Ancient History of Estonia
The Brief History of Estonia: Humans first lived in what is now Estonia around 11,000 years ago. The oldest settlement was found in Pulli in the southwest of the country. Around 7400 BC The Kunda culture arose around the eponymous place on the northern coast of the Baltic Sea. It was followed from 6000 BC. the Narva culture . The population finally settled down and practiced agriculture. In the first centuries after the turn of the century, numerous small principalities emerged.
A Concise History of Estonia: Between 800 and 1200 C.E., vikings took place in the Baltic Sea region, including Estonian Vikings. During this time, the inhabitants of Saaremaa, Estonia’s largest island (formerly known as Donkey), had formed a remarkable navy. The most famous event of that time was the kidnapping of Queen Astrid of Norway and her son, the future King Olaf Trigveson, by the Estonian Vikings. At the beginning of the XII century, the hereins plundered and destroyed the then Swedish capital, Sigtun. Saaremaa Island is still full of Viking-era treasures, basically you can find silver coins and bars here.
The Teutonic Order and Its State
The History of Estonia: In 1237 the Knights of the Teutonic Order founded the Teutonic State on the territory of Estonia, Latvia and parts of Prussia . The country was conquered and settled. The region flourished economically. The Baltic Germans, the upper class who immigrated from Germany, influenced culture and language and formed the nobility. Again and again there were conflicts with Poland and Lithuania, which joined forces in 1385 and rose to become the most powerful empire in the Baltic region. In 1560 the religious order finally came to an end.
Swedish, Russian – Independent!
History of Estonia: In 1629 the country was conquered by Sweden, in 1710 it fell to Russia in the Great Northern War . Estonia thus belonged to the Baltic Sea governorates of Russia. History of Estonia.
With the end of the Russian Tsarist Empire, Estonia gained its independence for the first time in 1918.
History of Estonia: For almost eight centuries, the territory of today’s Estonia, like the entire Baltic region, was a pawn in the power struggle of various states. Until the 12th century, the tribes living in what is now Estonia enjoyed a certain degree of independence. The reasons for this were inaccessible settlement areas and military vitality. But the sword mission in the 13th century brought about a change: commercial, church and state interests found their way into the Baltic States. The region was influenced by the three major movements of the European Middle Ages: flourishing long-distance trade, Crusade movements and German settlement movement to the east.
For example, the Order of the Brothers of the Sword, together with German settlers, founded what is now Tallinn in 1230. Both the Knights of the Brothers of the Sword and Denmark held great power in this region in the 13th century. In 1346 Denmark sold its parts of Estonia to the Teutonic Order, which had previously included the Order of the Brothers of the Sword. This is how the “Livonian Confederation” came about, consisting of five spiritual territories.
After the breakup of this religious state under the attacks of “Ivan the Terrible”, Estonia submitted to Sweden. After Sweden’s defeat in the Northern War (1700–1721), it was ceded to the Russian Empire and remained Russian until independence in 1918. This is how the “Livonian Confederation” came about, consisting of five spiritual territories. After the breakup of this religious state under the attacks of “Ivan the Terrible”, Estonia submitted to Sweden.
After Sweden’s defeat in the Northern War (1700–1721), it was ceded to the Russian Empire and remained Russian until independence in 1918. This is how the “Livonian Confederation” came about, consisting of five spiritual territories. After the breakup of this religious state under the attacks of “Ivan the Terrible”, Estonia submitted to Sweden. After Sweden’s defeat in the Northern War (1700–1721), it was ceded to the Russian Empire and remained Russian until independence in 1918.
Since the subjugation by the knightly orders, German knights and their descendants formed the upper class in Estonia. German was the official language and remained a subject well into the 19th century. The Estonian language and culture were reserved for the peasants.
However, Estonia had to defend its independence against German troops and the Red Army. Independence was not achieved until February 1920, when Russia officially renounced all territorial claims in Estonia.
