The History of Egypt Timeline
The History of Egypt : Egypt is a country with a millenary history, and that has marked human civilization. A territory with customs, traditions and culture that go back to the principles of the existence of civilized man. A land of contrasts between the desert and the natural wealth provided by the Nile River. A country that has gone through different stages and historical periods that you should know. In CurioSfera-historia.com, we explain the origin and history of Egypt. The History of Egypt.
Birth of Egypt
The History of The Egypt: In the Nile Valley one of the first great agricultural civilizations of Antiquity developed. The narrow valley of the river, in the area irrigated and fertilized by its floods, offered an extraordinarily conducive environment for the development of intensive agriculture. But at the same time it forced a high organization of work. The History of Egypt.
History of Egyptian Civilization
The History of Egyptian Civilizations: The basic and natural unit was the “nomo”, or small province formed around the population centers of the valley and ruled by members of the nobility. But the rational exploitation of the country demanded cooperation between these nomos, made difficult by the great distances and the absence of good roads.
The necessary political centralization was achieved by a theocratic government (pharaoh), supported by a strong bureaucratic organization (scribes). The high density (about 200 inhabitants per square kilometer) caused serious subsistence crises (hunger, disease) in the case of disorganization or irrigation system.
The commodities were wheat (bread), barley (beer) and domestic animals. In moments of unity and tranquility, the enormous amount of taxes and personal benefits that weighed on the peasant workers of the land allowed the propertied classes (pharaoh, clergy, nobility) to accumulate large capitals.
These taxes, invested unproductively in temples and tombs, did not contribute to the development of new production techniques or agricultural tools, quite primitive. The economic and social situation was thus able to be maintained for millennia, also supported by the official ideology, which gave a religious foundation to the existence of different social classes. The History of Egypt.
Ancient Egyptian Empire
Ancient History of Egypt : The Nile Valley was not populated during the Paleolithic, as the sites of this period are located on the boundaries of the desert. During the Neolithic (5000 BC.C. – 3200 BC.C.), populations from the east and northwest began the exploitation of the agricultural possibilities of the valley. The History of Egypt.
The best studied prehistoric sites are those of Merimde, El-Fayum, al-Badari and Negade. In this period the nomos were formed, by cooperation between small local communities. By 3500 B.C., the federation of these nomos led to the formation of two great kingdoms. The kingdom of Lower Egypt, with Horus as the main god, and the kingdom of Upper Egypt, or the worshippers of Seth.
According to tradition, around 3200 BC.C., the first was conquered by the second, although its god, Horus, became worshipped among the conquerors, the use of metals became general and hieroglyphic writing was fixed.
The so-called Old Kingdom, whose capital was Memphis, was a period of great centralization of power in the person of the pharaoh, aided by a complicated bureaucracy, controlled by his closest relatives.
Foreign trade was also considered a state-owned enterprise. Import of wood from Byblos, for beams and bars, incense and myrrh from Punt, on the Somali coast, and gold, ebony and ivory from Nubia, made in exchange for Egyptian wheat or through military expeditions.
Artisans attained great technical skill, especially in pottery and hard stone work, and their trades became hereditary. The maintenance of the state apparatus and the mortuary cult of the pharaoh (the famous Egyptian pyramids), represented an enormous fiscal pressure on agricultural workers.
The Sixth Dynasty ended the autonomy of the cities in the north. The provincial governors became independent, which gave way to the so-called First Intermediate Period (dynasties VII to X), during which astatic foreigners settled in the delta. The History of Egypt.
History of Ancient Egypt
Ancient History of Egypt: By 5,000 B.C. the people of Egypt had begun to cultivate. They also wove linen and made pottery. Later they learned to use bronze. Around 3,200 B.C. the Egyptians invented writing. The first Egyptian in history was King Menes, alias Narmer, who lived shortly before 3,100 B.C. The History of Egypt.
At that time Egypt was divided into the north (low) and the south (high). Around 3118 Menes managed to unite the two. He made Memphis his capital. Ancient Egypt was a very organized society. The country was divided into 42 areas called nomes. Each of them was ruled by a nomad. Farmers paid part of their crops in taxes.
