History of Indonesia Timeline and Culture of Indonesia
The History of Indonesia: The name of the country of Indonesia came from the Greek word Indos (India of Hindustan) and nessus (island).
Indonesia (Republic of Indonesia) is a country located in Southeast Asia and Oceania. This country is spread over thousands of islands between Malaysia and Australia. Its population is about 270 million, it is the fourth largest population in the world and the country with the largest Muslim population in the world. The capital of this country is Jakarta. Indonesia is the largest economy in East Asia.
Geographical History of Indonesia: Indonesia shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor and Malaysia, while other neighboring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia, and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands region of India. Indonesia is a diverse country in which more than 300 local languages are used. Indonesia has more islands than any other country, more than fourteen thousand. In which no one lives on thousands of islands. Indonesia is also a member of the G20, a grouping of the world’s largest economies.
Indonesia earthquake history: Geographically, Indonesia is vulnerable to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. In 2004, a massive sea earthquake devastated the entire coast of South and East Asia. About 220,000 Indonesians were killed or missing in this tsunami that hit the Indian Ocean. Indonesia is traditionally considered extremely prosperous and the country is full of festivals.
History on Indonesia
- Capital of Indonesia: Jakarta
- Total Area of Indonesia: Indonesia has total land area of 1,904,569 square kilometres (735,358 sq mi), Including 93,000 square kilometres (35,908 sq mi) of inland seas (straits, bays, and other bodies of water).
- Indonesian Currency: The currency in Indonesia is the Indonesian rupiah Each rupiah is divided into 100 sen.
- Language of Indonesia: Indonesian
- Continent of Indonesia: Asia
Indonesia Religion Ratio
Indonesia’s Six Official Religions
|Religion Ratio|| Percentage share
(of total population)
Indonesia History Timeline
The history of Indonesia is also associated with India. of 300 BC. That period, when Emperor Ashoka was ruling, in the same period, Hindu kingdoms were also ruling inside Indonesia. Java and Sumatra are the two largest islands here. It was on these that the Hindu empires began. This happened under the influence of Hindustan. The merchants of India used to carry their goods there through the sea. Along with them Hinduism also reached there. After some time, there were also Buddhist kingdoms. Indonesia was ruled by Hindu and Buddhist kings for a long time.
INDONESIA IN ANCIENT TIMES
Ancient History of Indonesia: The history of Indonesia begins when the first settlers arrived about 40,000 years ago, when the sea level was lower and it was linked to Asia by a land bridge. Then, at the end of the last ice age, around 10,000 BC, a new wave of people arrived.
A concise history of Indonesia : At first they hunted animals, gathered shellfish and plants for food. Around 2,500 BC they learned to cultivate taro, bananas, millet and rice. Early farmers also made pottery, but all of their tools were made of stone.
However, by 700 BC the Indonesians had learned to make bronze and iron. In addition, the cultivation of wet rice was introduced at that time. Indonesian villages were forced to cooperate to regulate the water supply to their fields. Over time organized kingdoms arose.
By the 8th century AD, Indonesian civilization was flourishing. Among the kingdoms was a Hindu kingdom in central Java called Shailendra. There was also the great Buddhist kingdom of Srivijaya in South Sumatra.
The First Civilizations
Civilization History of Indonesia: The Indonesian archipelago has been gradually growing over the years. The first peoples who settled in the place were sailors and rice farmers . It was they who carried out the implementation of rice farming and fishing techniques, which are the basis of Indonesian civilization . From the 5th century, two political entities emerged. On the one hand, the maritime states on the coast of North Java and, on the other hand, the inland kingdoms with the exploitation of the land in the East and Central Java.
What is the main culture of Indonesia?
Indonesia history and culture: In contact with the Indian people, the kingdom of Srivijaya , southeast of Sumatra, was the first state influenced by Indian culture and adopted the language, Sanskrit, as well as the Buddhist and Hindu religions. This cultural strength has allowed this region to control trade (especially spice trade) between China, India and the archipelago for years.
Majapahit Empire History of Indonesia : This was a very powerful empire. He believed in both Hinduism and Buddhism. There were also Shaivas. Vaishnavas were also there. There were also Buddhists. The king was considered to be the incarnation of all three. The Pala dynasty of Hindustan had a great influence here. Especially on his art and literature. Many idols of Hindu gods and goddesses were also made and used. For the Buddhists idols of people revered also used to be made. The best time of this dynasty came in the 14th century.
When it was taken over by a king named Hayam Wuruk. He spread his legs far and wide. This empire had spread all over Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Brunei. There has never been a more powerful empire in the history of Indonesia.
Read also History of Hinduism
THE HINDU-BUDDHIST AND MUSLIM PERIOD
Religion History of Indonesia : In the 7th century, thanks to commercial exchanges between the Chinese and the Tamils across the archipelago, Hindu-Buddhist and animist cults appeared. The country therefore has two dynasties: the Buddhist reign of Shailendra and the Hindu reign of Mataram. You can retrace this historical episode by visiting the temples of Borobudur and Prambanan.
It was many centuries later, from the 15th century, that Muslim civilizations spread throughout the territory. Thus, the current Indonesian communities are the true testimony of this triple Muslim, Hindu-Buddhist and animist culture.
