The History of Greece Timeline

History of The Greece

History of Greece: It’s hard to believe that this number seems so unreal, but Greek history goes back well over 5,500 years. Hardly any other country in the world can look back on a similarly long history and can still boast such a high number of historical legacies and sights today. It is not only the many millennia that make the history of Greece so interesting, but also the liveliness and diversity of the historical narratives, as well as the mysticism that lies in them.

History of Greece
History of Greece

With every millennium that passed, Greece wrote a different story. Starting with the first high cultures of Europe, to the legendary and legendary tales of Sparta with its 300 warriors or the ancient gods and heroes of those times, you will be able to find and tell rousing and exciting stories about every epoch.

The Battle of Troy

The Battle of Troy in The History of Greece – the main event of the collection of ancient Greek anthologies. The Greeks besieged the city of Troy for ten years. Homer’s Iliad gives details of the pivotal scenes of only 51 days of this battle. The prince of Troy kidnapped Sparta’s queen Helen and took her to the city of Troy. To avenge this insult, all the kings and heroes of Greece together attacked Troy. While returning from Troy, his ship got caught in a storm. He wandered here and there for a long time. After that he returned to his country. History of Greece. 

Greece Becomes Independent

Greece history timeline: Although Greece was under Ottoman rule for a long time, the language, culture and religion were able to survive. This was possible because many farmers and smaller communities withdrew from the Turkish-dominated cities and cultivated their traditions apart from them. In these communities the voices calling for a Greek nation grew louder and louder. The success of the French Revolution encouraged many in their striving for an independent state of their own.

The national groups, mainly supported by Greek business people, received support from many other countries. In 1821 a struggle for freedom against the occupiers began. With the support of France, Russia and Great Britain it was finally possible to push back the Ottoman Empire. In 1830 Greece became independent and declared a hereditary monarchy.

Greece as a Kingdom

The new king of Greece Otto I ascended the throne in 1833. It wasn’t very popular, but it lasted almost three decades before it had to make way for the next king. Through him Athens became the new capital and it is still today. The next king was the Dane George I as the new head of government in Greece. He turned the hereditary monarchy into a parliamentary monarchy. At that time, many powers in Europe were fighting the Ottoman Empire, which gave Greece more conquered territories. This is how today’s state borders came about.

First World War and Greece

Greece managed to stay out of the First World War quite successfully. Some bases were established by France and Great Britain on Greek soil. From 1941 the country was also partly occupied by Italian and German troops. Active acts of war on the Greek side only began when the country’s nationalists turned against Turkey, but they failed.

Monarchy or Republic?

Meanwhile there was an argument about whether politics should develop more in the direction of a monarchy or a republic. This discussion inevitably ended when General Ionannis Metaxas established a dictatorship in 1936. In the background, however, a civil war continued between communists and those who favored monarchy.

In 1949, a monarchy was again established in Greece based on the Western powers of Europe. However, that only lasted until 1973. From then on, the country was a so-called presidential republic. Free elections were held in Greece in 1974. The new government under Konstantions Karamanlis was westward and conservative. History of Greece. 

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The Cyprus Conflict

A continually recurring point of contention between Turkey and Greece is the island of Cyprus. Cyprus changed “owners”. Sometimes the island belonged to Great Britain, then to Greece and every now and then to Turkey. In the 1950s there were first efforts to make the island independent. In 1960 independence was actually declared and Cyprus became an island state.

But the residents were still partly Turks and partly Greeks. Some of them wanted to assign Cyprus to the original homeland and the national aspirations caused a lot of controversy. Both the Turkish and Greek governments supported their representatives in Cyprus. It was and is not only about political interests, but also about economic interests, because there are lots of valuable natural resources in the sea around Cyprus.

the history of Greece timeline
The History of Greece Timeline

The UN and especially Great Britain prevented a total escalation of the conflict, but could not bring about peace either. In 1974 part of Cyprus was conquered by Turkish Cypriots. They drove out the Greek Cypriots and managed to get the then President Denktash to declare the region independent. However, this was never recognized by the Greek side.