The first period of Egyptian history, which ended in 2181 BC.C., is called the Old Kingdom. During it the pharaohs built pyramids. The first pyramid, the step pyramid, was built by Zoser around 2665 BC.C. Others were built by the following pharaohs Sneferu and Khufu.
However, the central authority in Egypt eventually weakened. After 1281 BC.C. Egypt was divided into parts and there were civil wars between the rival areas. This period of civil disorder is called the First Intermediate Period and lasted until 2055 BC.C. Finally Mentuhotep II managed to reunite Egypt and founded the Middle Kingdom.
The Middle Kingdom lasted until 1650 BC.C. It was a great period of art and literature in Egypt. In addition, the pharaohs carried out successful military campaigns and more pyramids were built. However, the Middle Kingdom was followed by the Second Intermediate Period. Around 1650 a Palestinian village called Hyksos took power in northern Egypt. They ruled from the city of Avaris.
However, the native Egyptians continued to rule southern Egypt and in 1550 BC.C. expelled the Hyksos and reunited Egypt. Thus began the New Kingdom. It lasted from 1550 to 1070 BC.C. During this era Egypt was rich and powerful once again. Egypt controlled Nubia, the land of the south, and invaded Palestine and Syria. The History of Egypt.
Meanwhile, large new temples were built in Thebes and the pharaohs were buried in the Valley of the Kings. Then, around 1364 BC.C. Akhenaten became pharaoh. He only worshipped the sun god, Aten. However, his son Tutankhamun worshipped the ancient gods.
The New Kingdom collapsed in 1070 and gave way to another period of disunity. From this moment on, Egypt declined and never regained its former glory.
During the third intermediate period, Egypt was divided into two halves, north and south. However, in 747 BC.C., the kings of Nubia (the country south of Egypt) conquered Egypt and restored unity. However, in 525 B.C. the Persians conquered Egypt. Then, in 332, Alexander the Great conquered it.
After Alexander’s death, his empire was divided into parts. A Greek general named Ptolemy eventually took Egypt and for about 300 years his Greek descendants ruled Egypt. However, in the year 30 BC.C. Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire and ceased to be an independent kingdom.
Meanwhile, a woman named Sobekneferu ruled Egypt around 1800 B.C. Later, a woman named Hatshepsut ruled Egypt around 1479-1458 BC.C. Another woman, Twosret ruled Egypt around 1191-1189 BC.C. The History of Egypt.
THE NILE IN ANCIENT EGYPT
Nile River in The History of Egypt: Egypt was said to be the gift of the Nile. Every summer, the Nile flooded and provided water for crops. For irrigation the Egyptians used a device called shaduf. It was a “seesaw” with a leather container at one end, which was filled with water and a counterweight at the other. The History of Egypt.
When the Nile flooded it also deposited silt on the land near the banks, which made the land very fertile once the water had subsided. The Nile also provided a way to transport people and goods. The prevailing winds in Egypt blew southward, so ships traveling in that direction used sails. Ships heading north used oars. The History of Egypt.
SOCIETY IN ANCIENT EGYPT
Ancient Egypt was ruled by a king. Around 1500 B.C. was called the Pharaoh (from the word per ao meaning great house). It originally meant the palace in which he lived, but it came to mean the ruler himself.) Pharaoh was assisted by a kind of prime minister called a vizier (sometimes there was more than one). In addition, for the administration, Egypt was divided into areas called “nomes”.
Below Pharaoh were the nobility, priests, scribes, and merchants. Then came the soldiers and artisans, then the peasants and finally the slaves. Ordinary Egyptians who were not slaves also had to work for Pharaoh each year in the construction or repair of irrigation canals. This was done when the Nile flooded and agricultural work was impossible. Farmers also had to pay part of their crops to Pharaoh in taxes.
In Ancient Egypt women had a lot of freedom. They could come and go as they pleased. They could own property and sign contracts. Women can also divorce their husbands.