In the first few years after gaining sovereignty, the Estonian state was democratic. Due to low parliamentary majorities, frequent government crises and economic and social problems, however, anti-democratic forces in the country grew stronger. In 1934 an authoritarian regime was established, which did not last long, however, because in June 1940 Estonia was incorporated into the Soviet Union in violation of international law. The time of independence was over for the time being.
Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic (1940-1991)
The History of Estonia: In 1940 the Soviet Union occupied Estonia and established the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic. In 1941 the German Reich occupied Estonia. The German troops stayed until 1944 and murdered many Jews. In 1944 the Russians returned. Many Estonians were deported (forcibly removed) to Siberia. At the same time, Russians were settled in the country.
(12 December 1908 – 24 January 1993) was an Estonian composer and a choir conductor.
Ernesaks was born in Perila, Peningi Parish. He played an integral role in the Singing Revolution and was one of the father figures of the Estonian Song Festival tradition. One of his songs, set to Lydia Koidula‘s poem Mu isamaa on minu arm, became an unofficial national anthem during the years of Soviet occupation. He was also the composer of the Anthem of Estonian SSR used between 1945 and 1990. History of Estonia.
The History of Estonia: It was only in the second half of the 1980s, in the course of Mikhail Gorbachev’s political reforms, that a discourse on state autonomy began again in the Estonian public. Against the will of the Soviet leadership, which upheld the integrity of the Soviet Union, Estonia was able to regain independence on August 20, 1991. In terms of foreign policy, Estonia has been striving for integration into the Euro-Atlantic structures since gaining independence. In 2004 Estonia became a member of the EU and NATO.
In 2011, Estonia ratified a border treaty with Russia, which regulated the previously disputed border and eased relations between the two countries somewhat. However, in the course of the annexation of the Crimean Peninsula by Russia in March 2014 in Estonia, similar to Latvia and Lithuania,
Since 1992 there have always been coalition governments in Estonia, which have replaced each other at relatively short intervals. But despite these changing majorities, Estonia is a relatively stable political country. Only in 2007 were there larger demonstrations by the Russian minority in Riga. History of Estonia.
When did Estonia leave the Soviet Union: In March 1990, Estonia declared itself a republic again , and independence officially took place on August 20, 1991. This was achieved non-violently through the Singing Revolution : The singing of their folk songs had been forbidden to the Balts in the Soviet Union – now they were singing to demonstrate their aspirations for independence. History of Estonia.
In 2004 Estonia joined the European Union . In 2011, the euro was introduced as a currency.
History of Estonia Timeline
The Short History of Estonia: Comparable to countries like Poland or Finland, the history of Estonia is characterized by centuries of foreign rule and dependency. Germans, Swedes, Danes or Russians – in the past it was the rulers and envoys of those ethnic groups who exerted considerable influence on the political activities in today’s Estonian borders.
It is all the more gratifying that Estonia has been able to develop its very own cultural identity over many generations. Estonia is proud of what has been achieved, they maintain the language and old traditions and yet always remain humble.
How rocky the course of Estonia’s history has been up to now can easily be determined by looking at a few key historical data. The following are the chronological sections of a long journey that culminated on August 20, 1991 in the regaining of national sovereignty.
Chronological Milestones of Estonian History
History of Estonia: Approx. 5000 BC BC: Finno-Ugric tribes settled in the Baltic States from North Asia. They are considered the ancestors of the Estonians.
From 800 BC BC: Danish and Swedish aggressors start first attempts at conquest and subjugation against Estonian territory.
From 1227 AD: The Teutonic Order takes over control of large parts of Estonia. In the aftermath only the northern regions are under Danish care.
1230: Foundation of the town of Reval by representatives of the Teutonic Order. Current name: Tallinn – the capital of Estonia.
Supremacy Of The Teutonic Order
History of Estonia: 1346: Denmark sells its lands in northern Estonia to the Teutonic Knights. This means that the Baltic state is completely in German hands.
1410: The Teutonic Order suffers a crushing defeat in an attempt to link Estonia to East Prussia via a land corridor.
