Ghana History Slavery 1857: Best History of Ghana Timeline

The Ghana History Timeline

The Timeline Ghana History: Ghana is a country located on the west coast of Africa, in the Gulf of Guinea. Its history dates back to at least the first millennium, when sub-Saharan Africans began to establish farms and develop advanced agricultural techniques. Throughout their history, a number of different kingdoms claimed the land as part of their nations. During the sixteenth century, a federation of cultures united under the banner of the Ashanti Empire. Over the years, Ghana was subject to the colonization of several nations and eventually to dictatorial leadership and military rule at independence.

Ghana history timeline
Ghana history timeline

History on Ghana

Some Top Facts in Ghana History.

  • Capital: Accra
  • Government: parliamentary democracy
  • Official language: English
  • Largest ethnic group: Akan
  • Date of Independence: March 6, 1957
  • Previously: Gold Coast, a British colony

Religion Ratio in Ghana History


Christian religions: 71.3%;

Islamic: 19.9%;

traditionalism: 3.2%;

none: 4.5%;

others: 1.1%.”

Early Ghana History

What was the Kingdom of Ghana history? Ghana is a country of 31 million inhabitants located in West Africa. The Kingdom of Ghana was a kingdom that existed from the 4th to the 12th century in Africa. Its territory was where today are the countries Mali and Mauritania. It was adjacent to the Sahara desert and was between the Niger and Senegal rivers. Its foundation took place through communities of farmers who came together to defend themselves from nomadic peoples. The Kingdom of Ghana has opened new trade routes between the interior of Africa and the international Mediterranean sea market. It was very rich in gold, coming to be called “Land of Gold”.

Mid age Ghana History: The Kingdom of Ghana was a great empire, very rich, mainly in gold, which developed off the African coast near the Sahara desert, and was of fundamental importance for trade between the Mediterranean Sea and the interior of Africa. Its peak was between the years 700 and 1200, that is, during the period of history that we call the Middle Ages (<>th to FIFTEENth centuries).

There are sparse historical and even archaeological sources about this kingdom, since, from documents, what has been reported by traveling merchants who were later transcribed by people who were not on site. In archeology, due to the succession of other peoples, it is difficult to identify what actually belonged to the kingdom.

Old Ghana history: Thus, it is known small towns between the Rivers Senegal and Niger inhabited by the Sleepers, who were unifying to obtain protection against nomadic groups that existed there, around the 4th century. Known as the “Land of Gold”, the Kingdom of Ghana existed between the 4th and 12th centuries in the region where mali and mauritania in Africa are now located. This all about brief Ghana History timeline.

The History of Ghana Timeline

What the history of Ghana Timeline: Prior to colonization, Ghana was home to the Ashanti Empire, a branch of the Akan people. During the seventeenth century, the country launched a campaign to consolidate most of the surroundings of present-day Ghana. Under the leadership of Osei Tutu, political and military power merged with religious influences.

One of the main factors in the success of the Ashanti Empire was the fact that all the lands conquered by force allowed them to maintain their own rule and customs. By the 1820s, the empire reached its peak value in size and power and began negotiating with European merchants, as well as other African powers, such as the Fante and Ewe peoples

Colonization History of Ghana

Colonization Era in Ghana history timeline: At the same time that the expansion of Ashanti power was being harnessed, Portuguese merchants built Elmina Castle in the region. They were joined by the Dutch, who managed to capture the castle in 1637. They consolidated their bargaining power throughout the rest of the seventeenth century and built more than 30 different fortresses along the coast. The area was called the “Gold Coast”.

Soon, Ghana was also colonized by a number of British and Danish traders. In 1750, the British African Company of Merchants was established in direct competition with the Dutch West India Company. Many of the other nations began to withdraw their merchants and soldiers, leaving only the British and Dutch. This also changed in 1872, when the British bought the remaining interests and fortresses from the Dutch.

See also  A Brief Costa Rica History Timeline

Why was Ghana important?

Why was Ghana important? Throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, slavery was an important source of income and standard operating procedure. Along the coast of West Africa, numerous African tribes and civilizations had been practicing slavery for generations; However, within the commercial actions of the Dutch and British, slavery was taken to new levels. In relations with the Ashanti Empire, Europeans were able to accumulate tens of thousands of slaves through the continuation of conflict in the country with rival powers. As the empire conquered new territories, it took prisoners and sold them to European merchants. These slaves could be used in Ghana itself or sent abroad for sale in the New World.

British Gold Coast in Ghana History

British Rule in Ghana History: After consolidating their power on the Gold Coast, the British moved to establish a more permanent system of power. The government appointed colonial administrators to work with traditional chiefs in a form of indirect rule. These chiefs received decorations and awarded cavalry to help keep them at bay. Ultimately, they became a system of aristocracy.