However, most women worked in the home. There was a lot of work to be done, as most households were self-sufficient. The woman made the family’s clothes and prepared the food, such as grinding grain to flour to make bread. Even in a wealthy family, the woman was busy organizing slaves.
There were some women doctors in Ancient Egypt. Merit Ptah was a famous doctor who lived around 2,700 B.C. A woman named Sobekneferu ruled Egypt around 1800 B.C. Later, a woman named Hatshepsut ruled Egypt around 1479-1458 BC.C. Another woman, Twosret ruled Egypt around 1191-1189 BC.C. The History of Egypt.
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE IN ANCIENT EGYPT
The basic diet of ordinary people in Ancient Egypt was bread and beer. The bread was baked outside. Because of the desert, the sand often turned into mass. Over time, eating bread with grains of sand in it wore people’s teeth. The History of Egypt.
In Ancient Egypt, as in all early civilizations, meat was a luxury and only the rich could afford to eat it frequently. The Egyptians ate sheep, pigs, cows, and goats, but the meat often came from ducks and geese. However, fish abounded in Egypt.
The Egyptians ate many vegetables including pumpkins, beans, onions, lentils, leeks, radishes, garlic and lettuce. They also ate fruits such as melons, dates and figs. Pomegranates were quite expensive and were consumed mainly by the rich. The Egyptians also cultivated herbs and spices and made cooking oil.
The beer was made with crumbled barley bread and barley with water, so it was lumpy. He was tense before he got drunk. Still, still, it was lumpy, so you had to drink it through a wooden straw with a filter. Better that the Egyptians drank wine.
Ancient Egyptian farmers dug irrigation canals to take water from the Nile when it flooded and to maintain it when the flooding subsided. In Ancient Egypt oxen pulled plows and farmers used simple tools such as hoes, sickles, rakes and fans (used to throw wheat into the air and separate light straw from heavier grain).
In Ancient Egypt there were three seasons. July to October was the season when the Nile flooded. The seeds were planted from November to February. The harvest lasted from March to June. The History of Egypt.
The Egyptians divided the days into 24 hours and measured time with water clocks. (Water was allowed to drip into a container at a steady rate. The container was marked at intervals and the water took an hour to rise from one mark to another.)
Like all early civilizations, ancient Egypt was an agricultural society. Most people lived in the countryside and made a living from agriculture. The most important crops were wheat and barley. The History of Egypt.
CLOTHING IN ANCIENT EGYPT
History of Egypt Fashion: It is not surprising, given the hot weather, that Egyptians only wore light clothing. The men wore a loincloth and a kind of Scottish skirt. The women wore dresses with suspenders. The clothes were linen or cotton. Later in Egyptian history clothing became more elaborate and colorful.
The Egyptians shaved their hair and wore wigs. Children had their heads shaved to prevent lice (although they usually had a braid left on the side of their heads). It was normal for children to strip naked. Most people went barefoot most of the time, but sometimes they wore sandals made of papyrus.
The ancient Egyptians wore jewelry. Those who could afford it wore gold, silver and precious stone jewelry. The poor wore copper or bronze jewelry. Both men and women wore makeup. The History of Egypt.
HOUSES IN ANCIENT EGYPT
Wealthy Egyptians lived in large, comfortable houses with many rooms. The walls were painted and the floors had colored tiles. Most of the rich houses had enclosed gardens with swimming pools. Inside their homes, wealthy Egyptians had wooden furniture such as beds, chairs, tables, and chests to store.
However, instead of pillows, they used wooden headrests. The toilets consisted of a clay pot filled with sand. It was emptied regularly.
Ordinary people in Ancient Egypt lived in simpler houses made of mud bricks with perhaps four rooms. People may have slept on the flat roof when it was hot and did most of their work outdoors because of the heat. The furniture was very basic. Ordinary Egyptians sat on brick benches around the walls. To store things, they used reed trunks or wooden pegs on the walls. The History of Egypt.
