Origin of Austria
The History of Austria: To understand the origins of Austria, it is first necessary to understand its geographical location. The young Austrian republic is bordered to the north by Germany and the Czech Republic, to the east by Slovakia and Hungary, to the south by Italy and Slovenia, and to the west by Switzerland . Read Bellow brief The History of Austria.
The History About Austria
Austria is an ancient place of settlement of men and cultures . As you can see, it is surrounded by many countries, which in ancient times caused a lot of trade and the passage of many invaders .
Its history is turbulent , because for centuries its inhabitants, of Germanic origin, vigorously opposed the rule of the Roman Empire and the Turkish Empire. From a small archduchy, it became the center of an empire that dominated half of Europe and lasted until the beginning of the 20th century.
Perhaps because they have inherited the historical memory of their ancestors, experts in relations with very diverse peoples, today’s Austrians are friendly and welcoming.
Its towns, integrated into the magnificent landscape of its mountains and lakes, are a haven of peace for the traveller. Its cities spill the beauty of their buildings and their gardens with the same generosity with which they offer the work of the great musicians who, like Mozart, saw the light in this land. The History of Austria
- Continent : Europe.
- Area : 83,859 km².
- Capital : Vienna.
- Population : 8,832,124 inhabitants.
- Currency : euro.
- Official language : German.
Austria Prehistory and Formation
The Ancient History of Austria: The Austrian territories have been inhabited since prehistory (Hallstatt civilization). Around the 4th century, Celtic tribes occupied the area, and in the 1st century the Romans conquered the territories south of the Danube. Creating the provinces of Rhetia, Norico and Pannonia. They also founded Vindobona (Vienna) and Hadriana (Salzburg).
Due to its geographical location, it was a transit area in the invasions of the barbarian peoples. Around the second half of the 6th century, various peoples of different origins, Bavarians, Czechs and Avars, settled in the territory currently occupied by Austria .
The Medieval History of Austria: In 803 Charlemagne, after destroying the Avar empire, creates the East March in this region. Austria will play for a long time this role of bastion against the waves of assailants coming from Asia.
However, in 894 the Magyars appeared on the Danube , defeated the Germans in 907 and occupied Austria until 955, when Otto I the Great defeated them at Lechfeld. In 976 Otto II gave it to the Babenbergs, who kept it for three centuries.
The March of Austria was made a dukedom by Frederick Barbarossa in 1156, and its first duke was Henry Jasomirgov (1141-1177).
His successors were enlarging the territory with the conquest of Styria and Camiola , which allowed them to control trade with Italy and the East. The History of Austria.
European Hegemony of the House of Austria
In 1522 Charles V left his brother Ferdinand the patrimonial domains of Austria, and in 1526, on the death of Louis II at the Battle of Mohács, in the course of a war against the Turks , Bohemia and Hungary also passed into his hands.
This meeting of the three estates constituted a purely dynastic union, but for the time being it was only a factual situation, not an idea. The Austrian idea would take shape in the course of the 16th and 17th centuries , under the influence of exceptionally serious events for the future of Christian Europe: the Protestant Reformation and the Muslim invasions . The History of Austria.
Austrian Revolution of 1848
In History of Austria: When Francis I died, Ferdinand I (1835-48) was elected, despite his limited capacity, since it was considered of great importance to assert the principles of inheritance in an empire in which the only common element was the monarchy.
But no important reform was carried out and within the Confederation local nuclei of opposition began to emerge, based mainly on nationalist demands : in Hungary. Croatia, Serbia, Bohemia. And, in Germany from 1840, a strong opposition begins to manifest itself, which will openly explode in the Revolution of 1848 .
The revolutionary events forced the emperor to abdicate in Franz Joseph (1848-1916) and demonstrated the scant consistency of the Austrian empire, which if it managed to recover was thanks to the support provided by the army, which harshly suppressed the insurrection.
Loss of Germany and Italy
The History of Austria and Germany: Once order was restored, Franz Josef made the same mistakes again. Despite the fact that he succeeded in reinstating the Germanic Confederation , against the unitary wishes of Prussia, he did not concern himself with associating national minorities in the government, but carried out an intense program of Germanization and strengthening of absolutism.
The loss of Lombardy (1859) induced him to implement a federalist system , but, faced with the opposition it provoked, he replaced it with a centralist project (1861), which also did not satisfy the national groups, which began to be active in Hungary and Bohemia.
This policy accentuated the struggle between Austria and Prussia , which led to the Austro-Prussian War . After the defeat of Sadowa (1866), she was forced to recognize the dissolution of the Confederation and the segregation of the German states grouped around Prussia; she also had to cede Venice to Italy.
