The History of Australia Timeline
The History of Australia :The beginning of human habitation of Australia has been estimated between 42000 and 48000 years ago. These first Australians may have been the ancestors of today’s modern indigenous Australians, they may have come by land bridge and made short sea voyages from what is today South-East Asia.
Most of these people were hunter-gatherers with spiritual qualities based on a mixed oral culture and belief in Dreamtime and respect for the land. The islanders of the Torres Strait, the Ethnicalimelanesians, were actually hunter-gatherers and horticulturists. Their cultural tradition has always been different from the original inhabitants of the continent. History of Australia.
The History of Australia Timeline : The name Australia is derived from a Latin word Australis meaning “southern”. The “Unknown Land of the South” (Terra australis incognita) is a legend from Roman times and was also mentioned in Medieval Geography, but it was not based on any documentary information about the continent. The Spaniards were one of the first Europeans to sail the Pacific Ocean in 1521. The word Australia was first used in English in 1625, in the book “A Note of Australia del Espiritu Santo” published by Samuel Purchas in Hakluytus Posthumus, written by Master Hakluyt.
The Dutch adjective form Australische was used in Batavia by Dutch East India Company employees in 1638 to refer to the discovery of new territories in the south. The term Australia was used in 1693 by Gabriel de Foigny under the nickname ‘Jacques Sadeur’ in 1676.
In French the novel (Les Aventures de Jacques Sadeur dans la Découverte et le Voyage de la Terre Australe) was translated into French. (1771) with reference to the entire South Pacific Ocean region. In 1793, George Shaw and Sir James Smith published the book Zoology and Botany of New Holland, in which they wrote “a vast island or partly Australian continent, Australasia or New Holland”. -Holland”. It also appeared in James Wilson’s chart in 1799. History of Australia.
The name Australia was made famous by Matthew Flinders, who pushed for its formal adoption around 1804. When he was preparing his manuscripts and charts for his book 1814 A Voyage to Terra Australis, he was inspired by his colleague Sir Joseph Banks to use the term terra Australis because it was not accessible to the public. was the most familiar word. History of Australia.
About 40,000 years before European settlement began in the early 18th century, the Australian continent and Tasmania were discovered by about 250 indigenous Australians from different countries. Following a sporadic excursion of fishermen from the immediate north and the discovery of Europe by the Hollandaicians in 1606, the semi-eastern part of Australia was occupied by the British in 1770, and on 26 January 1788 it was “counted out” as a punishment for the city of New South Wales.
Happened in Population increased rapidly over the years and the continent was discovered, with the other five large self-governing top cities established during the 19th century.
On 1 January 1901, the six cities were federated and the Commonwealth of Australia was formed. From the time of the federation, Australia maintained a stable liberal democratic political system and remained a sovereign nation. The population is only slightly above 21.7 million (one million), with about 60% concentrated in the main states of Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide. The capital of the nation is Canberra which is located in the Australian Principality (ACT). The History of Australia Timeline.
European Discovery of Australia
European Discovery and Settlement to 1850: The period of European discovery and settlement began on August 23, 1770, when Captain James Cook of the British Royal Navy took possession of the eastern coast of Australia in the name of George III. His party had spent four months in exploration along eastern Australia, from south to north.
Unlike Dutch explorers, who deemed the land of doubtful value and preferred to focus on the rich Indies to the north, Cook and Joseph Banks of the Royal Society, who accompanied Cook for scientific observations, reported that the land was more fertile. Cook’s fame in Britain helped to fix the attention of the British government on the area, which had some strategic significance in the European wars of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
In 1779 Joseph Banks recommended Botany Bay, named after the profusion of new plants found there, as a site for a penal settlement. A new outlet was needed for convicts to be transported overseas in continuance of British penal policy after the loss of the 13 North American colonies. In 1786 the British government decided to adopt Bank’s recommendation. Considerations other than the pressing need to reduce the convict population may have influenced Lord Sydney, the home minister, in his action.
There was, for example, some expression of interest in supplies for the Royal Navy and in the prospects for trade in the future. The first fleet in the series that transported convicts arrived in January 1788, bringing 1,500 people, nearly half of them convicts. On January 26, Captain Arthur Phillip of the Royal Navy raised the British flag at Sydney Cove, which he decided was preferable to Botany Bay, slightly to the south, as a settlement site. The colony of New South Wales was formally proclaimed on February 7, 1788. History of Australia.
