1. A BRIEF HISTORY OF FRANCE COUNTRY
France Capital Paris
France Currency Euro
France Language French Language
France Area 6,43,800 km²
France Old Name Gaul
France President Emmanuel Macron
France Population 67,413,000 (May 2021)
France Religion Ratio:
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The history about France: Maritime country par excellence. Its coasts are bathed in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. It is bordered to the north by Belgium, Great Britain and Germany. To the east, with Switzerland and Germany. And to the south with Italy, Spain and Andorra. Its high mountain massifs, extensive river basins, cliffed coasts, sandy beaches and rich forests give it a landscape of exceptional diversity.
France, with the official name of French Republic, is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe, with a number of overseas regions and territories. France is the largest country in Western Europe and, as a whole, the third largest in Europe, stretching from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. Except for Morocco and Spain, it is the only country that has a coastline in both the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. The History of France.
As one of the oldest countries in the world, France has a long and hectic history. Today it stands as one of the world’s leading powers, with strong cultural, economic, military and political influence in both Europe and the world. The History of France.
There are important remains of the Lower Palaeolithic in the River Somme and the traditional Pyrenees with Neanderthal Man, as well as in La Chapelle-aux-Saints, Le Moustier and La Ferrasie. From the Upper Palaeolithic there are abundant vestiges of the men of Cro-Magnon, Grimaldi and Chancelade, dated to about 25,000 years old, which are located in the Dordogne Valley. Among the most famous cave paintings in the world are those of Lascaux and Font de Gaume, in the French Pyrenees. The History of France.
1.1. A CONCISE HISTORY OF FRANCE TIMELINE
A Concise History of France: In the Mesolithic some agricultural activities were replacing in importance to the caves, and in the Neolithic from the third millennium BC. C. emerged the megalithic culture, which employed menhirs, dolmens and burials. From around 1500 BC. C. the Bronze Age begins, developing trade routes. Tools from the Acheulean industry of homo erectus from 900,000 years ago have been found in the Le Vallonnet grotto in the south of France. The Iron Age and Celtic cultures are located within the first millennium BC.C. The History of France.
France was formerly known as Gaul
What was France called before? What is now France was formerly known as Gaul. Gaul was populated by the Gauls, a Celtic people of Indo-European origin. Its borders were partially established on the north by the current English Channel, on the west by the Bay of Biscay, the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the Pyrenees mountains and the Mediterranean Sea, and on the east by the Rhine River that separated it from Germania and the Alps mountains that separated it from Italy. The Gallic Celts starred in the civilizations of La Téne and Vix. In the south of Gaul settled the Greeks, Ionians, who founded Massalia, Marseille, Agde, among others.
1.2. History of France: Ancient history and its first inhabitants
1.2.1 Prehistory of France
First inhabitants of France: Stone tools found in the area we now know as France suggest that early humans may have inhabited the region at least 1.5 million years ago. Neanderthals, who inhabited France during the Middle Paleolithic (90,000-40,000 BC), were the first known inhabitants in the region. These homo sapiens hunted animals, made rudimentary stone tools, and lived in caves. In the nineteenth century, Neanderthal skeletons were found in caves located in Le Bugue, a French region in the Vézère Valley in the Dordogne.
1.2.2. The Ancient History of France
Ancient France: Evidence of Cro-Magnon has also been found in France. Cro-Magnon, a variety of taller Homo sapiens, is thought to have existed in the region about 35,000 years ago. These early humans had larger brains than their ancestors, long, narrow skulls, and short, wide faces. With much more agile hands, the men of the Cro-Magnon were able to build more advanced tools for hunting some species, such as reindeer, bison, horses and mammoths. They played music, danced and had quite complex social models. The archaeological treasures of this era can be seen today in the museums of Strasbourg. The History of France.