HOBBIES IN ANCIENT EGYPT
For entertainment, the Egyptians loved feasts. If a rich person invited you to a banquet, you would be entertained by singers, musicians, dancers, jugglers, wrestlers and buffoons. Musicians played wooden flutes, harps, lutes, drums and palms. At a rich person’s banquet, guests were given a cone of scented fat to put on their heads. It melted slowly leaving the wearer smelling good.
The ancient Egyptians loved hunting and fishing. (For the rich hunting was for pleasure, for the poor for food.) Men captured birds with nets or throwing curved sticks. The fish were caught with hooks or harpoons. Men and women went swimming. Men also enjoyed boxing, wrestling and archery. They also played a game in which they got on a boat and tried to throw the opposing team into the water with a stick. The Egyptians also played a board game called senet. The board was divided into squares with tiles. The History of Egypt.
You threw sticks instead of dice. Ancient Egyptian children played games similar to those played by today’s children. They also played with dolls, toy soldiers, wooden animals, balls, marbles, spinning tops and knuckle bones (which were rolled like dice).
EDUCATION IN ANCIENT EGYPT
Most of the children of Ancient Egypt did not go to school. Instead, the children learned agriculture or other trades from their parents. The girls learned sewing, cooking and other skills from their mothers.
However, children from wealthy families sometimes went to school and learned to be scribes. They learned by copying and memorizing and the discipline was strict. Teachers beat naughty children. The children learned reading and writing and also math. Girls from well-to-do families are sometimes taught at home.
Ancient Egyptian writing consisted of symbols called hieroglyphs. They were originally images, but over time they became standard symbols. However, hieroglyphs were very complicated, so they were only used for religious books and for carving in buildings. For everyday use a simpler form of writing called hieratic was developed. The History of Egypt.
WEAPONS IN ANCIENT EGYPT
Ancient Egyptian soldiers entered battle protected only by wooden or leather shields. They fought with spears, swords, axes, daggers and maces. They also used slings, bows and arrows. Most of the men fought on foot, but after 1,700 B.C. the army also had chariots.
Each chariot carried two men, one to drive and one to shoot arrows. (In Ancient Egypt horses were mainly used for warfare. Donkeys were used as pack animals.) Only the most important soldiers wore bronze armor. Prisoners of war were generally made slaves.
RELIGION IN ANCIENT EGYPT
Religion History of Egypt: The ancient Egyptians were polytheists. That is, they worshipped many gods. Gods and goddesses were usually depicted as human beings although they sometimes had animal heads.
Among the ancient Egyptian gods were Amun-Re, the sun god and leader of the gods. Nut was the goddess of heaven. His brother Geb was the earth god. Osiris was in charge of the underworld. His wife was Isis and his son Horus (who was sometimes depicted with a falcon’s head). Hathor was the goddess of joy and love. She was also the goddess of music and dance.
They also worshipped Anubis, god of the dead and mummification. He was a jackal-headed man and the Egyptians believed he guarded the places where the dead were buried.
Other gods included Thoth, a man with an ibis head, who was god of the moon and wisdom. Ptah was the god of artisans. Taweret, a pregnant hippopotamus, was the goddess of childbirth. Maat was the goddess of justice and truth. Hapi was the god who caused the flood of the Nile. The ancient Egyptians had a goddess of reading, writing, and arithmetic. His name was Seshat.
The ancient Egyptians believed that the gods “lived” in temples (the spirit of the god was believed to inhabit a statue). Three times a day the priests cleaned the statue, changed his clothes and placed fresh food for him to ‘eat’. (After a while, the priests would remove the food and eat it.) The History of Egypt.
After death, the Egyptians believed they would be tried. His heart was placed on a scale and weighed against an ostrich feather (a symbol of truth and justice). If the heart was good, it would balance the pen and the person was granted eternal happiness.
If he were evil, the pen would surpass him. In that case, the heart was fed by a monster called Anmit, which was part lion, part crocodile, and part hippopotamus. If Anmit ate your heart, you ceased to exist. The History of Egypt.
