History Timeline of Madagascar
History of Madagascar: The settlement of the island
Country of Madagascar: Theories on the origin of the settlement of Madagascar are numerous. The most certain hypothesis identifies the ancestors of the Malagasy who came from Asia, Africa and the Middle East, at the beginning of our era.
The populations of Malayo-Indonesian origin would have brought the cultivation of irrigated rice and the outrigger canoe. African migrants are said to have brought slash-and-burn cultivation and various varieties of trees and animals (such as zebu). The Arabs would have brought the Muslim religion, very present even today, as well as a trade activity of spices, aromatics and medicinal plants.
As for the Europeans, the first to land in Madagascar would be a Portuguese named Diego Diaz around 1500.
A place of obligatory passage on the road to India, Madagascar then becomes a crossroads of all the shops, and a place of multiple miscegenations. From this are born different kingdoms, spread over the whole territory.
Is Madagascar A Country ?
Is Madagascar a country? Kingdoms of the South, East, West and Center, named Mahafaly, Sakalava, Antemoro, Betsimisaraka, Betsileo, Merina, …, they are still today a reference and the descendants of the ancient Kings are highly respected.
And it is under the impetus of a King Merina, Andrianampoinimerina in the eighteenth century, then his son Radama in the early nineteenth century, that Madagascar becomes a unified country, largely helped by its military conquests financed by England which wishes to protect itself from French interference. It also begins the development of literacy of the Malagasy people, as well as international trade.
After his death in 1828, various kings and queens succeeded each other, more or less close to Europeans.
In 1868, Queen Ranavalona II delegated most of the power to the Prime Minister, who devoted himself assiduously to the modernization of the state. A civil code is drafted and a highly structured territorial administration is applied.
Colonization By France In History of Madagascar
History timeline of Madagascar: From the second half of the nineteenth century, France and England showed more and more colonialist interest in Madagascar and, in 1883, the first Franco-Malagasy war broke out. In 1885 a peace treaty was signed, implying a certain domination of the France over Madagascar.
In 1894, a second Franco-Malagasy war broke out, and ended in another failure of the Malagasy army and the signing of the protectorate treaty in 1895.
After some further attempts at rebellion, Madagascar officially became a French colony in 1896. England did not put up any resistance because the France left him free to take possession of Zanzibar.
All the agricultural, mineral and human resources of Madagascar are now put at the service of the economy and the needs of the France.
From protest movements to rebellions (the bloodiest of which began on March 29, 1947 and ended in the death of a hundred thousand Malagasy), the colonization of Madagascar ended on June 26, 1960, following general de Gaulle’s speech in Antananarivo.
Madagascar officially gained independence on 14 October 1960. From then on, political life was very lively and Philibert Tsiranana was elected first President of the First Malagasy Republic in 1960 and re-elected in 1965.
But the situation in the country did not improve and the protest movements, strikes, demonstrations, revolts, gained momentum, especially because of the French presence still too strong, until the referendum of October 8, 1972 which saw the birth of the Second Republic.
Madagascar then created its own Central Bank, its currency and withdrew from the franc zone. The last French troops leave the country for good. But the economic results were disappointing and protest movements resumed until Didier Ratsiraka came to power in July 1976. He then established a socialist-style, authoritarian, highly centralized republic based on a nationalized economy. He remained in power until 1992, following a new period of protest and the creation of the Third Republic.
But Madagascar is not out of the woods. The population is tired of endless political debates, broken roads, rising prices, lack of social protection, corruption.
It was then that Didier Ratsiraka returned by creating in 1997 the Ecological Humanist Republic, a utopian project based on the conviction that man can create a society in harmony with the major ecological balances and that the economy must be at the service of social development, the fight against poverty being an absolute priority. In 2001, economic indicators are in good shape, with GDP growth, donor confidence and tourism development on the rise. But the economic indices are very different from reality and everyday life.
In 2002, following a serious political crisis that plunged Madagascar into a huge economic recession, Marc Ravalomanana became President of the Republic. He was re-elected without a hitch in 2007. History of Madagascar.
History of Madagascar Timeline
Madagascar History Timeline: Until about 2,000 years ago Madagascar was uninhabited. Then came the Indonesians. Around 800 AD.C. the Arabs began to sail to Madagascar.
The first European to arrive in Madagascar was a Portuguese named Diogo Dias in 1500. However, at first Europeans showed little interest in the island, although pirates used it as a base in the seventeenth century.
In the early nineteenth century a kingdom called Merina took over most of the island. Their king, Radama I, established relations with the British and allowed Christian missionaries to preach to the people. Queen Ranavalona (1828-1861) attempted to stop the spread of Christianity in Madagascar.
He also tried to preserve the independence of the European powers. However, in 1890, Britain renounced all rights over Madagascar and recognized it as part of the French sphere of influence. France formally annexed Madagascar in 1896.
When France surrendered to Germany in 1940, a puppet government was formed in Vichy. At first Madagascar was under Vichy control, but in 1942 it surrendered to the British. After the war, Madagascar was returned to France.
In 1947, the people of Madagascar rebelled again against French rule, but were crushed. However, in 1958 Madagascar became an autonomous country. It became fully independent on June 26, 1960. Philibert Tsiranana was the first president.
Madagascar Culture Fashion and Peoples
women and women from the countryside who are visiting the town almost always wear it. There are no hard and fast rules to which women wear traditional lamba and which wear Western clothing.