The Australian Colonies
The Australian colonies became self-governing while undergoing great changes caused by the discovery of gold in 1851. Gold was, in fact, a cause for the change in attitude of the British government, which considered that the increasing wealth as well as the growing population of the colonies justified their assumption of political responsibility.
The discovery of gold, first in New South Wales and soon afterward in the new colony of Victoria, led to an influx of newcomers, including professional and skilled people. In the 1850s, Victoria produced more than one-third of the world’s gold. Between 1852 and 1870, gold’s export value was greater than that of wool. Most Australian gold was exported to Britain, which used it to maintain a gold standard for the pound. History of Australia.
Australia When Part of British Empire
As part of the British Empire, Australia joined forces with Britain in World War I. Australian forces during World War I—all volunteers—totaled 416,809, drawn from a population that did not reach 5 million until 1918. Nearly 330,000 served overseas in army, navy, and flying corps units. They incurred 226,000 casualties, including 60,000 killed. Australian forces took part in the naval and landing actions that eliminated the German presence in the South Pacific early in the war. Australia history facts.
Australian troops also participated in the campaigns in the Middle East that ended with Turkey’s surrender. Australia’s economy and politics were profoundly affected by the scope of the measures that the government took to support the country’s war effort. The pattern of industry and employment changed, in part to provide substitutes for products unobtainable from Britain during the war. Despite the growth of manufacturing and industrial employment, unemployment was high—greater than 6 percent—and the Australian economy was not prosperous during the war years. Australia history facts.
Australia in World War II
In World War II, the reaction was the same as that of 1914; Australia was automatically at war without further formality when Britain declared war on Germany on September 3, 1939. Again forces were sent to the Middle East. The Royal Australian Air Force was rapidly expanded, and some of its units took part in the Battle of Britain in 1940. In the difficult military campaigns that finally succeeded in eliminating or neutralizing Japanese military forces in the islands to the north and northeast of Australia, Australian army, navy, and air force units played a major role.
Australia proper was not invaded but was subjected to 96 attacks by air, which included severe damage to Darwin. Some 691,400 men and women served in Australia’s armed forces during six years of war. Casualties numbered about 71,000, of whom more than 29,000 were killed and almost 2,500 were missing; 30,000 were taken prisoner, of whom 8,000 died in captivity.
Australia Post-World War II-era
Australia Since 1945: In the post-World War II-era, Australia’s foreign policy became more closely aligned with the United States than with Britain. Another foreign policy theme has been collective security. Australian forces participated in the Korean War (1950–53) in support of the United Nations (UN)-sponsored campaign. In 1951 Australia signed the Australia-New Zealand-United States (ANZUS) Security Treaty, which committed the three nations to mutual defense.
In 1954 Australia helped found the Southeast Asian Treaty Organization (SEATO), which was the regional equivalent of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). From 1965 to 1971, Australia sent troops to Vietnam in support of the United States-led intervention there. In 1990 Australia deployed three ships to support the United States-led naval blockade of Iraq following Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait.
After the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on the United States, Australia invoked the ANZUS treaty and dispatched troops to Afghanistan. In 2003 Australia also sent troops to participate in Operation Iraqi Freedom. Australia was rewarded for its unwavering friendship with the United States when the two nations began to observe a bilateral free-trade agreement in January 2005. At the same time, Australia is developing an increasingly close relationship with China, and the two nations are pursuing a free-trade agreement. History of Australia.
Ancient History of Australia
Ancient History of Australia Millions of years in the making, Australia has an extraordinary history. The people, places and events that have shaped this country from the first inhabitants to the modern day are celebrated in the form of unforgettable festivals, museums, walks, guided tours and more. History lovers will be richly rewarded with one-of-a-kind experiences that delve into the backstory of the island nation.
Dinosaurs lived from about 250 to 65 million years ago and there’s plenty of fossil evidence that shows a diverse range once roamed Australia’s ancient lands. History of Australia.