Since then, the Battle of Tannenberg has been considered a decisive political turning point – the power of the order begins to crumble.
1558–1583: The Livonian War ended the supremacy of the Teutonic Order. In the Jam Zapolski peace treaty, defeated Russia recognizes the fragmentation of Estonia into Polish, Swedish and Danish zones of influence.
From 1629: Sweden expands its influence on the south of Estonia by driving out the Poles. However, there are severe military conflicts with Russian troops in the eastern parts of the country.
Russia Wields The Scepter
History of Estonia: 1700–1721: In the Great Northern War, Tsarist troops take possession of all of Estonia, officially recognized by Sweden in the Peace of Nystad.
1739–1816: Estonian peasants fall into serfdom. Powerless and without property, they are at the mercy of German or Russian landowners.
The best way for them to achieve economic independence is to emigrate. Later, however, significant improvements.
1869: The first all-Estonian song festival takes place in Tartu. There is a clear strengthening of Estonian national consciousness.
From 1870: With the introduction of the first railway line, the industrial revolution also began in Estonia.
1914-1918: During the course of World War I, Russian troops are pushed out of the entire Baltic region. In the period that followed, Estonia remained vacant for a short time.
The Road To The First Estonian Republic
History of Estonia: 1918–1920: The country was finally liberated in the Estonian War of Independence.
In the Treaty of Tartu on February 2, 1920, war-torn Russia officially recognized Estonia’s independence. On December 15, an Estonian constitution will come into force for the first time.
1920–1940: The First Republic was on shaky ground throughout its existence. Comprehensive reforms are helping the Estonian population to own their own property and significantly improved living conditions. But domestically there is a lot of fragmentation.
In 1934 Prime Minister Päts imposed a state of emergency in order to govern without a parliament after a referendum.
1939-1945: In the turmoil of the Second World War, Estonia first passed into Russian, then into German and, from 1944, finally back into Russian possession.
The End Of The Soviet Empire
Until 1991: The Estonian Soviet Republic is run by a government controlled from the Kremlin. Almost 200,000 Russian workers settle there. Politically and economically Estonia is thus de facto absorbed into the huge Soviet empire; respectively below.
Since 1991: With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Second Estonian Republic (Eesti Vabariik) is founded.
As of August 20, 1991, Estonia is officially independent again. Admission to the UNO and the Council of Europe followed.
2004: Estonia is a member state of the European Union (EU).
2011: New currency, introduction of the euro in Estonia.
Estonia’s rich cultural heritage consists of folk songs and dances, colourful handicrafts, traditional baths and simple food. Experience the traditional and modern side of Estonian culture by visiting markets, master classes, museums and festivals.
Why Estonian Women Are So Popular?
There are many reasons for the Estonian girls’ popularity. But we’ve collected the most inherent traits that can be important while deciding on a partner for life. History of Estonia.
Most probably, you won’t encounter a more open girl than an Estonian one. This character trait is present in most Estonian women and makes them very charming for many men. Perhaps, this is due to the Estonian culture and traditions that Estonian girls are always amiable and genial. This is what creates the first impression and will be the beginning of prosperous relationships.
Estonian Ladies Are Gorgeous
It’s no secret that Baltic countries pride themselves on beautiful ladies. Estonia is no exception. Estonian women are used to leading a healthy lifestyle and therefore are widely known as the most beautiful. The diet of a typical Estonian girl consists of fresh and organic foods. They also enjoy regular morning runs as well as workout sessions. The government, on its side, does its best to support sports competitions and healthy lifestyle promotions. So be sure they are a bit of a health nut. History of Estonia.
They are easy-going
At some point, the relationship gets stronger and you both begin to show up in public, get acquainted with each other’s parents. If it is important for you to receive the parents’ approval, then be sure that the Estonian girl will behave naturally and win them over. Many Estonian women belong to that type of magnetic personality who can easily make anyone have a soft spot for her. This is explicable because they are always at ease and very pleasant to stay with. History of Estonia.
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