History of Pakistan Timeline After 1947

What Is The History of Pakistan Timeline?

What is The history of Pakistan in short , as it is one of the youngest countries in existence. It was created on August 14, 1947 when India gained independence. Even so, its territory is home to the oldest Paleolithic hominid archaeological site. Despite not being a century old, this nation has experienced many conflicts, civil wars and coups. Before 1947 it is part of India.

History Of Pakistan
History Of Pakistan

About History Of Pakistan

About History of Pakistan: Pakistan is situated between Iran to the west, Afghanistan to the northwest, India to the northwest and east, and bathes in the waters of the Arabian Sea to the south. When judging the brief history of Pakistan, it is inevitable to refer to its troubled origins , the dismemberment of a part of ancient India to accommodate Muslim populations.

It must be admitted that the current Pakistanis do not feel any attachment to the old homeland, but to their religion, and as a result of this, serious confrontations have taken place between the two countries under the pretext of establishing hegemony in border territories.

The conflicts between Pakistan and India present a component that is cruelly paradoxical and, at the same time, disturbing. For it is the case that two overpopulated and underdeveloped states are nuclear powers.

With more than 225 million inhabitants, Pakistan is one of the most radical countries from the religious point of view, experiencing an absolute political abnormality for decades. This was demonstrated in 1999 with the military coup that abolished all constitutional privileges.

About History Of Pakistan

Pakistan emerged as a national entity in the first half of the 20th century . Its historical development is part of the history of India . However, the area of ​​today’s Pakistan, especially western Pakistan, has always had a strong personality.

One of the oldest known civilizations developed here , and it was a transit area for all the invaders from India who entered through the mountainous passes from the northwest (Aryans, Persians, Greeks, Parthians, Huns, etc.).

Being the territory with the least indigenous population and the most open to non-Hindu cultures, it was also the one that most completely accepted the Islam imported by successive Muslim invaders (Arabs, Turks, Afghans, Mongols).

After Britain ‘s conquest of India , British policy deepened the differences between the Muslim and Hindu communities. The foundation of the Aligarh Muslim University (1877) created a center for cultural and religious revival and served for the training of future Muslim leaders. History of Pakistan.

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The Muslim minority (a quarter of the total population), who did not feel represented by the Congress Party, founded the Muslim League in 1906 , whose main leader was the lawyer Mohammed Ali Jinnah .

In 1916 the League signed a pact of unity of action against the British with the Congress Party, jointly calling for autonomy for India, but did not support Gandhi’s campaigns of non-violence. History of Pakistan.

Pakistan Independence

After the 1937 elections, the League failed to be represented in the governments formed by the Congress Party and in 1940 it decided to officially request the constitution of an independent Pakistan , separated from India.

On August 14, 1947, the Indian Independence Act came into force , creating two independent domains, India and Pakistan. The determination of their respective borders produced bloody conflicts and massive population displacements.

About 7 million Muslims moved from India to Pakistan , and about 10 million Hindus from Pakistan to India. In the states of Haiderabad, Kashmir and Jammu, the diversity of religion between the princes and the majority of the population caused tensions.

India militarily occupied these territories, but Pakistan did not accept it and hostilities broke out. The first Governor General of the new State was Jinnah . Upon his death (1948), Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan became a leading figure in the Government.

The country had to face the problems of colonial underdevelopment, the dismemberment of the previous economic units and the imbalances between the incomes of the eastern and western regions. But it did not take any steps to plan its economic development.

Colonial structures and economic dependence on the West were preserved, especially with respect to the US After the assassination of Liaqat Ali Khan (1951) there were continuous clashes between the main authorities of the country.

In 1958, the commander-in-chief of the army, M. Ayub Khan , took power, whom a subsequent plebiscite ratified as president of the Republic. Ayub Khan pursued a tough policy and implemented some moderate reforms.

Re-elected president (1965), he promulgated a new presidential constitution and authorized the operation of political parties. On foreign issues, he maintained a position closer to neutralism, and strengthened relations with socialist countries (non-aggression agreement with China in 1962 ). History of Pakistan china relations.

In 1965, a war conflict with India arose, motivated by the Kashmir problem, resolved by the Tashkent agreement (January 1966) between the two countries, mediated by the Soviet Union . Ayub Khan was forced to resign in 1969 in favor of General Yahya Khan , who established an iron dictatorship , suppressed political parties and introduced martial law. History of Pakistan.

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Bangladeshi Secession

The crisis of his regime worsened after the catastrophic cyclone of November 1970 , which caused more than a million deaths in East Pakistan. Forced to call elections (December 1970), the opposition parties (Pakistan People’s Party, PPP, and Awami League) triumphed resoundingly. History of Pakistan.

