History of France

 

 MARIE ANTOINETTE, French Revolution
 MARIE ANTOINETTE

French Revolution in 1789 and A History of France Timeline

Influenced by enlightened thinking and terrible violence at the end of the 18th century, the French Revolution of 1789 brought major political and social changes to France. This gave way to the beginning of the end of the monarchy and France tried itself on various governments during and after the revolution. The rise of the common people to overthrow a broken political system reflects the proliferation of democratic sources in Europe and the New World. French Revolution

Monarchy was not only very common in Europe in the 1700s, but was the norm. As ideas on science and social issues developed during the Enlightenment, many questioned the legitimacy of the “divine right of kings” and gained certain privileges over the public. The American Revolution, both as an example of rebellion and as a financial cause, helped pave the way for the French revolutionaries to abolish the unjustly complete monarchy of the “Ancion Remig”.

Poor harvesting and high expenditure created incredibly high taxes on the Third Estate. People could not afford to feed themselves, let alone support the cost of the army and the expense of “Madame Deficit”. Extreme poverty and outrage over the availability of bread led to several actions in the Women’s March on Versailles and the storm of Bastille. People demanded to be heard and left with few viable options, some turning to violence. French Revolution

Thousands of people, including King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette, lost their lives to the guillotine, which at Ohapoh, at the behest of a populist, lost an instrument for efficient execution. Political and civil unrest continued during the reign of terror. The French government allowed the nation in many forms as the ideas of equality, freedom, and fraternity: absolute monarchy, constitutional monarchy, republic and dictatorship. Napoleon Bonaparte, a commander in the French army, eventually established himself as a leader for France, and became the first emperor.

When Did The French Revolution Start

5 May 1789 – 9 November 1799. The French Revolution refers to the period that began with the Estates General of 1789 and ended in November 1799 with the formation of the French Consulate. French Revolution.

Guillotine French Revolution

One of the most recognizable and terrifying symbols of the French Revolution is the guillotine. Named for Dr. Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, the man who created it, the guillotine was developed as a way to execute people in a more humane way. Dr. Guillotin was disturbed by the brutal beheadings that were taking place in his country as a form of capital punishment. Up until the late 1700s, those sentenced to death by decapitation had their heads cut off by swords or axes. Dr. Guillotin believed that a machine could be created which would swiftly and effectively decapitate people, sparing them suffering or mangling during their death. Thus, in 1789, the guillotine was born, a tall mechanism that featured a sharp, heavy blade positioned at the top and a kneeling area for people to stick their head through at the bottom. Once the blade came down, the execution was complete. French Revolution.

French Revolution Slogan

French Revolution slogan is “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”

French Revolution Third Estate

Sometimes, in late medieval and early France, a gathering termed an ‘Estates General’ was called. This was a representative body designed to rubber-stamp the decisions of the king. It was not a parliament as the English would understand it, and it often didn’t do what the monarch was hoping for, and by the late eighteenth century had fallen out of royal favor. This ‘Estates General’ divided the representatives who came to it into three, and this division was often applied to French society as a whole. The First Estate was comprised of the clergy, the Second Estate the nobility, and the Third Estate everyone else.

French Revolution National Assembly

The French Revolution was a major event in the history of Western societies, and has had a profound effect on the world today. Beginning in 1789, the French Revolution saw the French people overthrow their absolute monarchy and bring about a republic that was based on the principles of equality, liberty and fraternity. Throughout the years of the revolution, there were four different revolutionary governments, including: National Assembly, Legislative Assembly, National Convention and the Directory. French Revolution.

The National Assembly was the first revolutionary government of the French Revolution and existed from June 14th to July 9th in 1789. The National Assembly was created amidst the turmoil of the Estates-General that Louis XVI called in 1789 to deal with the looming economic crisis in France. Unfortunately, the three estates could not decide how to vote during the Estates-General and the meeting failed. French Revolution.

