What is the History of Bahrain Timeline?
History Bahrain: Timeline: On August 14, 1971, Bahrain, a small Persian Gulf state with maritime borders with Iran, Qatar and Saudi Arabia, proclaims its independence from the United Kingdom and becomes an emirate.
Its name means, in Arabic, “two seas”. Some identify these “two seas” as the waters that bathe both sides of the island. Others believe the name refers to the country’s position as an island in the Persian Gulf, effectively separated by “two seas”. Modern History Bahrain.
Early History Bahrain Timeline
Early History Bahrain: Although historians can trace civilization back 5,000 years, there is evidence that the island was inhabited much earlier, even 10,000 years BC. Archaeologists have confirmed that what is now Bahrain was once the seat of the Dilmun Empire, which spread as far north as Kuwait and well into Saudi Arabia between 3,200 and 330 BC.
Bahrain Ancient history: This civilization is well-regarded for the way it approached commerce—shuttling across the Gulf to modern-day Iran, Old India, Pakistan, and the UAE—and also for its humane treatment of people. Grand burial sites (a measure of respect Dilmunis afforded their elders) cover five percent of the island. Assisted by its regular supplies of sweet water back in the Stone Age, it has often been suggested that Bahrain was home to the Garden of Eden. The island’s later history saw it absorbed by the empire of Babylon and the Greek Empire under the strict rule of Alexander the Great. Early History Bahrain.
Ancient History of Bahrain
Timeline of Prehistory Bahrain: About 5.000 years ago (2800 BC – 323 BC), Bahrain was the home of the Dilmun civilization from the Bronze Age, which lasted for about two thousand years. The Kingdom of Dilmun was an important commercial hub and it made connections with civilized centers in the Indus Valley, Persia, the eastern coast of Africa, and Mesopotamia.
This kingdom was also a commercial hub between the Arabian Peninsula and India; a center that Bahrain still maintains until now. Nevertheless, some of Bahrain’s people work in agricultural and fishing activities. The name of Bahrain – which means two seas in Arabic – refers to its dual sources of freshwater.Bahrain was alternately occupied by Babylonians, Sumerians, Greeks, Persians, Portuguese, Turks, and others. The Greeks gave the island the name “Tylos” (323 BC – 200 AD). In the early stage of the Islamic era, Bahrain was given the name of “Awal” which is derived from the name of the Arab tribe “Wael” that moved to the island from the Arabian Peninsula. History Bahrain.
Middle Ages and Islam
The Islam History Bharain Timeline: Bahrain was one of the first provinces to convert to Islam in the 7th century and its people participated in the “Islamic conquests”. During the Umayyad era (661 – 750), Bahrain was considered as part of the Emirate of Basra in Iraq. In this era, commerce flourished due to the reform of roads, the revitalization of maritime traffic, and the recovery of transit trade across the Arab / Persian Gulf. After that, the Abbasid dynasty ruled Bahrain until it came under the rule of the Kings of Hormuz in 1230.
The Kings of Hormuz ruled Bahrain three times. The fourth time was when they took Bahrain from the Juburids in the middle of 1521. Their rule continued for about 80 years when the Safavids [a dynasty of Persia’s descendants] took control of Bahrain in 1602. In 1529, the Hormuz king Turan Shah Muhammad Shah, the son of Muzaffar al-Din Mahar Turan Shah, appointed Jalaluddin Murad Mahmoud Shah as ruler of Bahrain. Jalaluddin ruled Bahrain until he died in 1577 CE.
Jalaluddin established a ruling family in Bahrain under the name of the “Barangar” family. His first son Kamal Al Din “Jamal” Mahmoud Masoud Shah succeeded him until his death in 1602. After that, the second son of Jalaluddin (Amir Yusuf Shah) ascended the throne until his death in a battle that was considered as the last attempt of the Portuguese to restore Bahrain in 1605. History Bahrain in details.
Was Bahrain Part of Iran?
What year Bahrain separated from Iran? So Bahrain, which was practically separated from Iran in 1783 but would namely confirm her allegiance to Iran, was practically, namely and officially separated from Iran between the years of 1868 and 1892 for the last time.