The delay in the transfer of powers caused a civil war in 1971 . India was mixed up in the conflict, whose troops defeated those of Pakistan in the eastern province, and the latter declared itself independent, under the name of Bangladesh .

The Pakistani defeat meant the fall of Yahya Khan (1971) and the rise to power of Ali Bhutto . Victorious in the 1970 elections, he carried out a reformist offensive (abolition of social privileges, reorganization of the army, economic nationalizations) and began negotiations with the more moderate elements in Bangladesh.

In international affairs, Bhutto oriented her country’s policy towards neutralist positions and sought to improve relations with India. The 1977 elections gave Bhutto victory, but the opposition declared them fraudulent.

This unleashed a campaign of agitation that led to his overthrow and subsequent execution by a military coup led by General Muhammad Zia Ul-Haq , who suspended the Constitution, instituted martial law throughout the country (July 5, 1977) and assumed the presidency of the Republic. History of Pakistan.

Map of Pakistan
Map of Pakistan

Islamic Republic

History of Pakistan Timeline, In 1979, the government of Muhammad Zia Ul-Haq imposed the Koran as the “supreme law of the land” , and Zia formed a military government that prohibited all political activity. On the other hand, relations with Afghanistan became tense due to the use of Pakistani territory as a base for Afghan guerrillas.

After a referendum (1984), Islamization was radicalized and Zia assumed full powers, but his death in a plane crash (August 17, 1988) marked the political opening, after the Supreme Court revoked the dissolution of Parliament and the prohibition of matches.

Instability and corruption characterized the Pakistani political situation , and short Governments that were presided over by the leaders of the main organizations alternated:

  1. Benazir Bhutto (1988-90 and 1993-96) of the progressive Pakistan People’s Party (PPP), who was accused of mismanagement and corruption
  2. Nawaz Sharif (1990-93 and 1997-99) of the Muslim League (PML), whose government supported the Taliban in their march to power in Afghanistan (1996-97).
  3. Ishag Khan (1988-93), Faruq Leghani (1993-97) and Rafiq Tarar (1997-99) also succeeded each other in the presidency.
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In 1994-95 there was tension between India and Pakistan over Kashmir. Military clashes began in 1996, and in 1998 Pakistan conducted five underground nuclear tests in response to those carried out days earlier by India, prompting international condemnation.

In October 1999, General Pervez Musharraf led a military coup . He dismissed the government headed by Nawaz Sharif and announced the establishment of a civil-military junta and détente with India.

Musharraf declared himself president in June 2001. In retaliation for the coup, the Commonwealth suspended Pakistan as a member of the organization . On the other hand, the Pakistani government’s support for the US military intervention against Afghanistan (October 2001) provoked serious protests among the population and massive demonstrations.

About history of Pakistan
About history of Pakistan

In April 2002, Musharraf organized a referendum to amend the constitution and secure a five-year extension to his term. The reform was supported by 97.5% of voters, although the referendum was described as fraud by the opposition. History of Pakistan.

Pakistan And Terrorists Relationship

Why Pakistan is Terrorist country? Many countries that are alleging that Pakistan produces terrorists. e.g. Saudi Arabia, UAE, UNITED STATES, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Israel, Germany, France, Australia, Afghanistan and etc.

History Of The Flag Of Pakistan

Currently this mountainous country proudly flies a flag with Islamic symbols:

  • The crescent evokes progress.
  • The star symbolizes light and knowledge.
  • Green represents prosperity and the religious majority, a faithful follower of Islam.
  • The narrow white stripe, a symbol of peace, represents religious minorities (Hindu, Christian, Buddhist). A peace that continues to be longed for, since coups and religious and ethnic conflicts continue to be the order of the day.

Starting in 1906, the Muslim community in India organized itself and adopted its colors. This “Muslim League” claimed the existence of two different nations: one Muslim and the other Hindu. This claim was made in 1947, at the time of the division.

A beautiful crescent and a star for this country, the result of the division of India, on August 14, 1947. Its name comes from the provinces that Muhammad Iqbal wanted to see become independent from India: Punjab, Afghanistan, Kashmir, Sind and Baluchistan .

History of Pakistan flag
History of Pakistan flag

A state in South Asia, Pakistan was made up of two regions until 1971: West Pakistan, to the west, and East Pakistan, to the east; the latter, after a process of secession, became Bangladesh. History of Pakistan.

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References

https://curiosfera-historia.com/historia-de-pakistan/

Washingtonpost.com

https://www.nytimes.com

https://www.arabnews.com/