpose of “liberating Palestine and Transjordan” (present-day Jordan) by force. History of Palestine.

History Of Palestine And Israel

Jewish immigration and the birth of the State of Israel: In the last two decades of the nineteenth century Palestine became the destination of thousands of Jews fleeing Eastern Europe because of racial persecution. These waves of migration became more intense in the twentieth century also due to the impulse of the Zionist movement, which intended to create in Palestine, the “Promised Land” of the Jews, a new Jewish state.

History of Palestine and Israel: During the First World War, Palestine fell into the orbit of Great Britain, which undertook, albeit in a contradictory way, to transform the region into a Jewish “national home”. Entrusted to Great Britain by the League of Nations in 1922, between the wars it saw an increase in Jewish immigration and clashes between Jewish settlers and Arabs. The extermination of the Jews during the Second World War by the Nazis gave a definitive acceleration to this process which, after several attempts at mediation, finally resulted in the proclamation of the State of Israel in 1948.

THE UNITED NATIONS AND PALESTINE

By the end of the war the situation had reached its limit, with Arabs against Jews, British against Arabs, Jews against English, but also Jews against Jews, with the same Yashuv leaders who feared for a moment a real civil war. England was thus forced to put the delicate issue back in the hands of the United Nations, which had recently been born from the ashes of the same League of Nations that had assigned it the mandate twenty-five years earlier.

Meanwhile, the clashes between Palestinians and Jews became increasingly serious, as new waves of Holocaust survivors of Jews converged in Palestine, as well as those who had responded to Zionism’s call from anywhere else in the world.

A UN Special Committee returned to propose a division of land, which provided for the simultaneous creation of the State of Israel. The plan (in the map below), which allocated 57% of the land to the Jews and 43% to the Arabs, with Jerusalem under international control, was accepted by the former, but rejected by the latter. It should be noted that the Palestinians were not directly part of the United Nations, and therefore had to be represented by delegates from neighboring Arab countries (orange). History of Palestine.

THE OFFICIAL PARTITION PLAN

On November 29, 1947, the plan was submitted to the vote of the General Assembly, which issued the historic resolution 181, with 33 countries in favor, 13 against, and 10 abstentions. History of Palestine.

England announced its intention to return the mandate on May 15, 1948. But the turmoil provoked by the UN decision exploded long before that date, plunging the region into a state of chaos, and putting the British in serious difficulty: on the one hand, in the attempt to force the uprising, the number of dead among their soldiers continued to rise, on the other hand the pressure from the United States to allow immigration to an even greater number of Jews was becoming increasingly strong. Now in stark contrast to England, the role of supporter of the Zionist cause seemed to have decisively passed to the US.

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The first systematic “cleansing” operations – as they called themselves – were tapped up by the Zionists against the Palestinians in December 1947.

The Birth of Jewish Israel Country

The history of Palestine and Israel: The birth of the Jewish state radically changed the balance of Palestine and the Middle East, inaugurating a period of acute conflict between Israel, the Arab states and the Palestinians. It is in this framework that the Arab-Israeli wars of 1948-49, 1956, 1967 and 1973 took place. History of Palestine.

How long has Palestine been a country? At the same time, deprived of the prospect of having their own state, the Palestinians found themselves in a dramatic condition: on the one hand, in the neighboring Arab states, where they fled after the 1948-49 war, massing in huge and unlivable refugee camps; on the other hand, in the territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, which the Israelis occupied after the 1967 war. History of Palestine.

history of Palestine and Israeli conflict
history of Palestine and Israeli conflict

When Palestine was founded? In this context, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was founded in 1964, of which Yasser Arafat became leader. With the aim of creating an Arab state in Palestine, the PLO first supported the armed struggle and terrorism against Israel; he therefore supported in the second half of the eighties the intifada (the revolt) of young Palestinians in the occupied territories; and finally tried to resolve the Palestinian question by diplomatic means, provoking the reaction of the most radical groups, primarily Hamas. Hence the historic agreement of 1993 under which the PLO and the State of Israel recognized each other.

History of Palestine map
History of Palestine map

At the same time, a Palestinian National Authority (PA) with self-governing powers in the occupied territories was established. A second intifada broke out in late September 2000, quickly turning into a generalized uprising against the Israeli occupation and for the independence of Palestine. Since then, and to this day, the Palestinian question has remained unresolved, however, between violence, terrorism and military repression on the one hand and prospects for peace on the other. In the summer of 2005, israelis abandoned settlements in the Gaza Strip. A few months later, in early 2006, Hamas won the elections in Palestine. History of Palestine.