The ancient Egyptians tried to preserve the corpses by mummifying them so that the owners could use them in the next life. The dead were also buried with ‘funerary goods’ to use in the next life. Animals, especially cats, were also mummified.
To mummify a body, the Egyptians first removed its internal organs (otherwise they would rot), rinsed the cavities with palm wine, and then covered the body with a salt paste called natron to dry it. After 70 days the body was washed and wrapped in linen bandages.
Middle Egyptian Empire
Mid Age The History of Egypt: The nome of Heracleopolis expelled the Asians and re-established trade with Syria, but reunification was carried out by that of Thebes, which during the Middle Kingdom (dynasties XI and XII) became the religious capital of Egypt and was dedicated to the cult of Amun since the twelfth dynasty.
The reorganization of the administration resulted in a general increase in production. During the ammenemes government (1991 BC.C – 1962 BC.C), Egyptian influence spread to Syria and Nubia which was annexed until the 3rd Cataract, and a permanent trading center was established in Perma.
South of it Ammenemes III (1842 BC.C – 1797 BC) carried out the important irrigation plan that allowed Lake Moeris.C to be used as a reservoir of flood waters for use during the dry season in the plains of Lower Egypt.
The Second Intermediate Period was characterized by the establishment in the delta of the Asiatic tribes of the Hyksos, coming from Palestine. They adopted Egyptian customs, founded the fifteenth and sixteenth dynasties and from their capital, Avaris, extended their rule to almost all Egyptian territory, with the exception of Nubia and Thebes.
In this, where the seventeenth dynasty had remained independent, began in 1600 BC.C., a series of victorious expeditions that cornered the Hyksos in their capital. The History of Egypt.
The History of The Egyptian New Kingdom
The History of Egyptian New Kingdom : The conquest of Avaris signaled the beginning of the New Kingdom (dynasties XVIII to XX), during which Egypt, for both commercial and security reasons, carried out a clear imperialist policy towards Syria and Palestine. And it intensified its relations within the Mediterranean area.
The social and religious reforms of Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) met with opposition from the clergy of Amun and his powerful interests.
They failed to transform the structure of the country; his rule coincided with the expansion of Hittite power, which displaced Egypt in the rule of Syria.
The rulers of the nineteenth dynasty, such as Ramesses II, resumed expeditions to Palestine, but were forced to make a pact with the Hittites and to delimit their respective zones of influence over Syria.
The clergy of Amun saw their influence in the state grow until they turned the twentieth dynasty into a priestly theocracy. One of its pharaohs, Ramesses III (1182 BC.C – 1151 BC.C), expelled from the delta the “peoples of the sea” who, coming from the north and east, had destroyed the Hittite empire. The History of Egypt.
Period of Decline Of Egypt
At this time (dynasties XXI to XXX), the high priests of Amun allied themselves with the various groups of foreigners who successively dominated the state apparatus. The XXII dynasty came from libyans established in the delta as mercenary soldiers. The XXIII and XXV were Nubian.
In the time of Nefertumjura Taharqo (689 BC.C – 664.C BC), the Assyrians penetrated Into Egyptian territory, but withdrew after sacking the cities of Lower Egypt and reaching Thebes. During the XXVI dynasty, the establishment of numerous foreign traders, mainly Greeks, who founded the colony of Naucratis in the times of Psametic II, revived the commercial cities of the delta.
But in 525 BC. C., the Persian king Cambyses occupied the valley as far as Nubia and temporarily turned the country, for the first time in its history, into a province of a foreign empire.
After the last national dynasties (XXVIII-XXIX-XXX), the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great (332 BC.C) did not cause any fundamental change in the agrarian structure of the country, but its full integration into the commercial sphere of the eastern Mediterranean. The History of Egypt.
Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine Egypt
With the Lagid dynasty, founded by Alexander the Great’s general, Ptolemy I Soter, Greek officials and merchants controlled the fiscal and bureaucratic apparatus of the Egyptian state, allied with the clergy and with part of the native population, which was admitted into the administration. The History of Egypt.
