Timeline History El Salvador Facts
El Salvador, officially called “Republic of El Salvador”, is a Latin American country located in Central America, specifically on the Pacific Ocean coast. In addition, it borders Honduras to the north and east, Guatemala to the west, the Gulf of Fonseca to the southwest and falters to the south by the Pacific Ocean.
Prehistory El Salvador Timeline
Early history El Salvador: Humans have been in El Salvador as long as they have been in Central America. They first passed through while migrating from North America between 10,000 and 12,000 years ago.
The oldest evidence of humans in El Salvador come from cave paintings dating back to at least 6000 BC. These caves are in the Department of Morazan, in the northeast of the country.
From those first settlers came a series of Pre-Columbian civilizations that left their mark on El Salvador.
The first civilization was the Lenca people, who built towns and cities in the area. Then came the first major civilization to develop in Central America, the Olmecs. They ruled over southern Mexico and Guatemala but also spread into western El Salvador. Some of their pyramids and sculptures dating from around 2000 BC are still around today. The Olmec Empire crumbled around 400 years before the birth of Christ. The Mayan Empire rose from its ashes, they too settled in parts of El Salvador and prospered.
Sometime in the fifth or sixth century, the Ilopango Volcano in central El Salvador erupted. This caused devastation to the Mayan cities in the region. It decimated the population and wiped out agriculture for decades. After the eruptions, the Mayans evacuated El Salvador. It would be many years before anyone could return.
History On El Salvador Timeline
- TIME DIFFERENCE Six hours less with respect to GMT.
- LANGUAGE The official language is Spanish.
- RELIGION Catholic 93%. Protestant, 6%.
Mid Age Short History Of El Salvador Facts
The Pipil people were the first new migrants post-Ilopango to arrive in El Salvador in the 11th century. It was the Pipil, who called their land Cuzcatlan, who were dominating the region when the Spanish showed up some 400 years later. To this day the name Cuzcatlan is an alternate word to describe El Salvador. The name is a source of national pride.
The Cuzcatlecos, as the Spanish called the Pipil, built their capital city where the modern capital San Salvador stands today. They became wealthy trading with the Aztec Empire to the north and by cultivating cacao. They also mastered complex irrigation techniques. The Pipil are one of the more interesting if little-known about, civilizations of the Pre-Columbian Americas. The first European influence to affect the land of Cuzcatlan came before the Spanish even set foot in the country.
The First Inhabitants In El Salvador History
When the Europeans first arrived in the New World, they brought with them their diseases. These were unknown to indigenous Americans and tore through them like hurricanes. The civilization of El Salvador dates back to pre-Columbian times, around 1500 years BC, as evidenced by the ruins of Tazumal and Chalchuapa. The first inhabitants were the Pocomames, Lencas, and Pipiles, who settled in the central and western areas of the country in the mid-eleventh century. Spanish Admiral Andrés Niño led an expedition to Central America and landed on Meanguera Island, located in the Gulf of Fonseca, on May 31, 1522. This was the first Salvadoran territory visited by the Spanish.
Colonial El Salvador History Timeline
Colonial history El Salvador Timeline: By the time the first Spanish army arrived under the command of conquistador Pedro de Alvarado in 1524, three years after the navigator Andres Niño sailed into the Gulf of Fonseca and “discovered” El Salvador, the Cuzcatlecos had already been ravaged by smallpox.
Arrival of Pedro de Alvarado In The History of El Salvador Timeline
Arrival of Pedro in history El Salvador: At this time life unfolded calmly until the years 1524 when the Spaniards arrived on Salvadoran soil, Pedro de Alvarado batallo enough to be able to subdue the Pipiles, it was here where in a war his loss was hit by an arrow, making him a limp that would follow him throughout his life.
The wars were few because when he won the next town is always empty, after the battle Acajutla all the other towns that Alvarado found on his way were abandoned, the theory says that the Pipil fled to Honduran territory when they learned of the presence of Alvarado in their lands. The conquest of El Salvador had as an end the year of 1540, it was until this year that it was possible to map and divide all the Salvadoran territory and that was how El Salvador video under the Spanish yoke until 1821 that was the independence from Spain.
That said, they were still in good enough shape to fight. Pedro de Alvarado got a bloody nose when he entered their land, finding savage resistance where he expected none. The Cuzcatlan army put the Spaniards to flight time and time again. It took four years, until 1528, for Spanish forces to finally conquer them. The Pipil Indians, descendants of the Aztecs, probably migrated to the region in the 11th century. In 1525, Pedro de Alvarado, a lieutenant of Cortés, conquered El Salvador.
Independence from Spain. When did El Salvador became a country?
El Salvador was one of the most aggressive and rebellious countries of the federation, since it considered that the capital could only be San Salvador and was against any other option, this was how many times there were revolts and small wars in its territory, it was until 1841 when El Salvador finally split from the Central American federation and begins its history as a nation completely independent of any other.
El Salvador, with the other Central American countries, declared its independence from Spain on September 15, 1821, and was part of a federation of Central American states until the union was dissolved in 1838. For decades after its independence, El Salvador experienced numerous revolutions and wars against other Central American republics.
From 1931 to 1979 El Salvador was ruled by a series of military dictatorships. In 1969, El Salvador invaded Honduras after Honduran landowners deported several thousand.
Original Name of El Salvador
How did El Salvador get its name? El Salvador called before: Origin of the name “El Salvador” was a name given by Christopher Columbus for “Santo Salvador”, since this was the land that saved him from dying. On one of the new routes of Christopher Columbus they spent months in which they did not see land and it is exhausted water and food, therefore, the crew wanted to kill him. When the situation was getting out of control a sailor shouted “land in sight” and that land is El Salvador.
El Salvador suffers during 12 years of civil war
In the 1970s, discontent with social inequalities, a poor economy, and the repressive measures of the dictatorship led to the civil war between the government, ruled since 1961 by the right-wing National Conciliation Party (PCN), and the leftist guerrilla units against the government, whose leader group was the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN).
Geography of El Salvador
Situated on the Pacific coast of Central America, El Salvador has Guatemala to the west and Honduras to the north and east. It is the smallest of the central American countries, with an area equal to that of Massachusetts, and is the only one without the Atlantic coastline. Most of the country is on a fertile volcanic plateau about 2,000 feet (607 m) high.
ART AND CULTURE of El Salvador
Religious architectural constructions are present throughout the territory. The styles range from classical to baroque and churrigueresco. The walls are also faithful exhibitors of Salvadoran art that constitutes a true colonial heritage.
The Mayan world, settled in these latitudes 3,000 years ago, left an important legacy of tradition and culture, impregnated at every point in the land of El Salvador. The archeology and exploration of the ancient cities are the attraction of the country. El Salvador has a network of 100 Houses of Culture established throughout the national territory, which offer a rich amount of artistic and cultural activities throughout the year.
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