The men and women of the Cro-Magnon were also artists—mainly of rudimentary drawings that have helped archaeologists reconstruct, in a way, their history. A tour of the Grotte de Lascaux in France, a replica of the Lascaux cave, where one of the world’s finest examples of Cro-Magnon drawings was found in 1940, illustrates how early elementary drawings and animal engravings gradually became more detailed and realistic. Dubbed the “Sistine Chapel of the Perigord,” Lascaux Cave is one of 25 decorated caves known in the Dordogne’s Vézère Valley. The History of France.
1.2. France Middle Ages
As a result of the barbarian invasions, the Franks settled in Gaul. They constituted a powerful kingdom under Clovis (481-511), divided by their successors (Merovingians) into four regions: Austrasia, Neustria, Aquitaine and Burgundy.
The functions of the Merovingian kings were usurped by the palace stewards of Austrasia, one of whom, Charles Martel, defeated the Arabs at Poitiers (732).
1.2.1. A History of France: Gaul and the Roman Conquest
The Gauls, a mainly Celtic people, moved to the region now known as France between 1500 and 500 BC, and established trade links, around 600 BC approximately, with the Greeks, whose colonies included Massilia (Marseille) on the Mediterranean coast. From a geographical perspective, Gaul, as a region, comprised all lands from the Pyrenees and the Mediterranean coast of modern France to the English Channel and from the Atlantic Ocean to the Rhine River and the Western Alps. In short, the Gaul was not a “natural” unit but a Roman construction, the result of a decision to defend Italy from the other side of the Alps.
In the second century BC, Rome intervened alongside Massilia in their conflicts against the tribes of Gaul, with the main aim of protecting the routes from Italy to their new possessions in Spain. The end result of this support was the formation of Provence, a region stretching from the Mediterranean coast to Lake Geneva, with its capital at Narbonne (Narbonne). During the years of 58 to 50 BC, Caesar seized the rest of Gaul.
Though motivated by power and personal ambition, Caesar justified the seizure by appealing to deep-seated fear of Celtic warrior bands and other Germanic incursions. The conflicts, which lasted for several centuries, between the Gauls and the Romans ended in 52 BC when Caesar’s legions crushed a rebellion led by the Gallic chief Vercingetorix in Gergovia, near present-day Clermont-Ferrand.
The Gauls quickly assimilated the new Greco-Roman way of life. The period following the Roman conquest gave rise to magnificent structures: baths, temples, public buildings and aqueducts such as the Pont du Gard. Impressive theatres and amphitheaters were built in places such as Autun, Lyon, Vienne, Arles and Orange. Lyon today has an excellent museum of Gallo-Roman civilization. The stones of the first-century Roman amphitheater of Periguex, which was torn down during the third century, were later used to build the city walls. history on France.
France was under Roman rule until the fifth century, when the Franks and Alemanii invaded the country from the east. These peoples adopted important elements of Gallo-Roman civilization (including Christianity) and their eventual assimilation resulted in a type of fusion in which elements of Germanic culture were combined with that of the Celts (Gauls) and Romans. History of France.
1.2.2. Timeline of History of France: A Look at dynasties
Around 450 AD, several groups of Franks moved south. The Ripuarian Franks, the name by which they would later be known, settled near present-day Cologne, in the middle of the Rhine area, and along the lower hairpins of the Moselle and Meuse rivers. The Salian Franks settled along the Atlantic coast region and were divided into several small kingdoms. The kinglet of one of the best-known groups, who settled in the vicinity of the city of Tournai, was Childeric (died 481/482. ), who is traditionally regarded as a close relative of the male line of Merovech, eponymous ancestor of the Merovingian dynasty.
220.127.116.11. The Merovingian Dynasty
Childeric was succeeded by his son Clovis (481/482-511) as the king of the Merovingian dynasty. Among other achievements, Clovis was responsible for unifying Gaul, with the exception of a few regions in the southeast. History of France.
He consolidated the position of the Franks in northern Gaul during the years following their ascension. In 486 he defeated Syagrius, the last Roman ruler in Gaul, and in a series of subsequent campaigns, with strong Gallo-Roman support, occupied an area situated between the new Frankish kingdoms of Tournai, the Visigoth and Burgundian kingdoms, and the lands occupied by the Ripuarian Franks and the Alamanni, removing them from imperial control, One more time. History of France.
