BRIEF HISTORY OF MALAYSIA SUMMARIZED
A History Of Ancient Malaysia
THE HISTORY OF MALAYSIA IN ANCIENT TIMES: What was called the Malay Islands in ancient times is today’s Malaysia. Malaysia is a group of many islands. Many Sanskrit words are used in the Malay language. The relationship between Ramayana and Mahabharata is seen in Malay literature. By the 15th century, the Hindu empires of Mazaphit and Srivijaya ruled in Malaysia for 1,000 years until Islam came to pass. There is no special mention anywhere about the history of Malaysia 2,000 years ago.
The first people to live in Malaya were Stone Age hunter-gatherers. They arrived as early as 8,000 B.C. Later, Stone Age farmers arrived in Malaya and displaced them (hunter-gatherers continued to exist but retreated to remote areas).
Farmers practiced slash-and-burn agriculture. They cleared an area of rainforest by burning it and then farmed. After a few years the land would be depleted and farmers would clear a new area. However, in a few years the old area would be covered with vegetation and would be fertile again.
After 1,000 B.C. farmers using metals arrived in Malaya. They made bronze and iron tools and settled along the coast and rivers. They lived partly on fishing and partly on crops. In the second and third centuries AD.C, centralized states emerged in Malaya. The largest was Kedah in the North. This is The Early history of Malaysia.
The Malays became very civilized. Malay civilization was heavily influenced by India. (The Malays traded with India from the third century A.C.) After that contact with India it was common.) Malay laws and scripture show Indian influence. The religions of Buddhism and Hinduism were also introduced to Malaya at that time. History of Malaysia.
BRIEF HISTORY ABOUT MALAYSIA SUMMARIZED
Origin, Antiquity and Independence: The Paleolithic and Neolithic are attested in Malaysia by numerous sites. From the second century the Hindu influence is proven. During the Middle Ages several small states were formed, which were under the authority of a number of sovereigns residing in Indochina and Insulindia.
With the twelfth century began the penetration of Islamism in the peninsula. The port of Malacca was founded in 1402 and soon became an important commercial center. In 1511 Portugal began the colonization of Malaysia by the north of the Malay Peninsula.
The Portuguese were replaced by those of Holland in 1641, and in 1786 by Great Britain. In 1867, Malacca, Singapore and Penang were incorporated into the crown as colonies. During World War II, Malaysia was occupied by Japan.
To fight against the Japanese arose a guerrilla movement of pro-communist tendency, which then, after the liberation (1945), would continue its struggle against the British and later against the right-wing governments of independent Malaysia.
Malaysia gained independence on 31 August 1957 and in 1963 the Federation of Malaysia was formed. Singapore left the Federation in 1965 to become an independent state. History of Malaysia.
SRIVIJAYA IN MALAYSIA
In the seventh and eighth centuries the Srivijaya state of Sumatra rose to dominate much of Malaya. It was a kingdom in Sumatra with its capital at Palembang. Srivijaya controlled the coasts of Java, Peninsular Malaysia and part of Borneo. However, Srivijayan only really controlled the coast. His influence did not extend much inward.
JOHOR AND THE DUTCH
Johor became one of several powerful trading states in what is now Malaya. In the early sixteenth century Johor made several unsuccessful attempts to recapture Melaka. However, Johor remained hostile to the Portuguese Melaka. Then, in the early seventeenth century, they made an alliance with the Dutch against their mutual enemy, the Portuguese. History of Malaysia.
The Dutch made two unsuccessful attempts to capture Melaka in 1606 and 1608. Then they turned their attention to Java. Finally, in 1641, the Dutch again besieged Melaka. Johor helped them. After a terrible siege, in which many people died, Melaka finally fell to the Dutch.
Another rich and powerful state was Aceh, in Sumatra. However, the Sultanate of Aceh reached its peak in the early seventeenth century and then began to decline. Brunei was another powerful state. Already strong in the fifteenth century, it strengthened in the sixteenth after the Portuguese captured Melaka. Brunei’s power peaked in the early sixteenth century, but declined by the end of the century.
In the early seventeenth century, the Dutch expelled all other Europeans from the area. For the rest of the seventeenth century they were friends of Johor and the two powers dominated the region. History of Malaysia.
In 1673 the forces of the kingdom of Jambi sacked the capital of Johor, Batu Sawar. However, Johor eventually managed to defeat Jambi. At the end of the seventeenth century Johor was still the most powerful state in Malaya. However, in 1699 Sultan Mahmud was assassinated. That event marked the beginning of the end of Johor’s power. History of Malaysia.