History Bahrain and Iran: Bahrain Province (Persian: استان بحرین), also known as the 14th Province and Mishmahig, was a province in the administrative divisions of Iran between 1957 and 1971, that encompassed Bahrain archipelago (part of the present-day country Bahrain). During this period, Bahrain was under effective control of the Persian Gulf Residency and Iran regarded it under British colonial occupation.
Although not under control of Iranian government, in order to stress the territorial claim of Iran, it was declared a province on 12 November 1957, with two parliamentary seats dedicated to it (in the early 1900s, one parliamentary seat was reserved for Bahrain). According to Iranian sources, a year later in 1958 Sheikh Salman bin Hamad Al Khalifa (ruler of Bahrain) pledged allegiance to Iran. One of his predecessors, Sheikh Muhammad bin Khalifah Al Khalifa had in 1851 asked for Iranian protection against Wahabbis and declared his preparedness to be a Qajar Iran protectorate. However, the British forced him to become their protectorate.
Before the province was detached in 1957, Iran considered it as part of Fars Province. During Safavid Iran, Bahrain was subordinate to Bushehr governorship and Zubarah (located in modern-day country of Qatar) was its capital city. In 1737, under Afsharid dynasty Bahrain was made subject to Fars governorship.
The province officially ceased to exist with a resolution approved by the lower house on 14 May 1971 with 184 votes to 4, and unanimously approved by the upper house on 18 May 1971; and Iran recognized Bahrain as an independent sovereign state
The Portuguese Are Coming
Portuguese History Bahrain: When Portuguese was coming in Bahrain: There was always a change between Arab and Persian rulers until the Portuguese came on the scene at the beginning of the 16th century. Because they always liked to visit places where they could trade. Above all, the local pearl fishing attracted them to today’s Bahrain. It was not until 1622 that the Persians expelled the Portuguese from Bahrain.
Ruling family Al-Khalifa in Bahrain
The Ruling Family History Bahrain: The Al-Khalifa family fled from Qatar to Bahrain in 1782/83 and took over the rule there. To this day, it is based there and provides the respective rulers of the country. History Bahrain Family.
From the Ottomans to the British Protectorate
Ottomans History Bahrain: The Ottomans annexed Al-Ahsa to their empire in 1550. In June 1559, Mustafa Pasha, the Wali of Al-Ahsa, arrived with an Ottoman army in Bahrain. In 1861, Bahrain became a British protectorate. A treaty to recognize the independence of Bahrain was signed in 1913 between Britain and the Ottoman Empire. The treaty gave Britain the right to keep Bahrain under its administration.
In 1931, Oil was discovered in Jabal Ad-Dukhan of Bahrain (Mountain of Smoke). Bahrain 1960s, Production began the following year. Sheikh Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa took power in 1961. In January 1970, his brother Sheikh Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa chaired the state’s administrative council. In the same year, Iran abandoned its claim in Bahrain after an UN report showed that Bahrainis wanted their state to remain Independent. Ottomans History Bahrain.
Oil as an important source of income for the country
As in other countries in the region, the trade in pearls was an important income for the inhabitants. When Japan discovered how pearls could be artificially produced, Bahrain lost this important source of income.
History of Pearling in Bahrain
History Bahrain Pearling Timeline: However, oil was discovered on the island in the first quarter of the last century, so that the sale of oil became a new source of income and replaced the pearl trade. Bahrain was thus the first Gulf state to produce oil. The Emir of Bahrain used the proceeds from oil sales to expand the country, built roads, schools and hospitals, so that the country became more and more prosperous. But Britain’s influence persisted, and not every Bahraini resident was satisfied with it. There were increased protests by the population.
Bahrain Pearls History Timeline
With over 4000 years of pearling history behind the Kingdom, the pearl fisheries of Tylos (the ancient name for Bahrain) have been well documented throughout history including by the renowned Roman author, naturalist and philosopher, Pliny. The Kingdom’s pearls have long held legendary status for their purity, brilliance and stunning beauty. It is thought that this is somewhat due to Bahrain’s the oyster bed locations being situated near to underwater sweet water springs.