The History Of Paris: Clovis established Paris as the capital of his new kingdom, and in 508 was recognized by Emperor Anastasius receiving possibly an honorary consulate, and the right to wear imperial insignia. These privileges gave the new king a very useful credibility in gaining the support of his Gallo-Roman subjects. Clovis, along with his army of 3000 soldiers, converted to Christianity in 498, being the first Franks to do so. When Clovis died in 511 the kingdom was divided among his four sons, who continued to make new conquests, such as Burgundy and southern Germany.
18.104.22.168.1. The Carolingian Dynasty
As power passed, from generation to generation, into the hands of the next son in the Merovingian lineage, the dynasty continued to rule the country until 751, although in 720 they were mostly straw authorities, as effective power was increasingly concentrated in the hands of the Pippinids (later the Carolingian dynasty), that thanks to their valuable lands and their loyal servants, they maintained the monopoly of the function of palace steward. Because of the family’s inclination towards the name Charles and because of Charlemagne’s importance in the family’s history, modern historians have traditionally called the Pippinids the Carolingian dynasty.
The Carolingian dynasty ruled the Frankish kingdom from the eighth to the tenth century. At the death of Pepin II in 714, Carolingian hegemony was in danger. His heir was his grandson, in charge of his widow’s regency, Plectrude. During his brief reign the Saxons crossed the Rhine and the Arabs crossed the Pyrenees, thus putting the kingdom at great risk. However, the situation was rectified by Pepin’s illegitimate son, Charles Martel. History of France.
When Charles defeated the Neustria at Ambleve (716), at Vincy (717), and at Soissons (719), he declared himself master of northern France (although he never received the title of king). Martel is best known for the re-establishment of Frankish authority in southern Gaul, where he prevented the Moors from taking control (as they did in Spain) during the Battle of Tours (732) at Poitiers. History of France.
On the death of Charles Martel (741), his lands and powers were divided between his two sons, Carloman and Pepin III (the Short), as was customary. This partition was followed by failed insurrections in the peripheral duchies, Aquitaine, Germany, and Bavaria.
Pepin III remained faithful to the custom of the Carolingian dynasty, and his death in 768 his kingdom was divided between his two sons, Charles (Charlemagne) and Carloman. The succession did not proceed smoothly, as Charlemagne faced a serious rebellion in Aquitaine, as well as the enmity of his brother, who refused to help suppress the revolt. Carloman’s death in 771 saved the kingdom from civil war.
Charlemagne dispossessed his nephews of their inheritance and consolidated the kingdom under his own authority. Charlemagne ruled the Frankish kingdom from 742 to 814 and is generally regarded as one of the most important leaders in world history. Extending the borders of the kingdoms through a series of bloody conflicts he was named Holy Emperor of Rome (Emperor of the West) in 800. During the ninth century, Scandinavian Vikings (Vikings or Normans) stormed the western coast of France and settled in the lower Seine valley; they formed the Duchy of Normandy a century later.
22.214.171.124.1.1. The Capetian Dynasty
The Carolingian dynasty ruled France until the end of the tenth century, until Hugh Capet was crowned king in 987, thus establishing the Capetian dynasty. The then modest capet domain, which at the time consisted of a parcel of land surrounding Paris and Orléans, was unrepresentative of a dynasty that would rule France, one of the most powerful countries on earth, for the next 800 years.
It was during this time that William the Conqueror and his Norman forces occupied England in 1066, making Normandy and, later, England ruled by Plantagenet, great rivals of the Kingdom of France. In 1152 Eleanor of Aquitaine married Henry of Anjou, bringing another third of France under the control of the English crown. The bitter rivalry that continued between France and England for control of Aquitaine and the vast English territories in France lasted for three centuries. History of France.
