The History of Germany
A central European state bathed to the northeast by the Baltic Sea and to the northwest by the North Sea, Germany is bounded to the north by Denmark, to the east by Poland and the Czech Republic, to the south by Austria and Switzerland, to the west by France, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.
Germany is a member of the European Union (it is part of the euro area) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). It is a federal state composed of 16 Länder (states): Baden Württemberg, Bavaria, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hesse, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saarland, Saxony, Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia.
- Area: 357,000 km2
- Population: 82,727,000 (2013 census)
- Name of inhabitants: German
- Capital: Berlin
- Language: German
- Currency: Euro
The history of Germany or German history begins, according to conventional wisdom, with the emergence of the Roman-German royalty in the 10th/11th century, although this was by no means a “state of the German==References== The German language has been used since the 8th century as an independent, in a variety of Dialects and evolving Language tangible. The inhabitants of the empire were mainly descendants of Teutons and Celts, in the west but also by Roman settlers and in the east by west slavic Tribes, the so-called Turn or Elbe Slavs.
Religion Ratio in Germany
Ancient Berlin: Ancient History of Germany
The oldest evidence of representatives of the Genus Homo on the territory of today’s Federal Republic of Germany is the between 500,000 and 600,000 years old Lower jaw of wallof Type specimen from Homo heidelbergensis. Slightly more recent finds come from the Bilzingsleben site as well as Homo steinheimensis; well-known finds are also the Schöninger Spears, which are considered the oldest hunting weapons of mankind.
Since Central Europe during the maximum expansion phases of the glaciers in the Cold periods became a cold steppe (tundra) and the polar glaciation penetrated far to the south, this area is likely to have been uninhabited in the period between 270,000 and 250,000, then from 160,000 to 140,000 and again from 70,000 to 60,000 before today. This should also be the case for maximum glaciation during the last glacial period apply, i.e. 22,000 to 19,000 years ago. Only since about 13,500 BC, with the Magdalenia, Central Europe is inhabited without interruption.
Basic features of ethnogenesis of Germanic gentes
In the bronze and Iron Age In these regions, various indo-european speaking Ethnic groups and Tribes (gentes). These arose from immigrant Indo-European tribes or their descendants, who had been involved with the “Natives” and also later continuously with continuous Peoples or settlers. This dynamic development is described as Ethnogenesis and is above all a social process.
The descendants of the in Northern Europe and Northern Groups settling in the field of Nordic bronze culture were established in the Antiquity by Greek historians as Celts in the West or Scythians in the East. It was only among Roman authors that the term became established. Teutons. The southern parts of Germany, on the other hand, were inhabited by cultural groups that can be described as Celts since the Iron Age.
In historical research, it is still controversial from when to speak of Germany and from when of the German people. In older, strongly nationally influenced research, the equation of Germans with the Germans in the medieval empire was postulated. This approach is very problematic and is rejected in recent research, because a conscious self-identity is also assumed. In modern research, on the other hand, ethnogenesis is not understood as a biological, but rather as a social process, in the course of which an identity in the context of a complex development process only slowly develops.
In addition, a language community cannot simply be equated with an ethnic community. The evaluation of contemporary sources does not give the picture of “German tribes” who consciously found themselves in their own empire in the 9th century (the Eastern France) have joined forces. Rather, the Frankish Empire served as a point of reference well into the 11th century.
Early Middle Ages
In the former settlement areas of Germanic tribes, which were affected by them in the course of the Migration had been abandoned, migrated in the 7th century to the Elbe-Saale line Slavic groups one. Almost in the entire area east of the Elbe was therefore Early Middle Ages up to the highest Middle Ages slavic spoken (Germania Slavica), in the Lusatia to this day the slavic Sorbs.
Ancient Germany The countries with barbaric tribes living to the north of the ancient Roman Danube River were called Germenia, after which the English word Germany was named. Gradually, these tribes became Christianized and this country became the center of the Christian Holy Roman Empire.
Major Cities of Germany
Major cities in Germany Map: Major city of Germany is Balen, Hamburg, Munich, Cologne, Frankfurt, Essen, Dortmund, Stuttgart, Dusseldorf, Bremen, Henobar, Deutsche bug.
Geographical structure of Germany
Germany has the North Sea and the Baltic in the north and the Alps Lake Constance in the south and the river to the southwest border. The major rivers are the Danube the Elbe, the Wasser and the Moselle. It has 16 states. History of Germany
Political Structure of Germany
There is federal governance here. 3 to 6 members, including eighty-eight members of the Federal Council or the Upper House, are appointed by state governments for a short period. There are six hundred and sixty-two members in the federal house or the lower house. Those who are elected by election for four years. The Federal Assembly elects the Chancellor of Germany and the Chancellor constitutes the Council of Ministers. The President is nominated by the House. Read about USA History of Germany
History of Germany Timeline
History of Germany Timeline: The Celts are considered early citizens of Germany. Subsequently, in the second century BC. German tribes began to settle here. In the fourth and fifth centuries AD, the Roman Empire made several invasions by the German inhabitants. One of these tribes, the Franks, established their dominance in Western Europe under the leadership of Charle Magne. By the Treaty of Berhun in 843, Charle Magne granted the land east of the Rhine to the German Prince Louis. History of Germany Timeline
By the 14th century, the Holy Roman Empire meant the German Empire itself, where the Prince chose the Holy Roman Emperor. Albert Dynasty of Hemsburg in 1438 and the Holy Roman Empire ruled this dynasty until 1806. History of Germany
Meanwhile, Prussia was emerging as a powerful state. On the issue of Silesia, Frederick the Great (1740–1786 AD) mobilized the army of Prussia and defeated Maria Theresa of Austria. After Napoleon’s defeat at the Battle of Waterloo (1816 AD), the tug of war continued between Austria and Prussia for dominance in Germany, culminating in the defeat of Austria (1866) and the establishment of the North German Confederation (1867).