You can follow in the footsteps of these prehistoric giants by joining the five-day Australian Dinosaur Trail in Queensland, which includes a visit to the site of the only known dinosaur stampede on the planet. These fossilised dinosaur footprints actually inspired the dinosaur stampede scene in Stephen Spielberg’s blockbuster, Jurassic Park. Not far from here you will also find the Australian Age of Dinosaurs Museum, home of the world’s largest collection of Australian dinosaur fossils. History of Australia.
On the west coast, you can wander the Dinosaur Coast to see fossilised tracks from around 130 million years ago. And in Sydney, be sure to view the permanent dinosaur exhibition bringing the Mesozoic era to life at the Australian Museum.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples have lived on the continent for more than 60,000 years. Pre-European colonisation, Aboriginal Australians were cultivating and irrigating farming areas, establishing fisheries and building permanent homes. Their understanding of the environment and its natural resources supported thriving villages across the continent, contrary to the popular misconception that they were all hunter-gatherer clans. History of Australia. History of Australia.
Australia as a Political
The Commonwealth of Australia is a constitutional democracy, based on a federal division of power. The form of government used with a parliamentary system of government is Australia’s constitutional monarchy. Queen Elizabeth II is the Queen of Australia, her role being distinct from those of other national board states. Australian history.
It is represented as the Governor-General at the Union level and as the Governor at the state level. Whatever the case may be, the Constitution gives the Governor-General detailed executive powers, all these are usually exercised only on the advice of the Prime Minister. The most notable use of the reserve powers enjoyed by the Governor-General outside the orders of the Prime Minister was the dismissal of the Willam government during the constitutional crisis of 1975. Australian history.
Geography of Australia
The land area of Australia is 7,617,930 square kilometers (2,941,300 sq mi) on the Indo-Australian Plateau. Surrounded by the Indian N4 and the Pacific Ocean, Australia is divided from Asia by the Arafura and Timur seas. Australia has a coastline of 34,218 kilometers (21,262 mi) (excluding all offshore islands)  and occupies an extensive exclusive wetland of 8,148,250 square kilometers (3,146,060 sq mi). The Australian South-Polar Territory is not included in this Exclusive Economic Zone. History of Australia.
The giant barrier reef, the world’s largest coral reef, is located a short distance from the north east coast and extends for more than 2,000 kilometers (1,240 mi). Mount Augustus is considered the world’s largest stone pillar , which is located in Western Australia. Mount Kosciko on the Great Dividing Range at 2,228 m (7,310 ft) is the largest reef on the Australian continent; However, Mason Peak in the remote Australian region of Heard Island is 2,745 meters (9,006 Ft.) long. The History of Australia Timeline.
Human Environment Interactions in Australia
Australia is semiarid, has a diverse habitat range from alpine scrub to tropical rainforest, and is considered a country of diversity. Because of the continent’s age, its highly variable weather patterns and its long-term geographic isolation, much of Australia’s biota is unique and diverse. About 85% of flowering plants, 84% of mammals, more than 45% of birds and 89% of aquatic, temperate zone fishes are endemic. With 755 species, Australia has more capricious fauna than any country. The History of Australia. History of Australia.
Australia in World War 2
Brave Australian soldiers battled far from home during World War I. An estimated 60,000 ANZACS (an acronym for Australian and New Zealand Army Corps) died and tens of thousands were wounded in action. History of Australia.
During World War II, Australian forces made a significant contribution to the Allied victory. The battle hit home soil in 1942 when Darwin was bombed by 260 enemy aircraft. History of Australia.
Every year on April 25, ANZAC Day is commemorated across the country with dawn services and marches. Afterwards, many Aussies retreat to pubs and Returned Service League (RSL) clubs to play Two-Up — an unregulated form of gambling allowed only on this day — where a designated “spinner” throws two coins and players hedge their bets on whether the coins will land ‘heads’ or ‘tails’ up.
Was New Zealand part of Australia?
No New Zealand is not a part of Australia, but an entirely separate Continent about 1000 miles southeast of Australia. Some of the confusion lies in the fact that both New Zealand and Australia are apart of the Oceanian sub-region known as Australasia which is named very similar to Australia. Was New Zealand part of Australia? The History of Australia.
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