The cities acquired a completely Hellenized character, especially Alexandria, which became the most important port in the Mediterranean with its famous lighthouse of Alexandria.
The provincial division into nomos was respected, at the head of which a strategist was placed. Most of the land passed into royal possession and was cultivated by tenants attached to the land. On which the tax burden was raised to the maximum, not only in species but also in currency, which was introduced during this period. The History of Egypt.
History Of Jewish in Egypt
The Roman occupation, after the Battle of Accio or Actium (31 BC.C.), gave the highest civil, military and religious authority to the prefect, responsible only to the emperor. Rome increased the rigidity of the social and cultural differences of the Hellenistic era and respected the ancient privileged classes: high clergy, Greeks and Jewish city dwellers. To which he added the new class of Roman citizens.
History Origin of Egypt
A History of Egypt: To know the history and origin of Egypt you must first know what it is like and its geographical location. The present-day Arab Republic of Egypt (Misr) is located in northeastern Africa and a part of its territory (the Sinai) juts into the Asian continent. The History of Egypt.
The country, which is bordered to the west by Libya, to the south by Sudan, and to the northeast by Israel, moves between the tradition of the history of the pharaonic empire and the need to place itself among the modern countries of the world. As in ancient times, it continues to depend largely on the floods of the Nile River to give life to its economy, but today it has regulatory dams that put it under the shelter of the whims of nature.
However, any visitor will feel an unparalleled landscape, made of adobe houses, patches of cultivation and peasants circulating on the back of their mules along the towpaths of the banks, scenes that will return you to visions of the most remote centuries.
Egypt has lived under the culture of Islam for more than thirteen centuries. But its imprint, which can be seen in the outfits, in the social customs and in the beautiful mosques of Cairo, appears as superimposed on an ancient spirit.
Thus, Egypt is an African country and at the same time it is not. Open as it is to the Mediterranean Sea and sunk to its roots in the desert, from which Father Nile has been rescuing it since human history was written.
The History on Egypt
- Continent: Africa.
- Area: 1,001,449 km².
- Capital: Cairo.
- Population: 97,550,214 inhabitants.
- Currency: Egyptian pound.
- Official language: Arabic.
History Of Islamic Egypt
Islam in The History of Egypt: Amr established the capital at al-Fustat, a real military camp that later gave rise to Cairo. The Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs respected the Coptic, Christian and Jewish communities. They merely established their own tax system: a personal tribute to the inhabitants of Alexandria, taxes on the land to the peasants, and to divert their income to Damascus or Baghdad. The History of Egypt.
The brief Tuluni (868-905) and Ijšidí (935-969) dynasties represented a period of prosperity for the country. He was able to invest his own income in himself. The irrigation system was repaired and renovated and part of Syria was controlled as a security zone.
The occupation of Egypt (969-1171) by the Fatimids of the Maghreb made Cairo, founded in 969, the largest, most populous and cultured city in the Islamic world, replacing Baghdad, and the capital of an empire stretching from the Atlantic to the Red Sea.
With the Ayyubid (1171-1250) and Mamluk (1250-1517) dynasties, Egypt served as a barrier to the Christian advance of the Crusades first (Battle of Hattin), and that of the Mongols and Turks later. His domination of Syria’s ports gave him absolute control of trade with India, conducted across the Red Sea and Asia Minor. And it made him maintain close relations with the commercial cities of the western Mediterranean (Barcelona, Venice, etc.).
The loss of this monopoly, a consequence of the discovery by Portugal of the Cape of Good Hope route, coincided with the decline of the Mamluks, who were defeated in 1517 by the Ottoman Turks.
From 1517 to 1805, the Turks ruled the country through bajaes and beyes. They extracted from it an important part of their national product in the direction of Constantinople. Napoleon’s expedition to Egypt (1798-1801) discovered to Europe the antiquity of Egyptian culture. The History of Egypt.
Reign of the Dynasty of Muhammad Ali
After the Egyptian campaign, the Turkish sultan recognized the dynasty of Muhammad Ali (which lasted from 1805 to 1952) as hereditary in Egypt.