In 1095, in the area that is now Clermont-Ferrand, Pope Urban II preached the first Crusade, which led France to play a leading role in the Crusades and giving rise to splendid Christian cathedrals, such as Reims, Strasbourg, Metz and Chartres. In 1309, Pope Clement V, a native of France, moved the papal see from Rome to Avignon, and the third Pope of Avignon, Benoit XII, began work on the magnificent Palais de Papes (Pope’s Palace). The Holy See remained in France until 1337. History of France.
126.96.36.199. History of France: The Hundred Years’ War
The Hundred Years’ War was a series of battles between England and France. The war dates back to William the Conqueror, crowned King of England in 1066, who, after defeating the French at the Battle of Hastings, unified England and Normandy and wanted to rule them as his own. Things finally spilled over between the Capetians and King Edward III of England in 1337, producing a conflict that officially lasted until 1453. The French suffered a dismal defeat at Crécy and Agincourt (where there is a multimedia battle museum). Mont St-Michel, full of abbeys, was the only place in the north and west of France that did not fall into the hands of the English.
Five years later, the Dukes of Burgundy (allied with the English) occupied Paris, and in 1422, John Plantagenet, Duke of Bedford, was appointed Regent of France by The King of England Henry VI, then an infante. Less than a decade later he was crowned King of France at Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris. History of France.
It was then, in 1429, that a seventeen-year-old woman named Jeanne d’Arc (Joan of Arc) convinced the French legitimist Charles VII that he had a divine mission from God to expel the Englishman from France and make way for Charles as king. Joan of Arc was convicted of witchcraft and heresy by a court composed of French church officials and subsequently sold to the English in 1430, where she was burned at the stake. History of France.
Charles VII finally returned to Paris in 1437, however, it was not until 1453 that the English were finally expelled from French territory. In 1491, at the Château de Langeais, Charles VIII married Anne de Bretagne, which signaled the unification of France with an independent Brittany. History of France.
188.8.131.52. Summary of History of France: The Renaissance
A Summary History of France Renaissance: When the Italian Renaissance movement entered France during the reign of Francis I (1517-1547), the focus was on the French Loire Valley. Italian and French artists adored royal castles in places like Amboise, Blois, Chambord and Chaumont, including the famous Leonardo da Vinci, who lived at Le Clos Lucé in Amboise from 1516 until his death. Artists and architects disciples of Michelangelo and Raphael had great influence during that period, as did writers such as Ronsard, Rabelais, and Marot. Many of the outstanding Renaissance ideas of geography and science were extolled, and the discovery took on new importance, as did the value of secular over religious life. when was France discovered?
1.2.3. History of France: The Reformation
A History of France Reformation: The Reformation broke into Europe and began to take hold in the 1530s. Martin Luther’s ideas were reinforced by those of John Calvin (1509-1564), a Frenchman born in Noyon (Picardie), but exiled in Geneva. Following the Edict of January 1562, which granted certain rights to Protestants, wars of religion (1562-1568) broke out between the Huguenots (French Protestants who received help from mostly Protestant English), the Catholic League (led by the House of Guise) and the Catholic kings. In 1588, the Catholic League forced Henry III, who ruled from 1574 to 1589, to flee the royal court in the Louvre and the following year the monarch was assassinated.
Henry III (who reigned from 1589 to 1610) Henry IV succeeded the throne, representing the beginning of the Bourbon dynasty. He was succeeded by Louis XIII, known as Fontainebleau. Louis XIII had a rather mediocre reign and remained under the control of his prime minister Cardinal Richelieu, known for his tireless efforts to establish an all-powerful monarchy in France and French supremacy in Europe. History of France.
1.2.4. History of France: Louis XIV, Louis XV and the Seven Years’ War
A Short History of France: Louis XIV, familiarly known as the “Sun King”, ascended the French throne in 1643 at the age of 5, and reigned until 1715. Brazenly claiming a divine French right, Louis XIV involved the French country in a series of wars and battles, conflicts that gained territory for France, but alarmed its neighbors and almost wiped out the national treasure. In France, he helped calm the ambitious and contentious aristocracy and created the first centralized French state. In the city of Versailles, about 23 kilometers outside Paris, he built a magnificent and lush palace and caused courtiers to compete with each other for royal favor.
