History of Lithuania
Lithuania country history: Lithuania is understood here in its current dimensions, i.e. as the space between Latvia in the north, Poland and Russia (Kaliningrad) in the south, the Baltic Sea in the west and Belarus in the east.
History of Lithuania, from the arrival of the first populations (third millennium BCE) to the contemporary era.
|Official name||Republic of Lithuania (LT)|
|Head of State||Gitanas Nausėda (since July 12, 2019)|
|Head of Government||Ingrida Šimonyte (since 11 December 2020)|
|Lithuania Official language||Lithuanian|
|Monetary unit||euro (EUR)|
|Lithuania Population||2,784,000 (2021 estimate)|
|Lithuania Area (km2)||65 286|
The Prehistory of Lithuania
The first men arrived in Lithuania approximately in 12,000 BC.C. In Kr. 3000-2500 BC.C., Indo-Baltics settled there. Between the fifth and eighth centuries, tribal unions were formed on the western lands: the Prussians, the Yotvingians, the Curonians, the Semigalians, the Lithuanians, the Latgalians. In the tenth century, the missions of Catholic Europe began to take an interest in the pagan Balts. In 1009, the name of Lithuania was mentioned for the first time in a description of the mission of St. Bruno.
The Beginnings of Lithuania’s History
Paleolithic to Neolithic: As soon as the ice retreated around 14,000 BC on the territory of today’s Lithuania and other Baltic states, the first human tribes settled there, as evidenced by numerous finds of arrowheads, tools or harpoons. In the Neolithic Period, the first bordered settlements were built, from which game was hunted and fish were caught. An early form of agriculture and livestock farming also developed. Amber jewelry from this period has also already been found.
Bronze Age: Around 3000 BC, the first Baltic tribes are said to have reached the area of today’s Baltic States and incorporated the population already living there. However, well-known tribes such as the Lithuanians, Cures or Latgalls did not form until after the first millennium AD
Lithuania History Facts
850 to 1230 AD: Lithuania is part of Baltic. It remains divided into many small tribes ruled by priests and princes.
1009 AD: Lithuania is mentioned in writing for the first time in the Quedlinburg Annals.
13th century AD: Lithuania’s first state formation takes place at the beginning of the 13th century AD, when the tribes unite under Prince Mindaugas. He was crowned King of Lithuania in 1253 and, together with Treniota, the leader of the Samogites, managed to beat the Teutonic Order, which wanted to convert the Lithuanian inhabitants to Christianity, into flight. After this success, however, power struggles arise within the country and Mindaugas is killed by Treniota.
Mindaugas’ and later Treniotas’ seat at this time is Kernave – the first capital in the history of Lithuania.
1270 AD: Traidenis is appointed Grand Duke of Lithuania, putting an end to domestic power struggles, and the Baltic state begins its heyday.
1275 AD: The later Grand Duke Gediminas is born.
In the Middle Ages
The Kingdom of Tolerance
History of Lithuania: In the Middle Ages, Lithuania founded its state: the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. It is believed that the Lithuanian state appeared on the world map after the coronation, on July 6, 1253, of the ruler of unified Lithuania, Mindaugas.
The highest title of kingdom was granted to the Lithuanian state in a papal bull. This meant that all of Western Europe recognized Lithuania and accepted it into its family as an equal member of the Western European political system. Officially baptized in 1387, Lithuania chose the Western path of development: writing began to spread in the country, schools were founded, Lithuanian students went to study in European universities.
From the Baltic to the Black Sea
We achieved another important victory at the Battle of Žalgiris (Grünewald) in 1410, when we defeated, together with the forces of the Kingdom of Poland, the Order of the Teutonic Knights. Lithuania then reached the pinnacle of its power: the territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania stretched from the Baltic to the Black Sea and from Poland to Smolensk.
It was becoming a significant political force in Central and Eastern Europe. It was at this time that thanks to its values of tolerance and respect for everyone, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was able to welcome into its midst populations of different religions and customs and thus achieved a multicultural and cosmopolitan integration that is still a reference today.
The First Written Constitution in Europe
In History of Lithuania: The Statutes of Lithuania, which formed the legal basis of the structure of the former state, show that Lithuania became an integral part of Central Europe in the sixteenth century. Legal thought rose even higher at the end of the eighteenth century after the adoption, in 1791, of the Constitution of May 3 which became the first Constitution, surpassing even the French Constitution, in Europe and the second in the world. History of Lithuania.