In 1927, the Native Administration Ordinance established a system that gave more power to the native population and defined areas of jurisdiction. This was followed in 1935 by the centralization of government. The main change in the indigenous population occurred during World War II. A number of Ghanaians joined British forces abroad to fight in the war. This opened the horizons of many and stimulated a nationalist movement in the country.

The United Gold Coast Convention was established by educated Ghanaians in the 1940s. In keeping with British interests in removing their control over the colony, this drive for independence was accelerated. In 1956, Ghana’s legislative body formally issued a petition for independence to the British Commonwealth. The following year, it was granted.

What is Ghana History Slavery?

Ghana history slavery: Another famous slave castle is Elmina Castle (often called St. George’s Castle), located in the town of Elmina, about 13 kilometers from Cape Coast Castle. Known as the oldest European structure in Ghana, construction of the castle began in 1482 following the arrival of the Portuguese on the Gold Coast in 1471, and served to protect the Portuguese settlement area, called São Jorge da Mina (St George of the Mines).

Over the decades, various parts of the castle were rebuilt, with trade being its main focus. However, in the seventeenth century, most of this trade was in people. In 1637, the Dutch took control of the Gold Coast and continued to use Elmina Castle as a place to ‘store’ slaves until their departure. The Dutch made some substantial changes to the castle, such as creating a market where slaves could be auctioned. Conditions were similar to those at neighbouring Cape Coast Castle. In dungeons, light could only enter through doors or a few small holes at each end of the ceiling.

Any revolt was harshly disciplined. The men were sent to the condemned cell without lighting and starved to death, while the women were beaten and chained to cannonballs in the courtyard. Aware of possible attacks, the Dutch built a stronghold, Fort Coenraadsburg (also known as St. Jago), on the hill opposite Elmina Castle, which overlooked the house from their older brother’s horrors.

Under the rule of the Dutch West Indies Company, around 30,000 slaves a year passed through Elmina’s door of no return, until 1814 when the Dutch slave trade was abolished, seven years after the British. Ceded to the British in 1872, Elmina Castle was barely used until Ghana’s independence. Thereafter it became a training centre for Ghanaian police recruits and surprisingly a school for some time, before also becoming a history museum.

Other remaining castles and fortresses include Fort Christiansborg (or Osu Castle), Fort and Fort Ussher James. In addition to museums, some fortresses have been transformed into government offices, prisons and guest houses, while others are nothing more than abandoned stone ruins with some standing walls. UNESCO has declared many of these castles and fortresses to be World Heritage sites of great historical significance. However, due to limited funding, preservation has been limited and sites continue to deteriorate.

See also  Best Early Brunei History Timeline A Rich Country

Ghana history slavery: Today 30 surviving fortresses, castles and former trading posts can be found along the coast of Ghana, many of them witnessing the largest (forced) migration in history and the atrocities humanity is capable of committing. Castles such as Elmina, Cape Coast and Ussher Fort have been converted into museums and offer guided tours. Touchingly, these tours literally guide visitors through the history of slave castles, reliving the harrowing experiences of slaves.

Extremely popular with African-American tourists who want to learn more about their heritage, today castles are also receiving more and more local Ghanaians interested in learning about the period of slavery in their country. More than museums, these castles are full of disturbing stories that reveal the horrors of the slave trade. Serving as a stark reminder of Ghana’s dark history, the castles continue to respect the millions of people who languished at the hands of slavers. They are far from forgotten, even in the twenty-first century.

Ghana history slavery:  There are many traces that force us not to forget what in the past was a common practice and as is known, emptied the African continent. More than 20 million slaves were forced to leave Africa, especially between the sixteenth and nineteenth centuries, without taking into account those who were enslaved in their own territories. The “traveling” slaves were usually recruited by local chiefdoms to be sold later to Europeans who, after accumulating them conveniently, chartered ships to send them to America, the continent of opportunities.

The accumulation of slaves occurred basically to reduce costs: chartered ships had to be completed for the price of transport to be profitable. These slaves would later be sold mostly in different parts of the American continent, being stripped of their culture and any hint of dignity to work in the fields.

In Africa we still find the traces of these practices. Many clues reveal a not so distant past, the linguistic terms (such as “quilombo”) the cultural relations back and forth (a good example would be the rumba) or in the material historical heritage that survives in the continent. Within this last group stand out architectural complexes such as those preserved on the Island of Gorea in Senegal or the castles that occupy us, Elmina and Cape Coast located in Ghana.

Who did Ghana gain independence from?