A new power emerged in the eighteenth century. A people called the Bugi originally came from Sulawesi. At the end of the seventeenth century they began to settle, peacefully, in the territory of Johor. They were allowed to settle down, but soon became very powerful.
In 1717 a man named Raja Kecil claimed that he was the son of the murdered Sultan Mahmud. He and his followers took the capital of Johor. The reigning sultan, a man named Abdul Jalil, was overthrown. However, he fled to the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia with his followers and established a rival court there. Thereafter, both men claimed to be the ruler of Johor. History of Malaysia.
Abdul Jalil was killed on the orders of his rival, Raja Kecil. Then, the Bugi attacked Raja Kecil. They captured the capital and ruled Sulaiman, the son of Abdul Jalil. However, Sulaiman was only a puppet ruler. Since then, the Bugi had real power. History of Malaysia.
BRITISH COLONIALISM IN MALAYSIA
By the Treaty of London of 1824, the British and Dutch divided the region between them. The Dutch handed Melaka over to the British. The Dutch were given control of Sumatra and the entire area below the Malay Peninsula.
However, although the British East India Company controlled islands and parts of the coast, it did not control the interior of peninsular Malaysia. In addition, until 1867 the East India Company controlled the Strait Settlements, not the British Government. However, in 1867 they became a crown colony. History of Malaysia.
British control of Sarawak began in 1841. In 1840 a man named James Brooke helped the Sultan of Brunei crush a rebellion. As a reward he was given territory to rule and in 1841 he was granted the title of Raja of Sarawak. Brooke’s territory was expanded in 1853.
Meanwhile, Siam (present-day Thailand) invaded Kedah in 1821. They dismissed the sultan. There were rebellions against Siamese rule in 1830-31 and in 1838-39. The sultan was restored in 1841, but Kedah remained a vassal state of Siam. History of Malaysia.
THE TREATY OF PANGKOR OF 1874
In 1853 the British government stopped taxing imports of tin. As a result, Malaya’s tin exports to Britain skyrocketed. Steamships and the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 further boosted tin exports. Chinese workers flocked to work in Malaya’s tin mines and plantations.
However, in 1871 the Sultan of Perak died and there was a fight over who should succeed him. In addition, Chinese secret societies were fighting over who would control the tin mines. The turmoil disrupted the supply of tin to Britain. So a man who claimed to be the sultan’s rightful heir, Raja Abdullah, struck a deal with the British.
It was known as the Pangkor Agreement. The British recognized Abdulla as Sultan of Perak. In return, he agreed to accept into his court a British “adviser” who would advise him on all matters except those relating to Malay religion and customs.
Until 1874 the British were limited to trade and avoided getting involved in Malay politics. The Treaty of Pangkor ushered in British political control over Malaya.
The British gradually increased their influence over Malaya. More states (Selangor, Pahang, Sungei, Ujong, Rembau, Negri Sembilan, Jelebu) were forced to accept British “protection”. In 1895, the “protected” states were persuaded to form a federation.
Meanwhile, in 1888 Brunei, Sarawak and North Borneo became British protectorates. In the early years of the twentieth century, the British extended their influence over the northern states of Malaysia (Kedah, Kelantan and Terengganu) and were formally absorbed into British Malaya. In 1914 Johor also came under British rule.
At the beginning of the twentieth century a new industry in Malaysian rubber emerged. The Malaysian rubber industry grew. The Malaysian tin industry also prospered and an oil industry was started in Singapore.
During the 1920s the Malay economy was prosperous, but in the 1930s, during the depression, exports fell. In the early twentieth century, while the economy was booming, many Chinese came to live and work in Malaya. However, after 1930 immigration was restricted to try to help unemployment.
THE JAPANESE OCCUPATION OF MALAYA
On December 8, 1941, the Japanese invaded the Malay Peninsula and quickly invaded it. The last British troops retreated across the strait to the island of Singapore on 31 January 1942. The Japanese invaded Singapore on February 8, 1942. The last British troops surrendered on 15 February 1942.
This was a military disaster for the British. Meanwhile, Japanese troops invaded Borneo. They captured Kuching on 25 December 1941 and Jesselton (Kota Kinabalu) on 8 January 1942. During the Japanese occupation, the Chinese were treated more harshly. Indians were treated less severely. History of Malaysia.
MALAYA BECOMES INDEPENDENT
In 1944, when the Japanese faced defeat, the British government decided to unite all the Malay states (except Singapore) into a single unified state called the Malayan Union. (Singapore would be a separate colony from the crown.) However, there was so much opposition to this plan that it was scrapped. Instead, on 1 February 1948 the Federation of Malaya was formed. History of Malaysia.