The Statutes of Lithuania, which formed the legal basis of the structure of the former state, show that Lithuania became an integral part of Central Europe in the sixteenth century. Legal thought rose even higher at the end of the eighteenth century after the adoption, in 1791, of the Constitution of May 3 which became the first Constitution, surpassing even the French Constitution, in Europe and the second in the world. History of Lithuania.
The oldest university in Eastern Europe
The sources of Lithuanian higher education are linked to Vilnius University, founded in 1579. Its foundation was the most significant event in the cultural life of the late sixteenth century and an event of great importance in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Vilnius University became the first higher education institution not only in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, but also in all of Eastern Europe.
Lithuania History Timeline
1918–1940: years of prosperity
On February 16, 1918, 20 courageous and determined representatives of the people signed the Act of Independence of Lithuania, by which they proclaimed that Lithuania “shall re-establish an independent Lithuanian State organized on democratic bases, with Vilnius as its capital and separate this State from all national ties that existed with other peoples”. History of Lithuania.
Defending its independence in battles against poles and Bolsheviks, Lithuania confirmed a democratic parliamentary system in the Constituent Seimas in 1920. History of Lithuania.
The feat of Lithuanian airmen Steponas Darius and Stasys Girėnas became the symbol of the rise: in 1933, they were the first in the world to cross the Atlantic Ocean (from the United States to Europe). Civil society and cultural values affirmed at the time of the Republic of Lithuania helped the country survive the Soviet occupation and became the ideological foundation for the restoration of independence.
Occupation And Annexation By The USSR
History of Lithuania: The Soviet Union occupied Lithuania on June 15, 1940, and the first mass deportations of Lithuanians to Soviet depths took place from June 14 to 18. The strength of character and resistance to adversity allowed us to survive: we survived not only the Soviet occupation, but also the German occupation. Supporters gathered to defend Lithuania’s independence. Their years of struggle were one of the most dramatic periods in Lithuania’s history. History of Lithuania.
The Singing Revolution
Established in June 1988, the Lithuanian Reform Movement has instilled in us faith and hope: the liberation movement of Sąjūdis has encompassed all of Lithuania. Commemorating on 23 August 1989 the fiftieth anniversary of the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact that abolished the independence of the Baltic countries, we connected the capitals of the three Baltic countries (Vilnius, Riga and Tallinn) with a human chain of people holding hands for 650 kilometers. History of Lithuania.
The Baltic way symbolically separated the Baltic countries from the Soviet Union: this is how our peoples expressed their desire to be free.
They didn’t want to wait any longer. The Lithuanian State was re-established on 11 March 1990. However, the Soviet authorities opposed our will by sending specially prepared and heavily armed paratrooper groups to Vilnius on 13 January 1991. But we didn’t even fear weapons: we rejected the Soviet Union’s aggression peacefully: without weapons, only by songs and faith. For this reason, these events in Lithuania are often called the singing revolution. Thus, for the third time in its history, Lithuania began a period of independent life.
Membership of NATO And The EU
After joining NATO and joining the European Union in 2004, Lithuania returned to the Community of European Countries. As a member of the EU, Lithuania has formally become a donor country and provides assistance to Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, the countries of the South Caucasus, Afghanistan and Iraq, and also provides bilateral aid commitments within the framework of the EU. History of Lithuania.
Origin And History Of The Language
History of Lithuania: Lithuanian Lietuviu Kalba, the Eastern Baltic language closest to Latvian; it is spoken mainly in Lithuania, where it has been the official language since 1918. It is the most archaic Indo-European language still spoken. The Lithuanian literary language has existed since the sixteenth century, with the Holy Father’s translations as its first document: the Creed and Ave Maria appeared in 1525.
At that time, the Lithuanian language was used only for writings of a religious nature, which differs from modern Lithuanian.
The southernmost of the three so-called Baltic countries, Lithuania is a beautiful country, full of beautiful and friendly Lithuanian women, or Lithuania woman. Once part of the Soviet Union, Lithuania gained independence in 1990 after the dramatic collapse of communism the previous year. With its close neighbors Belarus, Poland and Kaliningrad, the country shares a culture rich in history of Russia and Eastern Europe. History of Lithuania.
Read Also History of Estonia.
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