YOM KIPPUR War
WAR Six years later, in 1973, Egypt and Syria set out to recon quire the lost territories, in what was called the “Yom Kippur War”. Initially the Arabs prevailed, but the Israeli reaction, thanks also to a considerable injection of armaments by the United States, led the armies of Tel Aviv to conquer even more territory than they already had in Syria, in addition to the western bank of the Suez Canal.

At that point the UN intervened and imposed, with the equally well-known resolution 338, the suspension of the fighting and the obligation for the parties to seek an agreement for a lasting peace. In the meantime, Saudi Arabia had taken the field, which had brought the West to its knees by unleashing the oil crisis of 1973, thanks to a sales criterion that openly discriminated – with more or less favorable prices – between “enemies” and “friends” of Israel. It is safe to assume that this move contributed greatly to the decision of the United States to vigorously support Resolution 338.

THE PACT WITH WASHINGTON
The Pact with Washington in History of Palestine: For years now, oil had focused the attention of the big players on the Middle East, and there had been several incidents – such as that of 1969 in which Israel “accidentally” shot down four Russian fighters – which had given a glimpse of the possibility of a direct confrontation between Russia and America. It was, after all, in the middle of the Cold War. History of Palestine.

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The sides, which had been emerging over time, saw at that point Russia openly aligned with the Arab countries, the United States as well with Israel, while France and England were in a less credible position of “neutrality”. It was at this time that Israel obtained from the United States the tacit guarantee of protection against the obligation to implement the 242. Thus began the increasingly systematic use of the right of veto that the United States still exercises today, in the Security Council, against any motion that clearly goes to the detriment of the friendly state.

With the enormous interests on oil as a needle in the balance, the tendency was also born, among the European states, to take increasingly ambiguous positions, and certainly not useful for the stabilization of the region. Those who got in the way, once again, were the Palestinian people, once again excluded from struggles and interests decidedly greater than themselves.

Meanwhile, Arafat’s long battle with Israel culminated in 1972 with the killing of 11 Israeli athletes at the Munich Olympics. Rightly or wrongly, Arafat had managed to bring the Palestinian problem to the world’s attention. History of Palestine.

LEBANON AND PALESTINE
In 1982, guerrilla actions against Israelis started mainly from neighboring Lebanon, which already hosted thousands of Palestinian refugees, as well as Arafat’s own PLO, based in Beirut.

Following a failed attempt on the life of the Israeli prime minister in London, the Tel Aviv army invaded Lebanon, with the declared intention of wiping out the Palestinian guerrillas. It was led by the newly promoted General Ariel Sharon, who, however, was not content to eliminate most of the guerrilla bases in the South, but continued his march to the capital, where he also imposed the immediate expulsion of the PLO from the country. History of Palestine.

SABRA AND CHATILA

While Arafat took refuge with his family in Tunisia, the refugee camps remained at the complete mercy of the Israelis and the Lebanese Christian Phalanx, their ally. Between September 11 and 16, 1982, the Phalangists exterminated the entire population of the Sabra and Chatila camps, after the Israeli army surrounded them to close any possible escape route.

It was a real slaughter, and the scandal that followed, in Israel itself, led to an investigation that ended with Sharon’s resignation from the top of the army.

FIRST INTIFADA

The so-called “first intifada” had exploded, involving the entire Palestinian population from the occupied territories of Gaza to those of the West Bank (West Bank), and which would last until 1993. From Tunis, whether he really tried or not, Arafat could do little to control his people in revolt.

And when the PLO finally proposed a truce, with a return to negotiations based on the implementation of 242 (1967 borders) and 338 (1973 borders), it received a disdainful rejection from Israel, announcing that it was “not willing to deal with terrorist organizations.” Thus began that slow process of delegitimization of Arafat from the leadership of his people, which would end only in 2002, with the final humiliation, imposed on him by Sharon, of the imprisonment of Ramallah. History of Palestine.

history of Palestine Flag
History of Palestine Flag

References 

https://www.treccani.it/

https://www.lhistoire.fr/histoire-dun-mot-palestine

https://luogocomune.net/22-storia-e-cultura/4235-storia-della-palestina

https://www.lhistoire.fr/histoire-dun-mot-palestinehttp://www.objectivite.org/histoire-palestine

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