What Is The History Of Oman Timeline?
The History of Oman: Several millennia ago, tribes of Arab origin migrated eastward to Oman, coinciding with the arrival of several peoples of Iranian origin. In the sixth century the Arabs managed to repel the Iranians; the conversion of Arab tribes to Islam in the seventh century led to the displacement of Iranian settlers. The introduction of Ibadism concentrated power on the figure of the imam, a leader appointed by the ulema. The position of imam ibadi was confirmed by the alliance with the local sheikhs through the bay’ah (oath of alliance) of the community.
History On Oman
Prehistory Of Oman
Prehistory of Oman: In ancient Sumerian texts written around 2300 BC. C. is spoken of a region called Magan, as a territory rich in copper and diorite that reached Mesopotamia. Most archaeological and geological evidence suggests that Magan was part of the present-day territory of Oman. However, its location is not certain and some archaeologists place it somewhere south of Lower Egypt, in Nubia or Sudan and others as part of the current territories of Iran or Pakistan.
As Anshan is currently Tall-i Maylan in Fars (Iran), Magan was to be located on the other side of the Persian Gulf, that is, in Oman. Oman was a source of copper during this time. There is archaeological evidence (mines, smelters, etc.) that confirms this. Other texts mention copper brought from Magan. The two black stone statues of Manishtusu are of an abundant stone in Oman. Two other statues and an obelisk of Manishtusu are of diorite, which is also apopulating in Oman. The wood known as “Mesh-Magan” is from Dalbergia sissoo, a tree also present in Oman. 
The village of A’ad occupied part of what is now eastern Yemen and western Oman, in a geographical expanse that runs from the Arabian Sea through the mountains of Dhofar to the outskirts of Rub al-Jali (Rub’ al Khali), its capital was called Wabar or Ubar or Iram (Erum) of the pillars by such buildings.
Early History Of Oman
Early History of Oman: Between the sixth – fourth centuries BC. C. the Achaemenids, a dynasty of Iranian origin controlled or indirectly influenced the territory of the present-day Omani peninsula. The main political center was the coastal settlement of Sohar.
From the third century BC. C. at the arrival of Islam in the seventh century AD. The territory of Oman was controlled by two other peoples of Iranian origin, the Parthians and the Sassanids. During this period the administrative name of Oman was Mazun. Around 250 BC. The Parthian rulers took control of the Persian Gulf and extended their influence into Oman as they needed to control the area’s trade routes, so they established several fortresses in the territory. In the third century B.C. the Sassanids succeeded the Parthians in the domain of the area until the advent of Islam four centuries later.
The Sassanid government extended over the inhabitants of the area the Persian culture, as well as various irrigation techniques that are still used in Oman today.
Formation of the Government of Oman: Muscat and Oman
Oman adopted Islam in the seventh century AD. C., already during the life of the Prophet Muhammad. In 751, with the fall of the Umayyad Caliphate, the Ibadi Muslims, a moderate branch of the Kharijites, established an imanate in Oman. Ibadism had become the dominant religious sect by the eighth century AD. Currently Oman is the only country in the Muslim world with a majority Ibadi population. Ibadism is known for its “moderate conservatism.” A distinctive feature of this Muslim faction is the election of its ruler through consensus and communal consent.
Until 1970 the political title of the nation’s rulers was Sultan of Muscat and Oman, implying an authority over two irreconcilable political cultures: the coastal tradition of Muscat, more cosmopolitan and secular and ruled by the sultan and the interior tradition, of tribal and conservative origin and governed by an imam chosen according to the ideological principles of Ibadism.
Since the rise of the Al Said dynasty in 1744, Muscat’s culture has been politically dominant, although the Ibadi imam tradition has experienced intermittent boom periods, disappearing in some periods, although it survived until the mid-twentieth century. Oman’s politics have often revolved around the clash of sultan and imam, although some dynasties have managed to control both positions.
However, despite the formation of these two local powers, over time the territory was conquered by various foreign powers, who often used the clashes between imam and sultan according to their interests.