Austria found itself without Germany and Italy , with its army destroyed, its finances ruined, and facing Hungarians and Slavs. Only by coming to terms with Hungary could the empire survive.
Negotiations with Hungary concluded with a compromise in 1867. Franz Joseph recognized Hungary’s independence and agreed to be crowned king. And, exercise executive power assisted by a Hungarian minister; foreign policy, war and finances would be in charge of a Ministry of the Empire.
The History of Austria and Hungary: The dualist state that emerged from the compromise of 1867 was in theory a constitutional monarchy , but in practice Franz Joseph ruled almost always by decree and with the support of the Church, the army, the bureaucracy and the police, the traditional support points of the monarchies. Habsburg.
Franz Joseph I ruled successively with the German centralist party , representing the bourgeoisie of the big cities, and with the Catholic federalist party , which represented the interests of the aristocracy.
None of these parties managed to solve the difficult problem of nationalities. In Bohemia the Czech National Party arose , which demanded treatment similar to that of Hungary, without its demands being met.
The establishment of universal suffrage in 1906 did not manage to stop the aspirations of these groups, and the German-Slavic antagonism was accentuated in the first years of the 20th century .
For the Hungarians the problem of nationalities arose with the same intensity. More reluctant to make concessions than Austria, Hungary took rigorous measures to suppress nationalist movements in the Balkans, and as a result the Serbo-Croat struggle became more violent.
A Concise History on Austria
The History on Austria: The history of Austria significantly influenced the development of Central Europe. Read more about it on vacation, discover the land of Maria Theresia, the Imperial and Royal Monarchy, Franz Josef and Sisi. Use your vacation to trace the great culture of Viennese Classicism, the customs of the mountain settlements and to visit unique monuments from the Romans to the multi-ethnic state under the Habsburgs.
Due to the development of the monarchy, Austrian cuisine was influenced by many peoples. The Wiener Schnitzel, the Sachertorte, the Kaiserschmarrn or the Mozartkugel are considered typically Austrian today. Try out Austrian regional dishes on holiday, which can be very different.
The Viennese coffeehouse culture has been an intangible cultural heritage of UNESCO since 2011. One of the first coffee houses was founded by an Armenian in 1683, later the Greeks were given the monopoly to serve coffee. When on holiday in Austria , don’t miss a visit to a coffee house.
The Celts brought viticulture to the region and the Romans cultivated it. Viticulture is still practiced successfully today in Vienna, Lower Austria, Styria and Burgenland. In the 19th century, the Heurigen culture developed with Schrammel music, which attracts tourists from all over the world to come on vacation.
After a long history as a duchy, kingdom and empire, according to the opinion “AEIOU – Austriae est imperare orbi universo” of Frederick III, the penultimate Roman-German emperor and after a period of foreign rule, Austria is today smaller, but free and a republic. The Austrians love their country and like to invite vacationers to vacation.
The History of Austria Timeline
- Up to around 8,000 BC: Old Stone Age – first evidence of settlement
- 800 to 400 BC: The kingdom of Noricum came into being during the Celtic period, and its settlements grew rich primarily through salt mining and trading.
- Beginning of the era: The Romans conquer the country, build cities and roads. The most important settlement Carnuntum in today’s Lower Austria flourished as the capital of the Roman province of Upper Pannonia and became an imperial city.
- Migration of peoples: Roman influence dwindles in the countries on the Danube.
- 6th century: Bavarians settle in the country. In order to stop the further advance of Slavs and Avars from the east, around 800 Charlemagne established a border mark in what is now Lower Austria.
- 10th century: East of the Enns, a margraviate is created, which is subordinate to the Duke of Bavaria and is enfeoffed with the Babenberger Leopold. In 996, the name Ostarrichi, which later became part of Austria, appeared in a document for the first time.
- Habsburgs: A little more than 100 years later, King Rudolf I took over the rule as the first regent from the House of Habsburg, which from then on steered the fortunes of the country for almost 650 years. The heart of the empire is the Vienna Hofburg. Under the Habsburgs, the country rose to become a major power, and in 1452 under Friedrich III. empire. Through a clever marriage policy, the Habsburgs secured their influence on France in the 15th century and became kings of Spain and its newly founded overseas colonies.
- Turkish Wars: Turks advancing from the east are the great challenge of the 16th century. In 1529, an Ottoman force unsuccessfully besieged Vienna, and the threat remained for the next century and a half. In 1683 the Turks were repelled and pushed back beyond what is now Belgrade.
- Baroque period: The liberation from the Turkish threat is also the starting signal for a heyday in art and culture. Magnificent buildings such as Schönbrunn Palace and the Salzburg Cathedral are built. Under the reign of Empress Maria Theresa (1717-1780), far-reaching reforms were initiated in all areas of the state and continued by her son, Emperor Joseph II (1741-1790), an enlightened, liberal monarch.
