The History Of Hungary
Hungary’s history : Hungarian culture is made up of a long history. Budapest, It is located in the south-eastern wing of the Castle Palace. Originally inhabited by ethnic groups of Germanic and Slavic descent, Hungary in the tenth century BC.C. was invaded by nomadic populations of Asian origin, the Magyars, who settled in its territory, creating the kingdom of Hungary. After a period of independence, at the beginning of the sixteenth century, Hungary was conquered by the Ottomans from whom it managed to escape in the following century only with the help of Austria, which in 1668 ended up completely extending its dominion over it. History of Hungary.
No longer able to quell the discontent and the frequent revolts of the population, in 1867 Austria consented to the establishment of a dual monarchy, that is what was called the Austro-Hungarian Empire, consisting of the two independent kingdoms but governed jointly. With the dissolution of the Habsburg Empire in 1918 Hungary achieved its complete independence. World War II saw Hungary side with the Nazis and subsequently enter the sphere of communist regimes for a few decades, until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991
History On Hungary
- Total Area Of Hungary 93,030 km²
- Capital of Hungary Budapest
- Currency Of Capital Euro
- Language Of Hungary Hungarian
Religion Of Hungary
|Rank||Belief System||Share of Hungarian Population|
|1||Roman Catholic Christianity||37.1%|
|2||Atheism or Agnosticism||18.2%|
|3||Reformed Church of Hungary and Other Protestant Christian Denominations||13.8%|
|4||Greek Catholic Christianity||1.8%|
|Other Religious Affilliations||1.9%|
ANCIENT HUNGARY HISTORY TIMELINE
Ancient history of Hungary: During the last ice age, humans in Hungary lived hunting mammoths and reindeer with stone weapons. When the ice age ended, they hunted smaller animals. History of Hungary.
However, around 5,000 B.C. were introduced into Hungary, although farmers still used stone tools. Then, around 2,000 B.C. they learned to use bronze. Around 800 B.C. in Hungary they learned to make iron tools and weapons. After 500 B.C. they traded with the Greeks. They also learned to use the potter’s lathe. History of Hungary.
Then, in the time of Christ, the Romans conquered what is now Hungary. They reached the Danube in 11 BC.C. and in 9 AD.C. crushed a rebellion of a native people called the Pannons. The Romans then created a province they called Pannonia. History of Hungary.
The History Of Budapest
Over time Pannonia was fully integrated into the Roman Empire and the Romans founded a number of cities. Among them were Pecs, Szombathely, Sopron and Buda. History of Hungary.
At the beginning of the second century the Romans also conquered eastern Hungary, which they called Dacia. However, in the third century the Roman Empire declined. Dacia was abandoned in 271 AD.C. At the end of the fourth century the Romans withdrew from Pannonia and it was invaded by the Germanic peoples. History of Hungary.
In the sixth century an Asian people called the Avars conquered Hungary. They ruled the region until the end of the eighth century. At that time Charlemagne, the leader of the Franks, in what is now France, conquered central Europe, including Hungary. It forced the Misers to accept Christianity. History of Hungary.
However, in 843 the French Empire was divided into three. Hungary became part of the eastern third.
A Concise History Of Hungary Timeline
The Settlement of Hungary : The beginning of Hungary’s history can be traced back to the Hungarian land grab, which took place at the end of the 8th century. The Hungarian land grab refers to the invasion of the Hungarian people, the Magyars, into today’s Hungarian territory. The Magyars are originally an equestrian people who undertake raids throughout Europe and do not settle their own country. It was not until 955 that this situation changed, after the Magyars had lost the Battle of Lechfeld to the East Frankish and Bohemian troops. This puts an end to the so-called Hungarian invasions and the Magyars settle in today’s western Hungary.
THE FOUNDING OF THE STATE OF HUNGARY
The History of Hungarians : During the 10th century, a very special period of Hungary’s history took place: the Hungarian Empire was founded by Stephen I. Together with his father, Prince Géza, he Christianized the previously pagan people and created a church organization according to Carolingian models. With the approval of the Pope, he was crowned the first king of Hungary at Christmas in 1001 with the Holy Crown of St. Stephen. History of Hungary.
MAGYARS IN HUNGARY
The Magyars are descended from the Finno-Uric peoples, who were also the ancestors of the Finns and Estonians. They originally lived in what is now Russia. Around 1000 B.C. they separated. The ancestors of the Magyars moved west and south.
By the end of the ninth century they had already begun to storm the eastern part of the French Empire. In 896, under their leader Arpad, they conquered eastern Hungary. In the year 900 they captured the western part. Hungary became the Magyar homeland. However, for decades they continued to attack other parts of Central Europe.