Middle and Modern Ages
Between the years 931-932 and 933-934 the sect of the Qarmatians seized Oman on two occasions. Between 972-1050 the territory was part of the domain of the Buyi dynasty. Between 1053-1154 Oman became part of the Empire of the Siljuk Turks.
Finally, in the year 1154 came to power the Nabhani dynasty, of local origin, which took control and ruled the country until 1470, except for a period between 1406-1433.
On April 1, 1515 the Portuguese conquered the city of Muscat, to control the local trade routes, and retained their conquest until January 26, 1650, although the Ottoman Turks managed to conquer it between 1550-1551 and 1581-1588.
On the other hand, around the year 1600 the government of the Nabhani dynasty was temporarily restored, which remained until 1624, when the Nabhani rulers were replaced by the Yarubid imanate.
The History Of Empires In Oman
The Yarubid Imamate managed to recover Muscat from the Portuguese in 1650, expelling their presence from the area. The Y arabian dynasty extended its conquests, seizing the Portuguese colonies in East Africa and introducing its influence into the slave trade. In 1719 he was appointed to the succession of Imam Saif ibn Sultan II, but his candidacy sparked rivalries between the ulema in charge of his election and war broke out between the two main tribes, the Hinwi and the Ghafiri, who supported Saif.
Saif ibn Sultan II finally assumed power in 1748 after the two tribal leaders had been killed in battle, but tribal rivalry continued, and the factionalization of the country favored the Iranians who had already occupied Muscat and Sohar in 1743.
The Al Said Dynasty
The Iranians had already occupied the Omani coast on several occasions, like other foreign powers. The Iranian occupation provided order to the religious and ethnic diversity of the area, although intervention in favor of an unpopular dynasty produced a revolt, led by Imam Ahmad ibn Said al Said, who was elected Sultan of Muscat in 1744 after the expulsion of the Persians. The position of Sultan of Muscat would remain in the hands of the clan of Al-Said even when they lost control of the immanate of Oman.
The Al Said clan became a royal dynasty. Like all his predecessors, Al Said’s dynastic rule was characterized by successive family conflicts, fraticides and usurpations. Apart from the intestinal conflicts of the royal family, there was the constant threat of the independent tribes of the interior of the country, which rejected the authority of the sultan and only recognized the imam abadi as the only legitimate authority, resorting to arms for the restoration of the imamate.
Schisms within the ruling dynasty began as early as the death of Ahmad ibn Said in 1783 and subsequently manifested themselves in the division of the family into two lineages. The lineage of Sultan ibn Ahmad Al Said (1792-1806) who controlled the coast and had nominal control over the rest of the country; and the Qais lineage, with authority over the regions of Al Batinah and Ar Rustaq.
During the rule of Sultan Said ibn Sultan Al Said (1806-1856), Oman developed its colonies in East Africa, benefiting from the slave trade, becoming a great power in the area during the nineteenth century thanks to the control of the island of Zanzibar off the African coast and the important port of Mombasa, as well as Gwadar in present-day Pakistan, which allowed them to control important trade routes. However, when the British declared slavery illegal in the mid-nineteenth century, the prosperity of the Sultanate of Oman was reduced. The country’s economy, based on the slave trade, collapsed, and many Omani families migrated to Zanzibar. Muscat’s population declined from 55,000 to 8,000 between the 1850s and 1870s.
When Sultan Sa’id bin Sultan Al-Busaid died in 1856 his sons fought for his succession. As a result of this struggle the Omani empire was divided through British mediation in 1861 into two separate principalities: Zanzibar, with its African settlements and Muscat and Oman.
the sultan’s descendants ruled Oman (Thuwaini ibn Said Al Said (1856–1866)) and Zanzibar (Majid ibn Said Al Said (1856–1879)); the branch of the Qais intermittently allied with the country’s ulema to restore the immanate. In 1868 Azzam ibn Qais Al Said proclaimed himself imam and although numerous tribes of the Hinawi clan recognized him, he was never elected following tradition nor was he acclaimed as an imam.