The pearls are known as Natural Arabian Gulf Pearls, famous for their high lustre and range in colour from white to light yellow. These pearls command a higher price than cultured pearls (those created by oyster farmers under controlled conditions). Natural uncultured saltwater oyster pearls are difficult to locate, hence they generate a greater value, and also vary in size and luminosity, while cultured pearls (banned in Bahrain) tend to be more uniform in size and shape. This reinforces why today buyers need to ensure their pearls have been tested to confirm they are precisely what has been stated.
A key testimony to the Kingdom’s pearling history is Bahrain’s pearling trail, which has been officially recognised by UNESCO on its world heritage list. Pearling, Testimony of an Island Economy is a 3.5km trail, which includes 17 buildings in Muharraq such as pearl merchant houses, shops, stores and a mosque, 3 offshore oyster beds, a section of seashore, as well as the Qal’at Bu Mahir fortress from where boats used to start their journey to the oyster beds. This site represents a time when pearling was the foremost part of the Kingdom’s economy.
Independence and the Constitutional Kingdom of Bahrain
Freedom History Bahrain Timeline: How did Bahrain gain independence? In August 1971, Bahrain declared independence and signed a new treaty of friendship with Britain. Sheikh Isa became the first Emir of the country. The State Council was turned into a Council of Ministers. After the official announcement of independence at the end of the same year, the new emirate signed an agreement allowing the United States to rent marine and military facilities. Bahrain Founded in August 1971.
At the end of 1972, the country’s first elections to the Constitutional Council were held. Voting was restricted to males over the age of 20.
Bharain 1980: Bahrain joined the Gulf Cooperation Council in May 1981, which also includes Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. At the end of 1981, the Islamic Front for the Liberation of Bahrain, led by Shi’a cleric Ayatollah Hadi Al-Modarresi, was accused of conspiring to topple the government on Bahrain’s national day, December 16.
In April 1986, Qatari forces occupied the island of Fasht Dibal and withdrew two months later with a Saudi mediation. In the same year, King Fahd Causway connecting Bahrain to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was opened.
In 1991, Bahrain participated in the “Desert Storm” coalition against Iraq during the Gulf War. The Bahraini forces were a part of the GCC’s Gulf Shield Forces. In July 1991, Qatar transferred its territorial claims about the Hawar Islands, Fasht Dibal, and Jaradat Qayyat to the International Court of Justice in The Hague. After three months, Bahrain signed a defense cooperation agreement with the United States stipulating the protection of port facilities and joint military exercises.
The 1990s were marked by a series of security concerns between the Shi’a majority and the ruling Sunni authority. These concerns continued despite the 1995 ministerial amendments that resulted in the inclusion of five Shi’a ministers.
At the end of the second millennium, Emir Isa bin Salman Al Khalifa died. Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa succeeded his father in March 1999. The first decade of the new ruler witnessed a series of measures and reforms at the political level. These reforms included the following: changing the small emirate into a constitutional kingdom; appointing a Christian, a Jew, and four women in the Shura Council; granting women the right to vote and stand for political office; appointing the first woman in a ministerial position; appointing a Jewish woman as an ambassador and holding the first local and parliamentary elections in nearly 30 years in 2002.
Culture and Fashion of Bahrain
Culture and Fashion History Bahrain: Bahrain’s culture is very similar to that of its Arab neighbors in the Gulf, and is largely based around its Islamic heritage. These days, though, it is very cosmopolitan as a result of the expat population that heavily outnumbers the indigenous Bahrainis. In spite of having a strong cultural, religious, and ethnic identity which is evident from the Catholic and Orthodox churches, Hindu temples, and even a Jewish synagogue on the island.
Modern activities like soccer and international travel have taken over in popularity. Most locals still wear traditional dress that comprises a thobe, or white robe, for men, and black abayas for women, which are both cool and comfortable. There is no dress code for visitors as long as their clothing is modest—the rule of thumb is to cover shoulders and knees, except within hotel grounds, where more casual clothing is accepted.
Opera Mundi: Today in History: 1971 – Bahrain gains its independence from the United Kingdom (uol.com.br)
Bahrain — History and Culture (iexplore.com)
Children’s World Tour ǀ Bahrain – History & Politics (kinderweltreise.de)