A brief History of Morocco
The History of Morocco Timeline: In the time of classical antiquity, Morocco experienced waves of invaders, including Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Romans, Vandals and Byzantines, but with the arrival of Islam, Morocco developed independent states that kept the powerful invaders at bay.
The History On Morocco
- Official name Kingdom of Morocco (MA)
- Capital Rabat
- Official Languages Arabic, Tamazight (Berber language)
Note: According to amendments to the Constitution adopted by referendum in July 2011
- Monetary unit Moroccan dirham (MAD)
- Area (km2) 410 000
Early History of Morocco
Early history of Morocco: In 702, the Berbers submitted to the armies of Islam and adopted Islam. The first Moroccan states were formed during these years, but many were still ruled by foreigners, some of whom were part of the Umayyad Caliphate that controlled most of North Africa c. 700 EC. In 1056, a Berber empire was born, however, under the Almoravid dynasty, and for the next five hundred years, Morocco was ruled by Berber dynasties: the Almoravids (from 1056), the Almohads (from 1174), the Marinids (from 1296) and Wattaside (from 1465).
It was during the Almoravid and Almohad dynasties that Morocco controlled much of North Africa, Spain and Portugal. In 1238, the Almohads lost control of the Muslim part of Spain and Portugal, then known as al-Andalus. The Marinid dynasty tried to reconquer it but never succeeded.
Revival of Moroccan Power
In the mid-1500s, a powerful state once again arose in Morocco, under the leadership of the Sa’adi dynasty that had taken control of southern Morocco in the early 1500s. The Sa’adi defeated the Wattaside in 1554 and then managed to prevent incursions by the Portuguese and Ottoman empires. In 1603, a succession dispute led to a period of unrest that only ended in 1671 with the formation of the Awalite dynasty, which still governs Morocco to this day. During the unrest, Portugal had once again gained a foothold in Morocco but was again expelled by the new rulers.
A Morocco History Timeline European Colonization
A History of Morocco Colonization: In the mid-1800s, at a time when the influence of the Ottoman Empire was in decline, France and Spain began to take an interest in Morocco. The Algeciras Conference (1906) that followed the first Moroccan crisis formalized the France’s particular interest in the region (opposed by Germany), and the Treaty of Fez (1912) made Morocco a French protectorate. Spain took authority over Ifni (to the south) and Tetouan to the north.
In the 1920s, the Berbers of the Rif of Morocco, under the leadership of Muhammad Abd el-Krim, rebelled against French and Spanish authority. The short-lived Republic of the Rif was crushed by a joint Franco-Spanish task force in 1926.
French and Spanish Reserve (1912-1956)
Morocco’s second crisis increased tensions between powerful European countries and resulted in the Fez Treaty signed on March 30, 1912, which made Morocco a French protectorate. Under a second treaty signed by the Heads of State of France and Spain.
Spain was granted an area of influence in northern and southern Morocco on November 27, 1912. The northern part became a Spanish protectorate in Morocco, and the Fez Treaty caused the 1912 Fez riots. Under the Tangier Protocol signed in December 1923, Tangier obtained special status and became an international region.
In 1953, the France deposed nationalist leader and Sultan Mohammed V ibn Yusuf, but nationalist and religious groups called for his return. The France capitulated and Mohammed V returned in 1955. On 2 March 1956, French Morocco gained independence. Spanish Morocco, with the exception of the two enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, gained independence in April 1956.
Mohammed V was succeeded by his son, Hasan II ibn Mohammed, upon his death in 1961. Morocco became a constitutional monarchy in 1977. Upon the death of Hassan II in 1999, he was replaced by his thirty-five-year-old son, Mohammed VI ibn al-Hassan.
Morocco Dispute Over Western Sahara
When Spain withdrew from the Spanish Sahara in 1976, Morocco claimed sovereignty in the north. The Spanish parts to the south, known as the Western Sahara, were supposed to become independent, but Morocco occupied the region during the Green March. Initially, Morocco divided the territory with Mauritania, but when Mauritania withdrew in 1979, Morocco claimed all of it. The status of the Territory was a deeply controversial issue, with many international bodies such as the United Nations recognizing it as a Non-Self-Governing Territory called the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.
A History Of Modern Morocco
If you are looking for a nice handcrafted souvenir from Morocco, then the many different shops in the medina will have the perfect item. The shops here are all well maintained and while the area is smaller than most traditional souqs in the country, you will find items here that are designed to meet the needs of the residents and all of high quality.
The Marche Central offers everyone fresh vegetables, meats, seafood of all kinds, and more. If you’ve never had turtle soup, make sure you try some from Casablanca. This is a treat for visitors from countries where the selling of turtles for food is prohibited. history of morocco pdf.
Visitors who want to spend a day at the beach can take a bus to Ain Diab and enjoy walking along the surf. There are numerous beach clubs here. Some have saltwater pools, fine-dining restaurants and sidewalk seating cafés. Be forewarned as they can be a bit expensive to visit. You may also want to pop into Rick’s Café in Casablanca near the walls of the Old Medina and within walking distance of the Hassan II Mosque. This establishment has recreated the café from the Bogart and Bergman movie right down to the piano player who plays ‘As Time Goes By’ every night.
For more historical or ethnic sites to see, the Hassan II Mosque is open Muslim and non-Muslim alike, not common of Morocco mosques. There are guided tours through the mosque four times a day and the architecture and motifs both inside and out are well worth seeing.
The cultural and economic center of Morocco may not be as ethnically fascinating as other cities in the country, but Casablanca has its own appeal. The city is perfect for weekend getaways and the nightlife is attractive to everyone who visits this bustling and very modern Moroccan city.
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