Louis XV, the grandson of Louis XIV, ascended the throne in 1715 and continued to rule the country until his death in 1774. Not as good a statesman as his grandfather, Louis XV allowed his regent, the Duke of Orléans, to change the court back to Paris. As the eighteenth century progressed, the old monarchy came into increasing conflict with the French. In this age of enlightenment, where the anti-establishment and anti-church ideas of Voltaire, Rousseau and Montesquieu were circulating, the court was also threatened.
The Seven Years’ War, from 1756 to 1763, pitted France and Austria against Prussia and the British. This was just one of the many wars that doomed Louis XV and led to the loss of France’s prosperous colonies in Canada, the West Indies and India to the British. It was a war, to say the least, expensive for the monarchy, as it helped spread in France the radical democratic ideas that had been placed on the world stage during the American Revolutionary War. History of France.
1.2.5. History of France: The French Revolution
French Revolution in The History of France: The second half of the eighteenth century saw the arrival of revolution in France, marked by a series of social and economic crises. Hoping to divert some of that discontent from the people, Louis XV’s successor, Louis XVI, convened a meeting of the Etats Generaux (States General) in 1789, a body composed of representatives of the nobility (first estate), the clergy (second estate) and the remaining 90 percent of the population (the third estate). History of France.
When the people, or third estate, were denied a proportional voting system, they proclaimed themselves the National Assembly and claimed a constitution. In the streets, a crowd of French citizens took matters into their own hands by storming arsenals of weapons and lashing out at the gates of Bastille prison, now one of France’s most popular places. History of France.
France declared itself a constitutional monarchy and many reforms were enacted. However, while the new government was preparing against the threats posed by Austria, Prussia and the many exiled French nobles, patriotism and nationalism rammed with revolutionary fervor. Soon after, the Girondins, moderate Republicans, lost power to the radical Jacobins led by Robespierre, Danton and Marat, and in September 1792 the First French Republic was declared. Louis XVI was publicly guillotined in January 1793 at the Place de la Concorde in Paris, and his queen, the reviled Marie-Antoinette, faced a similar fate several months later.
The terrible Reign of Terror, from September 1793 to July 1794, saw religious freedom revoked, churches closed, cathedrals transformed into ‘temples of Reason’ and thousands imprisoned in the dungeons of the Conciergerie in Paris before being beheaded.
After the revolution, a delegation of five moderate republican men, led by Paul Barras, was founded as a Directory to govern the new French Republic. However, this would be short-lived, largely due to the arrival of a young Corsican general named Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821). History of France.
184.108.40.206. History of France: Napoleon Bonaparte
In The History of France Napoleon was a charismatic leader whose military skills and tactics quickly transformed him into an independent political force. In 1799 he overthrew the newly created Directory and assumed power as consul of the First Empire. In 1802, a referendum declared him consul of France for life, his birthday became a national holiday, and in 1804 he was crowned emperor of the French by Pope Pius VII in the cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris. Two years later, he commissioned to build in his honor the largest triumphal arch in the world.
To expand and lend credibility to his authority, Napoleon waged a series of large-scale wars, gaining control of most of Europe in the process, including Spain. In 1812, Napoleon’s troops conquered Moscow, but the long and brutal Russian winter was too much for his army and most died or fled. Two years later, allied armies entered Paris, exiled Napoleon to the island of Elba and restored the House of Bourbon to the throne of France at the Congress of Vienna (1814–1815). However, this would not be the last time France would hear about Napoleon.
Three years later, in 1815, Napoleon escaped from Elba, landed in southern Europe and entered Paris. His brief “One Hundred Days” back in power ended at the Battle of Waterloo and his return from exile, this time to the island of St. Helena in the South Atlantic. Napoleon Bonaparte died there in 1821, and in 1840 his remains were transferred to Paris. History of France.