This created two separate parts of Cyprus. This state of affairs continues to this day. Peace is not yet in place and there are still UN soldiers in Cyprus trying to avoid an escalation.

In the 1980s and 1990s, regarding the communication in temperature, the U.K. Also pay attention to this. Although the movement of cameras moving at unusually fast speeds, the speed of the 21st orbit increases. History of Greece. 

Alexander The Great

An important figure in Greek history was Alexander the Great (from 336 BC to 323 BC), actually from Macedonia. Alexander defeated the Greeks and then set out to conquer the vast Persian Empire. He first defeated the Persians in Asia Minor and then proceeded with his army. So he came to the land of Egypt, and found a city there, which was named Alexandria after him. He moved further and further east to conquer the other countries there. So Alexander finally reached India, where at that time the Persian Empire had come to an end. Alexander also tried to defeat the Indians.

But Alexander was defeated by the Indian king Porus (Puru), in the end, Alexander had to turn and  Alexander was killed.

History on Greece

The Golden Age of Athens

During the 5th century BC, Athens became the  center of Ancient Greek literature, art, and philosophy . In this period buildings such as the Parthenon were built  , philosophers such as Socrates developed their thinking and playwrights such as Euripides wrote works for posterity. With the final defeat of Athens in the Peloponnesian War began the end of the classical age of Greece. History of Greece. 

Ancient History of  Greece Summary

The history of Greece is lost in the depths of time. We know today based on archaeological findings that large areas of Greece have been inhabited since the Paleolithic era – a period which extends from about 2 million to 12 thousand years from today. Fossilized skulls, such as the one found in Petralona, ​​Halkidiki, but also myriads of other finds brought to light by the archaeological dig, testify to a cultural progress from the Stone Age (Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic) to the Bronze Age, Of Greece began around 3000 BC.

In Greece during the Neolithic Age (6800 BC – 3200 BC) permanent settlements are organized in the wider Greek area and a systematic economic activity based on agriculture, animal husbandry, early trade in the form of exchange of products, but and ceramics and art. The number of recorded Neolithic sites – the oldest of which dates back to 6000 BC – reaches 1,000, with the best known being Sesklo and Dimini in Thessaly, Lerna in Argolida and of course Knossos in Crete. The Bronze Age was also the historical matrix from which sprang three great civilizations, the Cycladic, the Minoan and the Mycenaean. History of Greece. 

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History of Greece Timeline

PERSIAN WARS: GREEK HISTORY TIMELINE

The first Persian campaign in Greece took place in 492 BC. led by Darius’ son-in-law, Mardonius. However, his army suffered terrible accidents in Thrace and his fleet, while passing the cape of Mount Athos, fell into a storm and lost 300 ships. Because of this damage, Mardonius was forced to return to Asia without doing anything. History of Greece. 

The Second Persian Expedition took place from the sea in 490 BC. The commanders of the new army and fleet were Datis and Artafernis. They, after capturing Eretria in Evia, sailed to Attica and landed in Marathon. In front of the much larger Persians 10,000 opposed. History of Greece. 

The third Persian campaign took place after the death of Darius (480) by his son Xerxes. He started with a large military force. He crossed the Hellespont and headed for Central Greece, while the fleet followed him sailing the Greek coast. The danger for the Greeks was very great, so the Spartans and the Athenians convened a pan-Hellenic conference in the Isthmus, which decided to organize a joint defense. History of Greece. 

 CLASSICAL PERIOD

The classic era of Greece, which covers the period from the early 5th century BC century until the death of Alexander the Great, in 323 BC, led to the height of their prosperity arts, letters and philosophy. History of Greece. 

“GOLDEN CENTURY OF ATHENS”

In 478 BC. The naval alliance of Delos was founded, in which the member cities were formally equal, but in fact more and more subordinated to the Athenians. During the period 478-431 BC. Athens, under the dynamic leadership of Aristides, Kimon and especially Pericles (443-429), experienced the “golden age” of its history, became the first political and cultural center of ancient Greece and the most powerful naval state. He also highlighted the ancient democratic regime with the final formation of the new institutions, ie the Parliament, the Church of the Municipality and Ilia. History of Greece. 