Imam Azzam understood that in order to unify the country it was necessary for an authority to unify the tribes of the interior of Oman. His rule was interrupted in 1871 by the British who interpreted his policy of unifying the Omani tribes as a threat to the established order. To unify Oman Azzam resorted to force which provoked the revolt of the tribes of the Ghaziri clan. The British financially and politically supported Turki ibn Said Al Said, Azzam’s rival. Turki managed to defeat Azzam, who was killed in battle on the outskirts of Matrah in January 1871.
British Influence in Oman History Timeline
To increase their influence and secure control of the Indian Ocean trade routes, the British seized the African colonies of Oman, increasing their economic impoverishment.
The French and British had already begun to rival to introduce their influence into Oman as early as the eighteenth century. During the nineteenth century Oman and the United Kingdom signed several treaties of friendship and trade. In 1908 the British renewed the friendship agreements, and this partnership was confirmed in 1951 with a new treaty, in which the United Kingdom recognized Oman as a completely independent state.
Oman In The Twentieth Century
In the late nineteenth century the Sultan of Muscat faced the rebellion of the Ibadi sect in the interior of Oman, centered around the city of Nizwa, whose followers wanted to be ruled exclusively by the Imam of Oman. This conflict was temporarily resolved by the Treaty of Seeb, which provided the imam with an autonomous government within Oman, but which recognized the sultan’s nominal sovereignty throughout the country.
The conflict began again in 1954 when Oman’s new imam led a five-year rebellion against the country’s sultan’s project to extend government control in the interior. The insurgents were defeated in 1959 with British help. The sultan then declared the Treaty of Seeb dissolved and eliminated the imam’s institution. In the early 1960s the imam, exiled in Saudi Arabia, gained support from several Arab countries, but this support ended in the 1980s. Zanzibar paid an annual tribute to Muscat and Oman until its full independence in early 1964.
In 1964 a separatist revolt broke out in Dhofar province. The insurgents, supported by communist and left-wing groups from the People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen (formerly South Yemen) formed the Dhofar Liberation Front, which subsequently joined the Marxist-oriented Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman and the Persian Gulf (FPLOGP). The FPLOGP declared its intention to overthrow all traditional regimes in the Persian Gulf. In mid-1974, the Bahraini branch of the FPLOGP was established as a separate organization and the Omani group changed its name to the Popular Front for the Liberation of Oman (FPLO), continuing the Dhofar rebellion.
In 1970, Qabus bin Said al Said expelled his father, Sultan Said bin Taymur, who would later die in exile in London, and took the sultanate. The new sultan faced the Dhofar insurgency in a country plagued by endemic diseases, illiteracy and poverty. One of the new sultan’s first measures was to abolish many of his father’s severe restrictions, which had led to the emigration of thousands of Omanis, and to offer amnesty to opponents of the previous regime, many of whom returned to Oman. It also established a modern governance structure and initiated several development programs to improve education, health, and other infrastructure to harness the country’s natural resources.
In his effort to wipe out the Dhofar insurgents, Sultan Qabus extended and modernized the armed forces by offering amnesty to all rebels who surrendered. It obtained direct military support from the United Kingdom, Iran and Jordan. By early 1975 the Dhofar insurgents had been repulsed to an area of fifty square kilometers near the border with South Yemen and shortly thereafter were defeated.
As the war ended, civil action programs became more important, and several investments were made in Dhofar to gain the trust of the inhabitants of the region. The FPLO threat was reduced with the establishment of diplomatic relations in October 1983 between Oman and South Yemen, and the Yemeni regime reduced propaganda and subversive activities against its neighbor. In late 1987 Oman established an embassy in Aden.
Since his rise to power in 1970 Sultan Qabus has balanced tribal, regional and ethnic interests in the composition of the national administration. The Council of Ministers, the main governing institution, consists of 26 ministers appointed directly by Qabus. The Majlis Al-Shura (Consultative Council) has the function of reviewing economic and social legislation before turning it into law. It may also summon ministers to account for their actions.