However, at the beginning of the tenth century the Magyars suffered defeats. Finally in 955 the Germans under Otto I crushed them at the Battle of Augsburg. Afterwards, the Magyars gradually settled down and became civilized. History of Hungary.
At the end of the tenth century, Prince Geza invited German missionaries to come and preach Christianity to the people. Geza himself was baptized, but he also continued to worship pagan gods. History of Hungary.
Geza also wielded all the Magyars in a single united people. Until then they were divided into tribes, but Geza became a powerful ruler. His son Stephen (1000-1038) continued his father’s work. History of Hungary.
He confiscated much of the land in Hungary and built a network of castles or var across Hungary. Stephen was the first truly Christian ruler of Hungary and founded several monasteries. He was canonized (declared a saint) in 1083. History of Hungary.
HUNGARY IN MIDDLE AGES
A History of Hungary in Mid Age: After Stephen’s death there was a series of succession crises in Hungary. Order was restored by Laszlo I (1077-1095).
In the eleventh and twelfth centuries, Hungary firmly became part of Western civilization. Béla III (1172-1196) reformed the administration, drawing inspiration from that of the Byzantine Empire.
Settlers from Germany and Romania came to Hungary and in the twelfth century foreign visitors described it as a prosperous country. In addition, in the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries, trade flourished and new cities were created in Hungary.
However, in the early thirteenth century, Hungary was ruled by Andreas II (1205-1235). He proved to be incompetent and provoked a rebellion. In 1222 he was forced to issue the Golden Bull.
This document safeguarded the rights of all free men in Hungary and has been compared to the Magna Carta of England. A clause gave the lords the right to resist the king if he broke the conditions of the Bull.
Disaster struck Hungary in 1241 when the Mongols invaded the country. The Hungarian army was defeated at the Battle of Muhi in 1241. The Mongols only occupied Hungary for a year, but caused devastation.
Crops were burned or left unharvested and a terrible famine followed. The Mongols also plundered Hungarian settlements. As a result, Hungary’s population was substantially reduced. Then there was a slow process of reconstruction.
The last king of the Arpad dynasty in Hungary was Andreas III (1290-1301). He died childless. Charles Robert of Anjou was crowned king of Hungary, but until 1310 other men also claimed the throne. However, Charles Robert was eventually recognized by all Hungarians.
During his reign, Hungary prospered. In the 1320s gold was discovered in Hungary and soon large quantities of gold and silver were exported. The money raised helped the treasury a lot.
Hungary also escaped the Black Death of 1348 because it was sparsely populated and the epidemic did not spread. (In 1308 a Frenchman described Hungary as “an empty land.”) However, at the end of the fourteenth century the population increased.
Louis I (the Great) ruled Hungary from 1342. In 1345 his brother was assassinated in Naples. In 1347 Louis led an army into Italy and in 1348 they captured Naples. Louis then called himself king of Naples, but was forced to retire before the Black Death and the native ruler returned. The Hungarians attempted to recapture Naples in 1349 and 1350-52, but without success.
In 1370 Louis’ uncle, Casimir, King of Poland, died, and for a short time the two countries were united under Louis’ rule. However, Louis died in 1382 without an heir. Poland became a separate kingdom in 1386.
Meanwhile, Sigismund of Luxembourg became ruler of Hungary. During his reign, the Ottoman Turks became a growing threat. In 1354 they took Gallipoli. After the Battle of Kosovo in 1389 they advanced towards the Balkans. Sigismund fought a series of campaigns against the Turks in the years 1390-1396, but without success. Sigismund died in 1437.
However, in 1458 Matthias became king of Hungary. He was known as Matthias the Just for his impartiality. Matthias was a Renaissance ruler. He was a patron of the arts and learning. He also formed a mercenary army called the Black Army. With their help, Hungary was strengthened.
However, when Matthias died in 1490, Hungary declined. A diet (national assembly) met to elect a successor. The diet wanted a king “whose braids they could hold in their hands.” (In other words, they wanted a weak king they could control.) So the crown was given to Ulaszlo II. Under him, the Hungarian monarchy weakened. The Black Army was disbanded in 1492.
In addition, the situation of peasants in Hungary deteriorated. They lost the right to move from one village to another and the landowners imposed more forced labor on them. History of Hungary.
Finally, the peasants rebelled. It began in 1514 when the Pope called for a crusade against the Turks. Many Hungarian peasants joined. However, the nobility were not content to lose so much manpower and some tried to prevent their peasants from leaving.
What Was The Hungarian Revolt?
What Was The Hungarian Revolt? The peasants who had already joined refused to dissolve and under their leader, Gyorgy Dozsa, rebelled. Peasants attacked castles and burned stately homes. However, the nobles crushed the revolt. Dozsa was captured and executed.