Meanwhile, Malay nationalism was growing. The first Malay organization was the Kesatuan Melayu Singapura, or Malayan Union of Singapore, which was formed in 1926. Others quickly followed. In 1946, Malaysian organizations came together to form the Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu, the National Organization of United Malays. History of Malaysia.
The Malay Communist Party (MCP) was founded in 1930. In 1948 they began attacking European property managers. As a result, the government introduced a state of emergency. History of Malaysia.
However, communist activity declined after 1949, when the British parliament promised independence. The insurgency continued for a few years, but it was a minor threat. Communist activity erupted again in the mid-1970s and then died out.
In 1955 the Reid Commission was formed to prepare a constitution for Malaya. Malaya became independent on 31 August 1957. The first prime minister of Malaya was Tunku Abdul Rahman (1903-1976). He held the position from 1957 to 1970. In 1963 Singapore, Sarawak and Sabah joined Malaya to form the Federation of Malaysia. However, in 1965 Singapore became a separate state.
THE STATE OF EMERGENCY
During the 1960s there was tension between Malays and non-Malays. It culminated in violence after an election in May 1969. Opposition parties won seats while the ruling party lost seats (although they remained in power). History of Malaysia.
On May 13, 1969, supporters of opposition parties held celebrations in the streets of Kuala Lumpur. Supporters of the ruling party carried out a counter-demonstration. The two sides came to the hands. After two days of violence, the government declared a state of emergency and parliament was suspended. History of Malaysia.
Gradually calm returned and parliament reconvened in 1971. The Malaysian government then adopted a new economic policy. It was a remarkable success. During the 70s, 80s and 90s, Malaysia went from being a poor and agricultural country to being a rich and industrial country. History of Malaysia.
The standard of living of the Malaysian people increased dramatically. In 1991, the new economic policy was replaced by a new development policy. Today Malaysia is a prosperous country. History of Malaysia.
History of Malaysian Education System
History of Malaysian Education System : Over the years, educational models have been changing as society did too, adapting to the reality and need of each era. Logically, the current educational reality has little to do with that of centuries ago.
Greece and Rome : Malaysian Education System
Malaysian Education System in Eighteenth Century
A History Of Malaysia Flag
History of the flag of Malaysia: The colors of the Malaysian flag (blue, white and red) constitute a lure of the former British colonizer. However, its composition is inspired by the American flag.
Despite ethnic tensions between Chinese and Malays, the Blue Canton claims the unity of the peoples. Likewise, the crescent is the symbol of Islam, the main creed in this nation. The gold of the stars pays homage to the traditional color of the Malay sultans.
The fourteen red and white strips and the star, like a sun, with fourteen points, represented these fourteen states. Jalu Gemiland, “the striped flag”, was first hoisted on Independence Day, August 31, 1957.
The withdrawal from Singapore in 1965 did not bring about any change. The fourteenth strip is attributed today to the whole of the fourteen states and the capital, Kuala Lumpur.
The Federation of Malaysia, a member of the Commonwealth, is bathed to the west, in the Strait of Malacca, by the Indian Ocean; the two portions of the country, the continental and the insular, are separated by the South China Sea, to the east, in the Pacific domains.
The eleven peninsular states, bordering Thailand to the north, were joined in 1963 by Singapore and the former British colonies of Sarawak and Sabah, located on the island of Borneo.
The History Of Malaysia Timeline
Malaysia is a very old country that is experiencing strong growth. To get to this point, Malaysia had to go through the domination of different countries such as Portugal, Holland, England or Japan. After an inter-ethnic war about ten years after its independence, Malaysia is now a stable country with strong growth.
1511: Arrival of Albuquerque and the Portuguese in Malacca.
1641: The Portuguese are driven out of the territory by the Dutch.
1795: Arrival of the English in Malaysia.
1830: Malacca and Penang are established colonies of the English Crown.
1942 to 1945: Arrival of the Japanese on Malaysian territory.
1957: Independence of the Malay Federation, within the framework of the Commonwealth and Abdul Rahman becomes Prime Minister.
1963: Official Constitution of Malaysia.
1969: Inter-ethnic wars.
1970: Abdul Razak becomes Prime Minister.
1981: Mahathir bin Mohamad succeeds Abdul Razak as Prime Minister.
1989: The Sultan of Perak, Azlan Shah, is elected king.
1994: Abdul Rahman becomes head of state.
1996: Mahathir Ben Mohamad remains Prime Minister.
1998: Demonstrations to demand the resignation of the Prime Minister multiply.
2001: Rise of the political opposition.
2002: Resumption of the country’s growth.