Who did Ghana gain independence from?  On 6 March 1957, the Gold Coast (now known as Ghana) gained independence from Britain. Ghana became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and was led to independence by Kwame Nkrumah who transformed the country into a republic, with himself as president for life. The country was the first to gain independence from European colonialism. Before it was colonized, Ghana was made up of a number of independent kingdoms, including Gonja and Dagomba in the north, Ashanti in the interior, and the Fanti states along the coast. The flag of the newly independent state was designed by Theodosia Salome Okoh.

The red signified those who had died for independence, the gold is the mineral wealth with the green representing the rich grasslands of the area. The black star is the symbol of the people and of African emancipation.

Ghana’s first major leader was Kwame Nkrumah, who established the People’s Convention Party in the drive for independence. One of the views of Nkrumah’s overall policies was the establishment of a united Africa. In his view, since Ghana was one of the first independent African countries, it should lead the continent in establishing a trade union. Under his leadership, a number of opposition groups rose up, complaining about increased taxes and military actions abroad. This culminated in an assassination attempt in 1962 and a military coup in 1966.

The National Liberation Council was formed by the military. This council was composed of four army officers and four policemen and took full control of all executive authority. This period was characterized by a revaluation of the currency and the nationalization of several enterprises, including foreign industries. However, this last instance led to a decline in the flow of capital and credit with foreign nations, culminating in a fuel shortage in 1974.

See also  Best The History of Scotland Timeline from Prehistory to Now

In 1979, a second coup d’état forced the previous military leadership out of power. A group of young army officers under Lieutenant Jerry Rawlings took control of the government and established the Revolutionary Armed Forces Council. Public courts and a series of executions of former military commanders were carried out.

Finally, new public elections were held in 1992. Rawlings was elected president and a 200-seat Parliament was established. The Constitution of Ghana came into force in 1993.

Ghana Africa history Timeline

What is Ghana Africa History? Or Ghanaian Empire, also known as Ouagadi Empire, was the name given to an ancient state located in West Africa, where today we have southeastern Mauritania and western Mali, and which had its heyday between 700 and 1200 of the Christian Era. The state capital was located in the city of Kumbi Saleh, today an archaeological site on the border between Mauritania and Mali, which, according to research, has been inhabited since the third century by Mandaean peoples, especially those of the Soninque group, predominant for most of the existence of the previous state.

The name Ghana derives from the title given to its sovereigns, the term Uagadu is used for the same country, but by the local inhabitants, meaning “country of the herds”. Ghana history.

Ghana africa history
Ghana africa history

The most important description of the Ghanaian Empire and commonly cited as a testimonial source is the account of the Englishman al-Bakri contained in his “Kitāb al-Masālik wa-al-Mamālik” (Book of Roads and Kingdoms), written around 1068. in Córdoba, and who denounced the great opulence of the local monarch, who controlled a very diverse economy from a capital surrounded by stone walls and which included among his wealth, several gold mines under royal monopoly. Al-Bakri also highlights the developed agricultural production, weaving, in addition to the mastery of metallurgy, with which many equipment, weapons and tools were manufactured.

The idea obtained from reading Al-Bakri’s description allows us to make the image of the Ghana Empire as an immense protective oasis on the southern border of the Sahara desert, where its population was surrounded by orchards, palm groves, cucumbers and fig trees. in an exuberant image.

This black empire was still noted for its intense trans-Saharan trade, where the figure of the camel was widely used as an effective means of transport in the harsh desert climate, allowing trade even with Europe and Asia. There were several types of this worldwide trade, including the very lucrative slave trade.


At the time of its greatest development, the monarch and his subjects practiced a religion based on the cult of ancestors and manifestations of nature, something similar to the current animistic religions practiced in West Africa. On the other hand, Islam was present, especially among the inhabitants of the suburbs of the big cities. By the way, Al-Bakri emphasizes the Muslim influence in this animistic state, probably because he is also a Muslim.

The decline of the Ghana Empire is not yet fully known, the most popular version being the Almoravid invasion (Berber Muslims of present-day Morocco) in 1076. Today, it is believed that the Almoravids still have a predominant role in the decline of Ghana, but today it is also recognized that the disintegration of this great empire into several other smaller kingdoms and internal disputes as determining factors in its extinction.

Much of the current information about Ghana still comes from reports of Islamic travelers such as Al-Bakri and Muslim influence in the region, with his literate group, which revealed to the rest of the Islamic world and later to the entire world the existence of this African Empire. This is all about Ghana history timeline. 

Read Also History of Congo 


References of Ghana History Timeline

La historia de Ghana | ( Ghana History 

¿Quién estuvo involucrado en la Revolución francesa? ( Ghana History 

Gold Coast (Ghana) gains independence | South African History Online (

Empire of Ghana – History of Africa – Definitions and concepts (

Ghana’s Slave Castles: The Shocking History of Ghana’s Cape Coast – 2023 (

Slave castles in Ghana ( Slave Ghana History Timeline

Also Read History of Portugal