The principal of this German unity was Otto von Bismarck, the Prime Minister of Prussia. He waged war against Denmark, Austria and France and tied the whole of Germany to the thread of unity. On January 18, 1871, Emperor Wilhelm I of Prussia was proclaimed the German Emperor. With the help of a powerful army, skilled bureaucracy and a loyal middle class, Bismarck succeeded in building a powerful centralized Germany. History of Germany
Emperor Wilhelm overthrew Bismarck in 1890 and adopted a policy of colonialism and established a powerful navy. Germany suffered a major defeat in the First World War (1914–1918). After the war, Emperor Kaiser took refuge in the Netherlands. In such a situation, the Social Democrats, under the leadership of Frederick Eobert and Philip Sheedman, established the Weymar Republic. Germany suffered the worst consequences of the First World War. The Treaty of Versailles ended his army and inflicted heavy fines on it. In such a situation, the emergence of Adolf Hitler.
On January 30, 1933, President von Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Chancellor. President Hindenburg died on August 2, 1934. Hitler vigorously began the militarization of Germany, abandoning the Treaty of Versailles. In 1935 he drove Germany out of the ‘League of Nations’ and captured Rhineland. At the same time it also strengthened relations with Japan and Italy. Germany annexed Austria in March 1938. The Second World War began with the German invasion of Poland on 1 September 1939.
Second World War and Germany
Germany initially had spectacular successes in World War II, but later suffered a landslide defeat. On 8 May 1945, Germany surrendered to friendly nations. During World War II, about 6 million Jews were murdered at the behest of Hitler. After the end of the war, the Allied States divided Germany into four parts through the Balen Conference. S. No. Strong differences between the US and the Soviet Union over Germany emerged. On 31 May 1948, S. No. America, Britain, France etc. agreed to establish a German state by mixing the three western regions. History of Germany
Republic of Germany
On May 23, 1949, Bonn was made its capital by declaring the Soviet part of Germany as the Federal Republic of Germany. A party regime was established there under the leadership of the Soviet Unity (Communist Party). On 7 October 1949, a centralized constitution was adopted. History of Germany
Germany Berlin Wall in 1961 Germany.
The gap of mistrust between the two German countries deepened when East Germany built the Berlin Wall in 1961. In such circumstances, West Germany came closer to the US and European countries. Read about France History of Germany. Germany berlin wall
History Of East West Germany
From 1945 to the present day, Germany and Berlin have been the scene of an indirect confrontation between two great powers of the time: the United States and the USSR. The confrontation between the Western Bloc unites around the values of democracy and the Eastern Bloc, around those of communism.
One may then ask how Germany and Berlin have evolved since 1945?
First of all, the quadripartite division of Berlin.
Indeed, in the aftermath of the Second World War, the United States, the United Kingdom, France and the USSR, decided to share the German capital. But this situation is ephemeral because very quickly the Americans, the British and the French decide to regroup their three zones. Berlin, then, is divided: West Berlin and East Berlin. Of course, Stalin, the Soviet leader refuses this situation. Then on June 23, 1948, he blocked all roads allowing access to West Berlin: It was the Berlin Blockade (which lasted until May 12, 1949).
Following this event, the entire German state was divided: the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) in the West and the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in the East. On the night of August 12 to 13, 1961, the construction of the Berlin Wall by the Soviets physically divided the German capital. The American-Soviet antagonism was then clearly marked. Berlin became a symbol of this rivalry, opposing a capitalist state (the United States) and a communist state (the USSR).
Finally, the fall of the Berlin Wall, between 9 and 11 November 1989, allowed the following year the reunification of the two Germanys, after twenty-eight separation. This event also heralds the collapse of communism.
We can therefore conclude that Germany and Berlin have long been symbols of the bipolarization of the world.
Today, and since 1990, Germany is a federal state, whose recent unity remains marked by this former East-West division.
East Germany integration into West Germany
Why did Germany split into east and west Germany? In 1982, Helmut Cole of the Christian Democrat Party was elected the new Chancellor of West Germany. During his reign, West Germany touched new heights of economic development. In 1989 the Communist Party collapsed in East Germany. On 9 November 1989, the demolition wall was broken.
History of East Germany and History of West Germany
History of West Germany: The integration of the two German nations paved the way after the Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachov took a soft approach in July 1990.In a crucial election on 27 September 1998, Gerhard Schroeder of the Social Democrat Party ended Helmut Cole’s 16-year rule. Germany joined NATO in the Kosovo war in 1999. It was the first time since the Second World War that the German army participated in a war. germany berlin wall
Gerhard Schroeder’s Social Democrat Party was defeated in the general election held on 8 September 2005 and Angela Merkel of the CDU / CSU formed a coalition government.
What was Germany Called Before
What was Germany Called Before: Before it was called Germany, it was called Germania. In the years A.D. 900 until 1806, Germany was part of the Holy Roman Empire. From 1949 to 1990, Germany was made up of two countries called the Federal Republic of Germany (inf. West Germany) and the German Democratic Republic (inf.Source DW.com)