Georgia Efthymiou PELOPONNESIAN WAR (431-404 BC) The

main cause of the Peloponnesian War was the rivalry between Athens and Sparta for hegemony in Greece. The war that followed lasted 27 years and was the hardest war in Greek history. History of Greece. 

ALEXANDER THE GREAT (336-323)

Philip was succeeded by his son Alexander, who was proclaimed emperor general at a pan-Hellenic conference he convened in Corinth.

HELLENISTIC PERIOD

After the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC, there were twenty years of struggle between his successors for power, which ended with the battle of Ipsos in 301 BC, and the formation of four kingdoms. of which the most important were the Seleucids in Asia and the Ptolemies in Egypt. The Hellenistic or Alexandrian common is currently established as the official language of the Eastern Mediterranean regions and is maintained until the 6th AD. century. History of Greece. 

ROMAN PERIOD

The symbolic starting point of Roman rule in Greece is placed in 146 BC, after the destruction of Corinth by the Romans. At the end of the 1st millennium BC. and at the beginning of the 1st millennium AD Rome dominated politically in the wider Mediterranean area. The Roman Empire, which spanned 3 continents – Europe, Africa, Asia – was a diverse mosaic of traditions, worldviews, structures and beliefs, all operating under the administrative system of Rome. The culture that developed from the fermentations and interactions between these sources of culture was based on the dual foundations of Greece and Rome, which is why it is called Greco-Roman culture.

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Culture of Greece : Greek Culture

 Greek Culture Ioanna Aliferi
Greek Culture Getty Image: Ioanna Aliferi

Greek culture is not only linked with aesthetic value, it also has other positive references, such as philosophy, art and democracy. In Ancient Greece, the classic criterion of beauty was created: harmony through symmetry between the left and right sides of the individual. For them, aesthetic value was more important than eroticism. These had as a constant in the clothes, decorations of architectural origin and this is reflected in the rectangular cut of the clothes. The Greek population used a tunic decorated with this cut. The materials most used in the elaboration of these same costumes were handmade wool, linen and sometimes silk. 

 The main garment was the Quiton , a rectangle of fabric resembling a tunic placed on the body, fastened at the shoulders and under the arms. On the shoulders it was fastened with brooches or needles named Fibula and on the waist by a cord or belt. This was quite long, reaching, in adults, reaching the ankle and, in the case of the youngest, reaching the knees. When the tunic covered only one shoulder, it was given the name of Exomide . 

Women’s clothing was slightly different from men’s. It consisted of a rectangular fabric, contained cords or belts at the waist level as decoration and were very low-cut. They also wore a complementary outfit, the Pharos (Ionic dress) which had the function of a shawl. For protection against the cold, Himation was used covering the entire body of the individual. Greek philosophers used it as a basic garment, symbolizing the simplicity and elegance promoted by this culture.

Fashion of Greece

Greek words for fashion: As for their clothing we can say that they wore very simple clothes that did not have many changes over time. The men’s and women’s costume was a chiton, consisting of a rectangle of wool or linen fabric that was rolled into the body in different shapes and with different styles. This could reach the knee or ankle, depending on the social position of the person, in the case of aristocrats it was longer and that of peasants shorter by mobility. Another feature of the garment was that when wearing it they only covered the left arm, held it with pins or brooches called fibulas and girded it to the waist with a belt or cord.

Nicki Iliopoulou
Nicki Iliopoulou : Fashion Hotel Greece

A curious fact is that the Greek costume was not white as it was believed for a long time, but they wore it with colored fabrics and decorative motifs, except for the costumes of people of very lower classes. In general, they wore dyed, embroidered costumes with flower or animal motifs.

Chronology of Modern Greek History

All Above History of Greece summary (History of Unan)

By:

Τόνια Σωτηροπούλου

Tonia Sotiropoulou

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