A Concise History Of Nigeria
The History on Nigeria: The history of Nigeria has its roots in an early civilization with outstanding art. The plateau area was the meeting point of cultural influences and agricultural trades. By 500 B.C. the Nok culture flourished. The Nok Society (People of the Plateau) were farmers who made iron tools and weapons known for their terracotta heads and figures.
THE BEGINNINGS OF NIGERIA
In the North, a strong state system based on divine royalty developed. People raised horses, cattle, grew grain, cotton, and made cloth and iron. Two Empires emerged (Hausa-Bokwoi 100-1000 AD.C. and Kanem-Borno Eleventh century). Northerners converted to Islam, traded gold and slaves across the Sahara Desert.
The Yoruba found in the southwest founded Ife before 1000 AD.C. The culture of Benin is closely connected to the production of Ifem bronze, sculpted with the technique of “lost wax”. This art became a major contributor to the world’s artistic heritage. Settlers from the southeast, heavily attacked by slave traders from the north and along the coast, went into the forest to avoid their captors.
Pre Colonial History of Nigeria
Simply put, the Pre-colonial history of Nigeria is all about a period of time before Nigeria was colonized by the British.
It is important to briefly take a glance look at what happened in the early history of Nigeria, which of course indicates a period of history in Nigeria before the Common Era.
Prehistory Of Nigeria
Earlier in 11,000 BC, there were people dwelling in the south-eastern (ugwuelle-uturu) part of Nigeria and Isarun, where the remains of the oldest fossils were found by archaeologist as far back as 9000 BCE.
During this era, it was said that industries producing hunting weapons and non-metals like ceramics were found by some pastoralist. Sounds interesting right?
To mark a transition from the three age system, namely; stone, bronze and Iron Age which indicates the final epoch of the three age systems, there came the earliest identifiable culture in the history of Nigeria, named the Nok culture.
This culture called Nok culture appeared in the north-eastern part of Nigeria around 1500 BC in Jos plateau state, specifically lasting for approximately 2000 years as it disappeared for unknown situation around 500 AD.
Accidentally in the 1930s, the tin miners in Jos Plateau state, discovered terracotta figurines which was produced by the Nok people. Although, the first discovery of Nok terracotta was in 1928 by Colonel Den Young.
We can then conclude that terracotta is one of the distinctive features attributed to the Nok culture. Others include;
- Nok stylish appearance. Piercing of some parts of the body such as eyes, nose, ears, and mouth.
- Use of numerous jewelry and different postures among others.
- Detailed and refined hairstyles of most of Nok arts.
In the pre-colonial history of Nigeria, which covers 19th century, history as it that the area in and around Nigeria was dominated by West African powerful sophisticated and most influential empires or kingdoms/tribes.
Among these sophisticated societies in the history of Nigeria where there was an extensive trading activities among themselves, were
- the Yoruba city states and kingdoms of ife, oyo, and ijebu in south-west;
- the west, the Edo Benin empire;
- the north kingdom, the Islamic Kanim Borno empire;
- the southeast, the Igbo kingdom of Onitsha;
- And the various Hausa-Fulani kingdoms; Hausa city-state and kingdom of katsina, kano, zaira, and Gobir in the north central Nigeria.
In 1472, Portuguese explorers Joao de Santarem, Pero Escobar, Lopo Gonçalves and Fernao do Po discovered a country with an established civilization.
What is History of Nigeria Colonization
The country, ruled by four kingdoms (Hausa, Borno, Oyo and the Kingdom of Benin), had indigenous industrial, agricultural and artistic cultures. In the fifteenth century, the Kingdom of Benin began trading with the Portuguese by selling slaves in exchange for spices, firearms, the art of writing, and the Christian religion.
In the eighteenth century, the British replaced the Portuguese as leaders of the slave trade. In 1807, missionaries introduced Christianity and waged a campaign against slavery that led to the banning of trade. Missionaries also brought quinine to control malaria. The economies of southern Nigeria became powerful as a result of the palm oil trade.
The holy war (Jihad) of the Pël emirs against the Hausa state of Gobir in the nineteenth century created new empires and city-states that led to the spread of Islam. The Yoruba approached Britain which occupied Lagos in 1861 and by 1900 Britain had control of Nigeria. In 1954, Nigeria became a federation after the 1951 constitution gave a balance of power to Nigerians. Lady Flora Shaw, wife of Lord Federick Lugard, coined the name “Nigeria” in her article for the TIMES newspaper describing the “Niger River”.
The History of Nigeria from 1914 till Date 1960
The history of Nigeria from 1914 would be incomplete without mentioning Lord Fredrick Lugard the then British colonial governor.