In 1967 oil was exported from Oman for the first time. Oil wealth transformed Oman from a poor country to a rich one. After 1970 the sultan modernized the country into what became known as the Omani Renaissance. In 1971 Oman joined the Arab League and the United Nations.
In the years between 1970 and 2013, life expectancy in Oman increased considerably. In 2003, women in Oman were allowed to vote for the first time.
In the 2010s oil revenues fell, but the Omani government tried to diversify the economy. Today Oman is a prosperous and developed country. At present, the population of Oman is 4.6 million.
Modern Oman History Timeline : Recent History Of Oman
In November 1996 Sultan Qabus presented to his people The Basic Statutes of the State, the first written constitution of Oman. This constitution guarantees various rights within the Qur’anic and traditional law of the country. It has raised some conflicts of interest by establishing measures prohibiting ministers from investing in companies and public property. It also lays down the rules for the sultan’s succession: the royal family will have to appoint a successor within three days of the sultan’s death or accept the last candidate recommended by the sultan.
Oman has always occupied a strategic position in the Strait of Hormuz, the entrance to the Persian Gulf, and is located 35 km from Iran. Due to political tensions in the area, Oman has taken an interest in maintaining regional stability and security, especially in the face of conflicts between Iran and Iraq and the potential threat of political Islam. Oman maintained its political relations with Iraq during the Gulf Storm and supported the United Nations by sending a contingent of troops to the coalition force, and providing arms and supplies across its borders. In 2001, U.S. forces used bases on Omani soil to attack Afghanistan in their war against al-Qaeda.
In September 1996, some 190,000 Omani men and women elected 83 candiatos, including two women to the seats of the Majlis Al-Shura. In December 2000 Sultan Qabus appointed the 48-member Majlis Al Dowla (Council of State), including 5 women, which serves as the upper house in the bicameral government of Oman.
Sultan Qabus’s extensive modernization program has opened the country to the outside world and preserved its long-standing political and military relationship with the United Kingdom, the United States and other countries. Oman’s moderate and independent foreign policy is aimed at maintaining good relations with all the countries of the Middle East.
A Short History of Oman
PRINCIPLES OF OMAN
As early as 2,300 B.C., Oman was recorded by the Sumerians of ancient Iraq as a rich source of copper. In ancient times, Oman was also a source of incense. After 500 BC, Oman was controlled by the Persian Empire based on what is now Iran. They were later ruled by other Iranian empires, the Parthians and the Sassanids.
In the seventh century A.D. the people of Oman adopted Islam. At that point Iranian influence ended. In 1507 the Portuguese arrived in Oman by sea. The Portuguese needed bases to protect their sea routes to India and in 1515 captured Muscat.
The Portuguese controlled the coast of Oman for almost 150 years. However, in 1650 the Omanis from the interior expelled the Portuguese. Meanwhile, in 1646 Oman signed a trade treaty with England. In 1698 Oman captured Mombasa (Kenya) and Zanzibar.
Then, in 1737, the Persians invaded Oman. However, the Omanis soon recovered. In 1747 the Persians were expelled from Oman. In 1832, the ruler Said the Great moved his capital to Zanzibar. However, after his death in 1856, his sons fought for succession.
As a result, Zanzibar and Oman became separate countries. Finally, in 1913, the interior of Oman was separated from the coastal region. By the Treaty of Seeb in 1920 the sultan granted internal autonomy. However, in 1959, the sultan regained control of the interior of Oman.
The Sultans of Oman “The Great Leaders of Oman”
- Said bin Sultan(20 November 1804 – 4 June 1856) – (Sultan of Zanzibar and Oman)
- Thuwaini bin Said(19 October 1856 – 11 February 1866)
- Salim bin Thuwaini(February 11, 1866 – October 1868)
- Azzan bin Qais(October 1868 – 30 January 1871)
- Turki bin Said(30 January 1871 – 4 June 1888)
- Faisal bin Turki(4 June 1888 – 15 October 1913)
- Taimur bin Faisal(15 October 1913 – 10 February 1932)
- Said bin Taimur(10 February 1932 – 23 July 1970)
- Qabus bin Said al Said(23 July 1970 – present)