- 1789: The French Revolution and Napoleon’s seizure of power brought many changes. Austria was drawn into the Napoleonic Wars and, as host of the Congress of Vienna in 1814/15, played a part in reorganizing the continent. Emperor Franz I and his state chancellor Metternich countered the influence of the revolution in Austria with restrictions on civil liberties and censorship. The bourgeoisie then retreated into their own four walls. The Biedermeier period begins. People meet each other in good company in the salon and cultivate the arts.
- 1848: The bourgeoisie overthrew Franz I, after which Emperor Franz Joseph I took over the regency. With his wife Elisabeth, the legendary Sisi, he continues to shape the image of the Austrian Empire to this day.
- The waltz king Johann Strauss celebrates triumphs all over the world. Sigmund Freud developed psychoanalysis.
- Around 1900, Viennese Art Nouveau produced unique works. Painters like Gustav Klimt and Egon Schiele are just as impressive as the architects Otto Wagner and Adolf Loos.
- 1914: Tensions in the multinational state culminate in the assassination of the heir to the throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, in Sarajevo. The act is the trigger for the First World War. After the end of the war, the monarchy disintegrates and Austria founds the First Republic.
- 1934: The extremely difficult economic situation and domestic political disputes trigger a civil war. With the May Constitution of 1934, Engelbert Dollfuss established an authoritarian corporate state. In July of that year, the Austrian National Socialists launched an attempted coup that was repelled, but in which Dollfuss was murdered.
- March 12, 1938: The German Wehrmacht invades Austria, the country is annexed to Hitler’s German Reich as Ostmark.
- 1945: The republic is restored in Austria. The country remains occupied by Great Britain, France, the USA and the Soviet Union for another decade.
- May 15, 1955: The signing of the State Treaty with the Allies and the declaration of permanent neutrality bring independence back.
- 1956/1968: Austria offers refuge to refugees after the great Hungarian uprising and the Prague Spring.
- 1995: Austria joins the EU.
- 2000: The SPÖ-ÖVP coalition governments are replaced for the first time by governments of the ÖVP with the FPÖ. The EU member states react with sanctions.
- October 15, 2017: 26th National Council election, the 25th legislative period was shortened by decision of the National Council.
- December 18, 2017: Swearing-in of the 30th federal government of the Second Republic, a coalition government of the ÖVP and the FPÖ. Sebastian Kurz is appointed Chancellor as the youngest Chancellor of all time.
- In the second half of 2018, Austria will hold the Presidency of the Council of the European Union for the third time.
History of the flag of Austria
The History of Austrian Flag: In the year 1191 Leopold V, Duke of Babenberg, heroically fought against the Muslims in the capture of Acre (now Israel). It was a very hard battle and blood was splattered everywhere.
The duke’s beautiful white robes were stained with blood, except for the central part protected by a belt. At the end of the fight, Leopold V jubilantly waved his tunic. According to legend, this is the origin of the colors of the Austrian flag . The History of Austria.
In 1230 the colors white and red appeared on the seal of the Duke of Austria, Frederick II of Babenberg. Since 1786, the two-color flag has been official in this Central European territory called Ósterreich (“Eastern Kingdom”) since 996. Under the Habsburg dynasty, established in the 13th century, a black eagle adorned the flag of the government and the army .
With the arrival of the republic in 1919, the red-white-red flag was definitively adopted . But between 1938 and 1945 Austria, annexed by the German Third Reich, was subjected to the designs of the Nazi swastika. The History of Austria.
History of the destruction of Austria-Hungary
The History of Austria: History provides unique sociopolitical experiments. One of the most peculiar took place in Europe: the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Its existence is relatively short since it appears in 1867 and disappears (rather it is made to disappear) in 1919, after the First World War. Its creation is fascinating and dates back several centuries.
The kingdom of Hungary was born around the year 1000 of our era, from the hand of Prince Esteban I; while Austria, in what can be described as one of the biggest public relations operations in history, rose from a dukedom in central Europe to the dominant power of an empire, thanks to the skillful work of the house of the Habsburgs. The History of Austria.
During the 16th and 17th centuries, both kingdoms suffered from the unstoppable advance of the Ottoman Empire, but it was Hungary that took the worst part because in 1526 it saw its king die in the battle of Mohács and, a few years later, it became part of the Austrian possessions. Everything remained that way until the Kingdom of Hungary regained its autonomy and, through what was known as the “dual compromise” or “dual monarchy”, the Austro-Hungarian Empire was constituted. The History of Austria.
Read Also History of Germany
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