Remember that during the pre-colonial history of Nigeria, several states were formed whereby these were the sophisticated powerful empires and kingdoms.
This prompted the British who were ready to turn the separated states across the western region into a colony. It wasn’t easy for them though but gradually they were able to establish their dominance.
The British influence glared in the then Nigeria and the Nigeria today when there was a stop to slavery and as part of anti-slavery campaign, as a way to penetrate into Lagos.
They (British) trooped into Lagos in 1851 and successfully dismissed from power the then Oba who was a pro-slave, thus annexing Lagos in 1861 establishing the oil river protectorate in 1884.
Basically, 1914 ends the pre-colonial era as most of the now northern and southern regions were dominated by the British colonies.
Under the administration of Governor Fredrick Lugard, in 1900, south and north protectorates of Nigeria were amalgamated as the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria.
INDEPENDENCE OF NIGERIA
Nigeria’s history will be incomplete without mention of how the country gained its independence. The Federation of Nigeria gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1960. Led by the Northern People’s Congress (mainly Hausa and Muslims) and the Nigerian Council of Nigerian Citizens (Igbos and Christians). The British realized that the independence campaign had begun to gain ground after World War II. Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa became the country’s first prime minister. In 1963, Nigeria was declared the Federal Republic of Nigeria with Nnamdi Azikiwe as the first president.
The first coup that led to the death of Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa in January 1966 established the first military government with Major General Aguiyi Ironsi, commander of the army, as leader of the new administration. In July 1966, Northern troops counterattacked with another blow killing Aguiyi Ironsi. Lieutenant Colonel Yakubu Gowon took office.
It replaced the four regions with 12 states and restored a federal state. He promised to return democracy by including civilians in government. In 1983, the military coup ended a brief democratic government. In 1998, Nigeria became a democratic state (with its fourth republic) with Olusegun Obasanjo as the first civilian president of the People’s Democratic Party (PDP).
Nigeria’s Democracy Day was originally celebrated on May 29, every year since General Olusegun Obasanjo assumed the presidency in 1999. However, on June 12, 2018, General Muhammadu Buhari, in his capacity as president, announced a change on this date from May 29 to June 12, starting in 2019. This was to commemorate the election of June 12, 1993, and the events surrounding it.
Today in history of Nigeria: Nigeria’s culture is made up of the contribution of different ethnic groups. Nigeria speaks more than 50 languages and 250 dialects, corresponding to various ethnicities. The three main ethnic groups are the Hausa-Fulani, who predominate in the north, the Igbo who predominate in the southeast, and the Yoruba who predominate in the southwest.
The Edo predominate in the region between the Igbo and Yoruba. Approximately 80% are Christians, while the remaining 20% worship their deity Olorun, also called Ogu. The Olorun cult is followed by the Ibibio/Annang/Efik who are on the southeast coast of Nigeria and the Ijaw of the Niger River Delta.
The rest of Nigeria’s ethnic groups, sometimes called minorities, are found throughout the country, especially in the central and northern areas. The Hausa-Fulani tend to be Muslims, while the Igbo are predominantly Christian as are the Efik, Ibibio and Annang. The Yoruba have a balance of members who adhere to Islam and Christianity. Indigenous and native religious practices remain important in all ethnic groups in Nigeria and often these beliefs are mixed with Christian beliefs.
Woman of Nigeria
Nigerian women are famous for their beauty, bravery, intelligence, fashion and creativity, which can still be seen in the personal video of the Nigerian film industry, Nollywood.
Nigeria Woman Native Wear
History of Nigerian Culture and Fashion: Nigerian women love to look good and that is why they show no hesitation when it comes to dressing up in any fashion. Some days they may decide to put on ready-made apparel; other days they wear native wears made with indigenous fabrics such as Ankara, lace, Adire, Kente, brocade, Aso oke, etc. The special thing about these fabrics is that they can easily be interpreted to tell the African story. This then makes it important to know the native wears for Nigerian women.
As the styles of traditional outfit improve, so do the native wears for Nigerian women increase. Some years back, traditional attires like senator and Agbada were considered strictly for men. Nowadays, women rock Agbada and senator even better than the men. Do you have a wedding to attend, a traditional occasion or you simply want to dress in a native attire to work or church? Keep reading as here in this article are some of the native wears for Nigerian women made with different kinds of African fabrics and irresistible designs.
Nigerian Lace: Lace is one of the most popular fabrics for making fantastic fashion styles for different occasions in Nigeria, and in some highly recognized countries. The lace fabric is made from a variety of fibers such as linen, polyester, nylon, rayon, silk, cotton, and wool.
Female Native Wear Designs
Nigeria Woman Fashion
Nigeria Woman Dress Style
Iro and Buba
Ankara Short Gowns
Ankara Long Dresses
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