1.2.6. History of France: France in the nineteenth century
Once power was restored to the House of Bourbon, three rather ineffective kings, Louis XVIII (1815-1824), Charles X (1824-1830) and Louis Philippe, attempted to restore France to the powerful monarchy of the past. However, both the people who lived through the changes brought about by the French Revolution and the radicals of the poor working class were unwilling to return to the old status quo. The village revolted, first in 1830 and again in 1848; the latter time resulted in the dismissal of Louis Philippe as king.
The Second Republic was established in France shortly after the elections that brought Napoleon’s nephew, Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, to the office of president. Two years later, in 1851, Louis Napoleon staged a coup d’état and proclaimed himself Emperor Napoleon III of the Second Empire (1852-1870).
During the Second Empire, France enjoyed significant economic growth. The city of Paris was totally transformed under urban planner Baron Haussmann, who created the 12 huge avenues that radiate from the Arc de Triomphe. Meanwhile, Napoleon III, who was a rather ineffective leader, organized brilliant parties in the royal palace, and summered in places like Biarritz and Deauville.
Like his uncle, Napoleon III involved France in a series of bloody conflicts, such as the Crimean War (1853–1856) and the devastating Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871), a conflict that ended when Prussia took Napoleon III prisoner. Upon hearing the news, the defiant and poor Parisian masses demanded that a new republic be installed.
The Third Republic began in 1870 as a provisional government of national defense. However, it was quickly besieged by the Prussians who attacked Paris and demanded that legislative elections be held. The first step taken by the resulting monarchically controlled assembly was to ratify the Treaty of Frankfurt (1871); the harsh terms of which, a war indemnity of 5 million francs and the surrender of the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, incited an immediate revolt. During the Semaine Sanglante or “Bloody Week”, several thousand rebels were killed and another 20,000 were subsequently executed.
Despite its troubled beginning, the Third Republic is known as the Belle Époque, a time that protected Art Nouveau architecture, advances in science and engineering, and different artistic styles from Impressionism. World exhibitions were held in the capital of Paris in 1889 and in 1901, the first of which was highlighted by the presentation of the Eiffel Tower.
The colonial rivalry in Africa that existed between France and Britain ended in 1904 with the Entente Cordiale (Cordial Understanding), which marked the beginning of a friendship and cooperation between the two nations, which, for the most part, has lasted to this day.
220.127.116.11. History of France: The First World War
The First world War in History of France: Of the eight million French men who served in the Great War (World War I), 1.3 million of them died and another million were crippled. Much of the war took place in northeastern France, with trench warfare using thousands of soldiers as cannon fodder just to gain a few meters of territory.
France wanted to enter World War I against Austria-Hungary and Germany for its desire to regain Alsace and Lorraine. The war officially ended in 1919, when the leaders of France, Britain, Italy, and the United States signed the Treaty of Versailles in France. Among its harsh terms included the return of Alsace-Lorraine to France and a $33 billion repair bill for Germany.
Although industrial production fell by 40 percent in France and led the country into a financial crisis, Paris continued to dazzle during the 1920s and 1930s, conquering artists and writers drawn to the city’s liberal atmosphere. History of France.
18.104.22.168. History of France: World War II
The decade of relative harmony and concert between France and Germany ran into an obstacle when Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany in 1933. At first, France tried to collaborate with the new leader, but when Hitler invaded Poland in 1939, the country joined Britain in declaring war against Germany. History of France.
Although France tried to subdue the German armies with an unprepared army, by June 1940 France had capitulated. The British had tried to help the French by sending an expeditionary force. However, the members of this unit only managed to escape being captured themselves and retreated to Dunkirk to cross the English Channel in small boats. The Maginot Line that the French had established during the war proved useless, as the German army flanked the line by moving through Belgium.