In Indonesia Islam in the late 13th century
Islamic History of Indonesia: The people of Indonesia considered their king to be an incarnation or god of Vishnu. As he did, as he lived, he lived, followed him. The society was rich in wealth and religion and culture. There objects and thoughts were reaching from all four directions. As a result, the Muslims also reached the guise of merchants, taking Mediterranean thoughts and mentality. He married beautiful young women from Java and Sumatra. Islamic merchants began to capture land and women, because the society was not organized, so the protest was not organized. Yet ordinary Indonesians kept their distance from Islam until the 13th century. Muslim started breaking into the royal family and started marrying women of royal families.
The princesses of many local princely states came under his trap. But only by marrying the princess of the main royal family, all the subjects could be inspired to Islam. Eventually a Muslim merchant married the princess of Samudra Pasai, a major princely state on the island of Sumatra, whose capital was the city of Ganga. Islam came to Indonesia in 1267 AD through this princess. His father Maharaj Maru Seelu Maharaj and his wife also became Muslims. This king was of local Asehi origin, whose population was 80-90 percent and gradually the whole population started adopting the religion of Islam.
The Story of the Priest’s Prophecy
Old Famous Story in History of Indonesia: According to the story prevalent in Indonesia and described in Kalpavriksha, the then priest Shabadpalan said in the king’s court that, “I am the queen of the country and the servant of all dang-hyang (god and soul) on the land of Java and my ancestor Viku. Members of every generation from Manumanas, Sakutram and Babang Sakri have been servants of the Javanese (Java) kings.
Till now more than two thousand years have passed and there is no change in their religion. But now, when the king is changing his sect, I am returning from here. After 500 years, I will bring Hinduism back here. He prophesied in front of the king that, “Maharaj! If you embrace Islam, your lineage will be destroyed and the people living in Java will be forced to leave the earth and the people here will be forced to leave this island.
Interestingly, in 1978, the construction of temples started again in Indonesia and the restoration work of the dilapidated temples in the country started again. Thousands of Muslims living in Java again started adopting Hinduism.
THE PERIOD OF COLONIZATION
Independent History of Indonesia: The Portuguese are the first to colonize Indonesia. The country is becoming a strategic location for international trade due to its convenient location between India and China. By capturing the Moluccas at the end of the 15th century, the Portuguese took control of the trade, in particular thanks to spices, which the Europeans loved. Following the success of the trade, the Dutch regain power from the Portuguese. The Dutch East India Company is born and the Dutch take control of the Indian seas. Thus, Indonesia becomes the Dutch East Indies.
A few years later, it was the English who seized the Indonesian lands by abolishing the Company. This colonial battle shakes the country, the Indonesians revolt against the colonists and demand independence.
History of Modern Indonesia
While the Dutch try to gain more land by exploiting its wealth, epidemics and famine devastate Indonesia. Therefore, from the 20th century, the Dutch government decided to industrialize the country to improve living conditions.
THE PERIOD OF INDEPENDENCE
In 1926, a communist revolution broke out but was very quickly forced to withdraw. After long years of war and repression, Indonesian President Sukarno officially announced the country’s independence in 1945.
But it was only in 1949 that the Dutch settlers withdrew. Between 1965 and the 2000s, many tensions erupted in particular to eradicate Indonesian communism definitively. With the peace treaty signed in 2002, Indonesia regained serenity.
Indonesia: History Took a Turn
History has taken a big turn in Indonesia, who converted from Hinduism to Islam in the 13th century. Then the country became Islamic due to the adoption of Islam by a princess. Now a princess of Indonesia has made a new history by returning to Hinduism. His entire family was in support of him in this decision.
The era has changed in Indonesia, the country with the largest population of Muslims. Princess Diya Mutiara Sukmawati Sukarnoputri of Indonesia returned to Hinduism on 26 October 2021. Once a princess of his clan had become a Muslim fraudulently in 1267 AD. Now history has taken a turn.
The Princess Became a Hindu
Princess Sukumawati, on her 70th birthday, left Islam in Indonesia’s most populous state of Bali on Tuesday and took the initiation of Hinduism. This official Hinduization of Sukmavati took place on 26 October during the Sudhi Vadani meaning purification ceremony from Hinduism at the Sukarno Heritage Center in Buleleng District. Only 50 guests attended the ceremony. The princess is the third daughter of former Indonesian President Sukarno and sister of the country’s fifth President Meghavati Sukarnoputri.
His grandmother Nyoman Rai Sirimben was also a Hindu woman who hailed from Bali. It is believed that Hinduism has had a lot of influence on Sukmavati since childhood.
Indonesian Bali History
History of Bali Indonesia : Known as the ‘Island of the Gods’ in Indonesia, Bali is home to 4.2 million people. There are 11 big mountains, out of which two are active volcanoes. These volcanoes have erupted lava many times. Bali’s most famous volcano Batur has a special attraction for tourists. The deep connection of this region with Hindu culture and civilization can be felt. There are different beliefs of Hinduism here. A different form of devotion to the trinity of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva can be seen here. On a square kilometer basis, Bali has the largest number of temples in the world. For this reason it is also called the island of thousand temples.
Also Read History of India
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