With it, the hydraulic system was modernized, and sugar cane and cotton were introduced. That they were monopolies of the State, which took care of their export. Muhammad Ali reserved a personal property of 400,000 ha and relied on French interests.
France achieved the concession (1856) of the future Suez Canal, which was inaugurated in 1869; but in 1874 Britain, interested in controlling the tide of India, bought a decisive part of the Company’s shares.
From 1882 to 1914, Britain exercised real government over Egypt through a British high commissioner who led the army and administration. He made those decisions that officially corresponded to the Egyptian sovereign. But, it had to face strong nationalist opposition that, since the late nineteenth century, did not admit that half of Egyptian production was in the hands of foreigners.
The nationalist party Wafd led the anti-British resistance from 1918. By becoming a majority, it forced Britain to recognize Egypt’s independence, although it reserved foreign relations, defense, and the right to keep British troops on Egyptian territory. Until in 1936 it was completely withdrawn, except for the Suez Canal area.
The reign of Farouk (1937-52), was characterized by growing corruption both political and administrative. Also, for the adherence to the interests of Great Britain. The existing political parties were linked to the monarchy or to the large landowners, owners of most of the arable land. The peasants (fellahs) lived in extreme misery and lack of culture. The History of Egypt.
History of the Republic of Egypt
The History of Egypt: On July 23, 1952, a group of young officers, led by General M. Naguib, dethroned Farouk, abolished the monarchy (June 1953) and proclaimed the Republic. In November of the following year Naguib was deposed and Gamal Abdel Nasser was appointed prime minister. He was later appointed President of the Republic (June 1956).
In October 1956, after the nationalization of the Suez Canal by Egypt, Anglo-French troops landed in the country. While the Israeli army crossed the border and invaded the Gaza area and the Sinai desert.
The Soviet threat to come to Egypt’s aid, the decision of the United Nations (UN) General Assembly demanding a ceasefire, and the lack of American support for Anglo-French military action forced the invading armies to retreat.
The Suez Canal Area was placed in the custody of United Nations military contingents. On 1 February 1958 Egypt and Syria united to form the United Arab Republic. And although Syria withdrew from it in September 1961, Egypt continued to maintain this denomination.
Nasser, who in 1962 created the Arab Socialist Union (later called the Egyptian Socialist Party, PSE) carried out a development policy. Based on moderate agrarian reform.
With the technical and financial help of the USSR, the gigantic Aswan dam could be realized. At the same time, the nationalization of most foreign private companies was carried out. Gradually he concentrated his maximum efforts on the fight against Israel.
After obtaining the withdrawal of international UN troops, he decided to establish the blockade of the Gulf of Akaba (May 1967). Which gave Israel the pretext to unleash a blitzkrieg (Six-Day War) in June.
This allowed him to occupy the entire Sinai Peninsula as far as Suez. After Nasser’s death (1970), he was succeeded by then-Vice President Anwar el Sadat. In May 1971 Sadat was forced into a drastic reorganization and purge of most of his ministers. He tended to gain independence from the USSR, and in 1973, after serious riots in Cairo, he assumed the leadership of the government and the armed forces.
The Modern History of Egypt: In October 1973 Egypt unleashed, in coordination with Syria, the fourth Arab-Israeli war, the outcome of which reinforced Sadat’s position, reaffirmed after the agreements with Israel (January 1974). Egypt re-established its relations with the United States, broken since 1967, in March 1974, followed by President Nixon’s visit to Egypt (June 1974).
In September of this year Sadat left the presidency of the Government, which Abdel Azíz Higazi assumed for a short period of time (1974-76). The History of Egypt.
Modern Egypt People and Culture
The clothing of ancient Egypt has been attractive to large companies, both for its disturbing past, and for the respect it is due for being the cradle of civilization. The fashion industry in that country is in a growing position and expands to the whole world. No wonder some designers take an interest in the study of Egyptian culture and apply a touch to their collections. You can see, for example, part of their clothing in current style trends.