During the war, Germany divided France into an area under direct German occupation (in the north and on the west coast) and a puppet state led by the elderly hero of World War I, General Petain, in the spa town of Vichy—the demarcation line between the two areas ran through Chateau de Cheniceau in the Loire Valley. Today, visitors can get a sense of what life was like for the French in nazi-occupied north by visiting the World War II Museum in La Coupole.
The regime occupying the Vichy region hated Jews and forced local police forces in France to help them reunite French Jews for possible deportation to Auschwitz and other Nazi-run death camps. There was only one Nazi concentration camp within the French borders: Natzweiler-Strutfoh. Today, it can still be visited by those interested in the history of World War II.
On June 6, 1944, Allied troops, most of them Americans, stormed the beaches of Normandy and Brittany, liberating both. They continued to Paris which they liberated on August 25 with the help of Free French units, which were sent ahead of the Americans so that the French would have the honor of liberating their own country. History of France.
1.2.7. History of France: Post-World War II Period
It would take the French decades to repair the damage caused by World War II. During the war, the Germans requisitioned virtually all available material to maintain their war machine, such as ferrous and non-ferrous metals, statues, bar zinc bars, coal, leather, textiles, and chemicals. Agriculture, strangled by a lack of raw materials, fell by almost 30 percent. History of France.
While fleeing France, the Germans burned a total of 2,600 bridges. Allied bombing also wreaked havoc on France, damaging nearly 40,000 kilometers of railways. Roads were affected and nearly 500,000 buildings and 60,000 factories were damaged or destroyed. The French were forced to pay the German occupation forces up to 400 million francs a day, until they almost emptied the public coffers.
The damage and humiliation suffered by the French at the hands of the Germans was no secret to the French colonies. As the economy tightened in France, the natives of these colonies began to notice that they were the most affected by this disaster. In Algeria, the movement for greater autonomy that began at the beginning of the war became an all-out independence movement towards the end of the war. The resistance movement in Vietnam during the war, when the Japanese moved to strategic positions in Indochina, assumed an anti-French nationalist tone, setting the stage for Vietnam’s independence.
1.2.8. The French Colonies
The 1950s saw the end of French colonialism. After the Japanese surrendered to the Allies in 1945, Vietnam’s Ho Chi Minh pushed for independence. At the outbreak of war, France withdrew from the region in 1954 because French troops could not defend themselves from the brilliant guerrilla warfare tactics in Vietnam. History of France.
Algeria’s effort for independence was a bit more costly. At the time, Algeria was ruled by approximately one million French settlers, who resisted Algeria’s demands for political and economic equality. This led to the brutal Algerian War of Independence (1954-1962). Attacks by indigenous rebels led to executions, torture and unspeakable massacres, which only strengthened the will of the Algerian people.
The United Nations pressured France to withdraw from Algeria. However, the pieds noirs (literally “black feet”, as French of Algerian origin are known in France) were enraged by the way France was handling the conflict. A plot to overthrow the French government and replace it with a military regime was narrowly avoided when de Gaulle agreed to assume the presidency in 1958.
1.3. Fifth Republic
From 1959 to 1969, General De Gaulle returned, who reformed the constitution to give greater stability to the governments (Fifth Republic) and had to face the momentous events of “May 68”. France became a nuclear power, and in the framework of the cold war, France joined NATO. History of France.
1.3.1. History of France Economy
The economy of France is a highly developed, market-oriented economy. It is the world’s sixth-largest economy by 2022 nominal figures and the ninth-largest economy by PPP, constituting 3.3% of world GDP. It is the 2nd largest economy of Europe, after the economy of Germany.
22.214.171.124. France Economic Growth
In 2022, GDP growth is expected to moderate compared 2021 due to a fading base effect and a marked slowdown in capital spending. However, household spending will largely sustain growth. Nonetheless, the outbreak of war on the EU’s eastern flank, along with election-related uncertainty ahead of the 2022 presidential elections, pose serious risks to the outlook. Our analysts see the economy expanding 3.8% in 2022, which is unchanged from last month’s forecast, and 2.2% in 2023.
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