History of Hong Kong
Hong Kong had been a colony of Britain for almost a century and was handed over to China in 1997 by a lengthy dialogue. With this, the concept of One Nation Two System also came out. According to this arrangement, Hong Kong was given special status, that is, Hong Kong’s governance was to be separated from the main territory of China. China was empowered in defense and foreign affairs, while other matters were referred to Hong Kong and it was decided that in 2047, 50 years after Hong Kong was handed over to China, this arrangement would be revisited. China is a one-party system in which a change has been made recently. According to this change, the President of China will hold this post for his lifetime. The region of Hong Kong has been inhabited since the Old Stone Age, later becoming part of the Chinese empire with its loose incorporation into the Qin dynasty. Starting out as a farming fishing village and salt production site, it became an important free port and eventually a major international financial center. History of Hong Kong
1997 Britain China agreement
While the history of Hong Kong has been isolated from China for the past one century. The colonization of Britain led to the advent of democratic ideas in Hong Kong, and Hong Kong’s culture and Western culture together gave rise to some new ideas, which are very different from China. China has just completed 20 years of occupation of Hong Kong and China wants to eliminate the idea of a two-nation system. Although Hong Kong’s economic value is now limited compared to China, in 1997, the GDP of a small province like Hong Kong was 27 percent of China’s GDP, which has now come down to around 3 percent. The expansionist attitude of the current President of China is denying the ‘one country two system’ and is ready to go to any extent for Hong Kong’s full merger with China. History of Hong Kong
China has faced protests several times since China’s control over Hong Kong. In 2009, there was opposition to the National Security Act, which resulted in the withdrawal of the law. In 2014, there were large-scale protests in Hong Kong. This protest is called the ‘Umbrella Movement’. The people of Hong Kong were assured that Hong Kong citizens would be able to elect their chief executive on their own from 2017. But China allowed only those who had the support of the Communist Party of China to contest for the post. This caused extreme disappointment for the people of Hong Kong. This resulted in protests by millions of people for more than 2 months. People used umbrellas (‘umbrella’) to avoid police action, hence it is called as ‘umbrella movement’. Ref bbc.com History of Hong Kong
Hong Kong and China Enter ‘One Country, Two Systems’ Arrangement Until 2047
In 1984, the U.K. and China signed the Sino-British Joint Declaration outlining their plan for Hong Kong.
This declaration stipulated that Hong Kong would become a part of China on July 1, 1997, but that the “current social and economic systems” and “life-style” in Hong Kong would remain the same for 50 years. In this “one country, two systems” arrangement, Hong Kong would continue operating in a capitalist economy, and residents would continue to have rights to speech, press, assembly and religious belief, among others—at least until 2047.
In 2019, protests broke out over a proposed bill that many Hong Kong residents felt would violate the “one country, two systems” arrangement by allowing extradition to mainland China. The bill would allow local authorities to detain and extradite fugitive offenders who are wanted in territories that Hong Kong does not have extradition agreements with, including mainland China and Taiwan.
The bill’s critics argued that it could lead to what some have described as “legalized kidnapping.” At the time, some younger protesters expressed concern about what life will be like in Hong Kong when the expiration date for this arrangement passes in 2047.
Thyanman Movement and Suppression
In April 1989, more than 1 million protesters gathered at Thianaman Chowk to demand political independence. It is said to be the biggest political demonstration in the history of China’s leftist rule that lasted for one and a half months. This demonstration spread to many cities and universities. The protesters were demanding an end to dictatorship and freedom and democracy.Apart from this. There was anger among the people about rising inflation, low salary etc. Students protested in 1989, demanding political change after economic changes in China 30 years ago. Ref: from https://www.washingtontimes.com/
The main center of the protests in China led by pro-democracy students was Thianman Chowk. This student-led demonstration was attended by people from about 400 cities and towns in China, who wanted to resign from Communist leaders. Also, the objectives of this demonstration were the establishment of democracy in the country, social equality, press and freedom of speech. During this time countless protesters were killed and 10 thousand were also arrested. More about America US