As a result of the rebellion there was a reaction against the peasants in Hungary. The Diet of October 1514 passed a law condemning the peasants to eternal servitude. (Serfs were halfway between slaves and free men.) History of Hungary.
OTTOMAN RULE IN HUNGARY
Ottoman Empire in History of Hungary: Many centuries after the coronation of Stephen I, another important event in the history of Hungary is taking place. At the Battle of Mohács, which took place at the beginning of the 16th century, the Hungarians suffered a devastating defeat against the Ottomans. As a result, Hungary is divided into three parts and from then on ruled by different powers. The Ottomans claim the center of the country for themselves. Areas in the north and west of Hungary, which today belong to Croatia and Slovakia, are meanwhile led by the Habsburgs. Transylvania in the east of the country is converted into an Ottoman satellite state.
HABSBURG RULE IN HUNGARY
Habsburg Rule in history of Hungary: During the tripartite division of Hungary, only temporary ceasefires are closed, so that there are increased wars between the Ottomans and the Habsburgs. In the end, the Habsburgs determine the wars for themselves and effectively take control of Hungary. However, the Hungarian citizens resist this government and there is a revolution against the Habsburgs, which is led by the leader of the Hungarian independence movement against Austria, Lajos Kossuth de Kossuth et Udvard.
As a result, in 1867 there is a compromise between Austria and Hungary, which has a dual monarchy. Each half of the empire continues to lay down its own laws and operates under its own government. The Imperial and Royal Monarchy lasted from 1867 to 1918.
THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF HUNGARY
When did Hungary became a country? After the First World War, the Hungarian People’s Republic was declared a sovereign state again after almost 400 years by proclaiming the Democratic Republic of Hungary on 16 November 1918.
However, this change in Hungary’s history also causes a change in the country’s borders. Slovakia, which had previously belonged to Hungary for a long time, is part of the Czech Republic. In addition, Austria annexes Burgenland and the Transylvania region is taken over by Romania. History of Hungary.
THE SECOND WORLD WAR
As in most historical retrospectives, the Second World War also plays a decisive role in the history of Hungary. First, Hungary takes the side of the Germans. After suffering significant losses, the Hungarian government decided that it was better to change sides and join the Allies instead of Germany. In 1944, the German troops occupied Hungary. When the then citizen head Miklós Horthy wants to capitulate, he is deposed and arrested. History of Hungary.
In the end, the Red Army of the Russians wins the battle against the Germans, so that Hungary is occupied again.
THE HUNGARIAN PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC
History of Budapest Hungary: Under the influence of the Soviet Union, Hungary is transformed into a People’s Republic. After the Hungarian People’s Uprising in 1956, the government was deposed and replaced by a democratic government. However, after only a few days it was overthrown by the Soviet army in a bloody act, which is also an important part of Hungary’s history. History of Hungary.
The new head of state is called János Kádár. He ruled the country for more than 30 years with a socialist leadership style.
Modern History of Hungary: János Kádár is replaced by a democratic government that makes peace with Austria. This peace is sealed by cutting the barbed wire between the two countries so that GDR refugees can immigrate to both countries.
Viktor Orbán has been ruling the country for some time now. He belongs to the Fidesz party and represents a conservative ideology that can be classified as right-of-center. In the meantime, he is a member of the opposition, but is re-elected Prime Minister in 2010.
People Fashion And Culture of Hungary
When we talk about the real Hungarian heritage, we certainly mention matyó folk art among the first. This folk art is characterized by filling and flower embroidery that dates back to the late nineteenth century. century and that is also applied on ornamental textile articles and use. Some motifs, including for example the famous rose matyó, also become protagonists in other craft activities. Over the years this folk art and traditional costumes have gained notoriety all over the world and have been inscribed in the list of “Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity” edited by the Intergovernmental Committee for the Protection of the Intangible Cultural Heritage UNESCO.
The Hungarian people have interacted during their history with numerous ethnic groups, the country has seen and immediately migratory waves and forced repopulation, in accordance with the events of the various historical periods. There were times when almost exclusively German was spoken in Buda. Yet the Hungarian language has overcome the difficulties, thanks also to the first linguists and writers who consciously dealt with it in the early 1800s.
Hungary has long been tolerant in the religious field and even today we see a peaceful coexistence between Catholics, Calvinists, Lutherans, Israelites and other minor churches. History of Hungary.
History of Hungarian Language
The legends about the origin of the Magyar people and their language have been practically lost in their entirety. The first king of Hungary, Stephen imposed on the Magyars the conversion to Christianity and with the Christian Church and with the development of feudalism Latin was imposed during the Gothic period. The Hungarian boomed in the sixteenth century. when with the Reformation the use of Hungarian spread, for Luther asked that the Gospel be preached in the language of the people. History of Hungary.
In the seventeenth century it was claimed that the Hungarian language be used in public education and János Apáczai wrote a Hungarian Encyclopedia.