There are garments that take as a reference the shapes, textile fibers and colors that reigned in ancient Egypt. The result takes us back to the past and remembers the wonders of that civilization.
The Baron Empain Palace ( قصر البارون إمبان / Qasr el Baron Emban), aka Le Palais Hindou (The Hindu Palace), a historic mansion built in 1907-1911 in Heliopolis, Egypt, inspired by Hindu temple architecture.
The History of Modern Egypt
The Modern History of Egypt: Egypt continued its moderately oriented policy, seeking a difficult balance between intransigence and flexibility in relation to the problems of the Middle East, and seeking to maintain relative independence from the two major blocs.
Re-elected president in 1976, Sadat paid a visit to Jerusalem (1977). He signed the Camp David Accords (1978), under the auspices of Washington, and finally a peace treaty with Israel (March 26, 1979). It included the recovery of Sinai, which earned him expulsion from the Arab League. And the severing of relations with most Arab countries.
Assassinated by Muslim fundamentalists (October 1981), he was succeeded by the until then Vice President Hosni Mubarak of the National Democratic Party (NDP, former PSE). He pursued a similar policy.
In April 1982 Egypt fully recovered Sinai. After fifteen years of Israeli occupation, Mubarak managed to re-establish diplomatic relations with Arab countries. And in May 1989 Egypt rejoined OPEC and the Arab League.
However, after Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait (August 1990), the political-military alliance of the Arab Cooperation Council (Egypt, Jordan, Iraq and Yemen) was broken as Egypt aligned itself against the Iraqi regime on the multinational front. He liberated the emirate in February 1991.
During the first half of the nineties, fundamentalist violence remained the biggest problem of the Egyptian Government. He continued the fight against the most radical Islamists grouped in the Gamaa al-Islamiya. Their terrorist acts undermined the country’s main industry by targeting foreign tourists. The History of Egypt.
In 1994, the Government entered into talks with the moderate Islamic opposition (Muslim Brotherhood) and with the Socialist Labour Party and the Progressive Union. The History of Egypt.
On the other hand, the attack on Mubarak in Addis Ababa (26 June 1995), on the occasion of the summit of the Organization of African Unity (OAU), increased tension with Sudan. Accused of supporting the fundamentalist group that carried it out.
After an attack in Luxor, in which 57 foreign tourists were killed (1997), Mubarak dismissed the interior minister. And it accelerated the execution of convicted terrorists (54 in 1997).
This event and the attacks of September 11, 2001 in New York and Washington, caused a considerable drop in tourism that negatively affected the economy. The History of Egypt.
History of the flag of Egypt
The History of Egypt Flag: In the center of the national flag of Egypt appears triumphantly the golden eagle of emir Saladin. Sultan founder of the Ayyubid dynasty in the twelfth century. In 1952 the abdication of King Farouk I put Gamal Abdel Nasser at the head of the country. It was the first time that this bird of prey appeared on the Egyptian flag.
In 1958 this heraldic emblem was replaced by two green stars. Symbols of the new United Arab Republic, born of the provisional link between Egypt and Syria.
In 1972, with the inclusion of Libya, a new alliance was created. And with it, the golden falcon of the tribe of Muhammad appeared on the common flag with the pan-Arab colors (red, white, black). The stars disappeared from the banner.
Many people wonder the meaning of the Egyptian flag and its colors. In that case the answer is:
- The color red: symbolizes the revolution and the sacrifices of the people.
- White color: defends the idea of a radiant and peaceful future.
- The color black: represents the years of monarchical oppression under the British protectorate (1922-1936).
- The Eagle: In 1984 the Saladin’s Eagle was reinstated in the Egyptian flag. The History of Egypt.
Read Also The History of Jerusalem Timeline
Origin and History of Egypt | CurioSfera-Historia.com
History of Egypt – One of the most beautiful stories in the world (egypte.fr)
🇪🇬 History of Egypt ▷ Brief Summary History of the Egyptians (quehistoria.com)
Read History of Greece
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