At the end of the eighteenth century the defenders of the philosophy of the Lights launched the linguistic reform to awaken the national consciousness because at this time German has been the official language. Finally, linguists elaborated the theory of the Finno-Ugric origin of Magyar. History of Hungary.
A Brief History of Hungary Timeline
What is the History of Hungary every year?
• 1031 (September 02) – Death of Emeric, son of Stephen I of Hungary, during a wild boar hunt. The King of Hungary no longer has a successor. To oust him from his succession, Stephen made the eyes and sink the ears of his cousin Vazul, the eldest prince of the dynasty, and exile his sons to Poland. He appointed as heir Peter Orseolo, the Venetian son of his sister. History of Hungary.
• 1038 (August 15) – Death of Stephen I, King of Hungary.
• 1063 (September 11) – Death of BélaÂ I, King of Hungary, born around 1016.
• 1077 (April 25) – Death of Géza of Hungary. His brother Ladislaus I ArpadÂ (Saint, Â Â 4040-1095) was elected King of Hungary.
• 1083 (August 20) – Canonization of King Stephen I of Hungary.
• 1095 (July 29) – Death of Władysław I of Hungary.
• 1116 (February 03) – Beginning of the reign of Stephen II (1101-1136), King of Hungary (end in 1131).
• 1131 (March 01) – Death of Stephen II, King of Hungary.
• 1131 (April 28) – Coronation of Béla II of Hungary, the blind man. His wife Hélène takes the reins of power. She summoned a national assembly in the plain of Arad and had 68 tycoons murdered on suspicion of plotting with Koloman against Béla to break his eyes.
• 1141 (February 16) – Coronation of Géza II (1130-1161) King of Hungary.
• 1162 (July 14) – Beginning of the reign of Władysław II of Hungary
• 1163 (January 14) – Death of Władysław II of Hungary, his brother Stephen IV succeeds him.
• 1165 (April 11) – Death of Stephen IV of Hungary, King of Hungary.
• 1173 (January 13) – Coronation of King Béla III of Hungary.
• 1196 (April 23) – Beginning of the reign of Emeric, King of Hungary (end in 1205).
• 1204 (November 30) – Death of Imre of Hungary, King of Hungary.
• 1235 (October 14) – Coronation Béla IV, King of Hungary (reigned until 1270).
• 1241 (April 11) – Mongol victory over the Hungarians at the Battle of Mohi
• 1272 (August 06) – Beginning of the reign of Władysław IV the Couman, King of Hungary (end in 1290)
• 1301 (February 14) – Death of Andrew III, King of Hungary.
• 1301 (August 27) – Wenceslas III is crowned King of Hungary.
• 1347 (December 13) – Zara is retaken by the Venetians from the King of Hungary after two and a half years of siege.
• 1848 (December 15) – The Austrian army invades Hungary.
• 1919 (August 01) – End of the Republic of the Councils of Hungary.
• 1919 (March 21) – Béla Kun takes power and proclaims the Republic of the Councils of Hungary on the model of the Russian Soviets.
• 1939 (April 11) – Hungary leaves the League of Nations.
• 1939 (March 23) – Hungary annexes Subcarpathian Ruthenia
• 1939 (February 25) – Hungary joins the anti-Comintern pact.
• 1941 (April 03) – Hungary: suicide of the Prime Minister, Count Pà¡l Teleki (born in 1879), who intends to protest against his country’s participation in the next invasion of Yugoslavia by Axis forces.
• 1944 (April 13) – Eastern Front: Occupation of Budapest by the Wehrmacht.
• 1945 (February 13) – The Allies take Budapest.
• 1945 (September 26) – Death of Béla Bartàk, Hungarian composer and pianist
• 1956 (October 23) – Anti-Soviet Budapest Uprising in Hungary.
• 1956 (October 28) – In the midst of the Uprising in Budapest, Hungary, Imre Nagy is appointed Chairman of the Council.
• 1956 (October 30) – Imre Nagy abolishes the one-party system in Hungary.
• 1958 (June 16) – Death of Imre Nagy, Hungarian head of state
1988 The change of political system has begun.
• 1989 (06 July) – Death of Jà¡nos Kà¡dà¡r, Hungarian Head of State
• 1989 (October 23) – Proclamation of the birth of the new Republic of Hungary, on the 33rd anniversary of the 1956 uprising.
became a multi-party democracy. The Soviet troops left Hungary.
1999 Hungary became a full member of NATO.
• 2006 (23 April) – Ferenc Gyurcsà¡ny begins a second term as head of the Hungarian government.
• 2012 (02 April) – Hungarian Head of State Pal Schmitt, at the heart of a plagiarism scandal over his doctoral academic work, announces his resignation before parliament.
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