Chronology of The History of France

This chronology of the history of France goes through 2,000 years of history. It begins with Roman Gaul, the ancestor of France. It will take more than a millennium, between the fifth and sixteenth centuries, for France to acquire its name, its geographical cohesion and
the awareness of its inhabitants to belong to a nation.


From Roman Gaul to Carolingians


Conquered by Julius Caesar  in 52 BCE, Gaul became one of the most prosperous provinces of the Roman Empire. At the beginning of the fifth century, it was invaded by so-called barbarian peoples, including the Franks who imposed themselves under Clovis. Charlemagne  resurrected the empire for a time from Gaul. The quarrels among his successors marked the beginning of the emergence of the French and German nations. The election of Hugues Capet as King of France opened a new era. French Revolution.


First century BCE: History of France Timeline the Romans settled in southern Gaul. French Revolution.

  • 52 BCE: The coalition of Gallic tribes led by Vercingetorix  is defeated at Alesia by Julius Caesar. Gaul became a Roman province for four centuries.
  • 177: First persecutions of Christians in Gaul, which does not prevent the new religion from progressing rapidly.
  • 257: Several barbarian tribes, including Franks, cross the Rhine. Repulsed, they will eventually settle in Gaul as federated
    peoples.
  • 406: The irruption of the huns in Eastern Europe causes a gigantic migratory wave of barbarian peoples who sweep over Gaul: Franks in the north, Burgundians in the east, Visigoths in Aquitaine.
  • 448: The Frankish tribes choose themselves as their leader Merovée, at the origin of a new dynasty.
  • 451: Near Troye, a coalition of Gallo-Romans, Visigoths and Franks led by General Aetius defeats the Huns of Attila.
  • 486: Clovis wins at the head of the Franks and defeats the last Gallo-Roman state and then the Visigoths. 496 (?) After repelling an attack by the Alaman at Tolbiac and at the head of almost all of Roman Gaul, Clovis converted to Christianity. VIe-VIIe century: The Frankish kingdom is divided several times and then reunited by the descendants of Clovis.
  • 628 – 638: During the reign of Dagobert I is founded the abbey of Saint Denis, which will later become the burial place of the kings of France. 
  • 639-752: The Merovingian rulers gradually cede power to the “mayors of the palace”.
  • 732: The mayor of the palace Charles Martel puts an end to an Arab incursion near Poitiers.
  • 752: Pepin the Short, son of Charles Martel, deposes the last Merovingian and becomes crowned king in Reims.
  • 771: Charlemagne becomes the sole king of the Franks and considerably expands his domain in forty years of wars.
  • 800: Charlemagne, who reigns over the Frankish, Germanic and Italic worlds, is crowned emperor in Rome by the pope.
  • 843: Charlemagne’s grandsons divide the empire in Verdun. Charles the Bald becomes the first king of France.
  • 845 – 912: Multiple Norman incursions ravage the kingdom.
  • 877: By a collection of ordinances, including the heredity of the fiefs granted, Charles the Bald lays the foundations of the feudal
    system.
  • 987: On the death without direct heir of the last Carolingian (Louis V), the greats of the kingdom elect King Hugh Capet.


Medieval France


From the beginning of the Middle Ages, the kingdom of France was divided into a multitude of fiefs, held by lords in theory vassals of the king. Gradually, the French monarchy, which had become hereditary, was consolidated and strengthened. Several sovereigns, such as Philip Augustus and Saint Louis contributed to the prestige of the Capetian dynasty. The Hundred Years’ War will lay the seeds of the consciousness of belonging to the French nation.

  • 987: Hugues Capet  is crowned king and consecrated at Noyon.
  • 1066: The Norman Duke William the Conqueror  seizes the English crown and transposes the feudal
    system.
  • 1095: The monk Peter the Hermit preaches the crusade. The Frankish crusaders seized Jerusalem in 1099.
  • 1152: Louis VII separates from Eleanor of Aquitaine, who marries King Henry II of England. The western half of France came under English rule. The two monarchies became permanent rivals.
  • 1180-1223: Reign of Philip II known as Augustus, who considerably enlarged the royal domain and carried out reforms of the royal administration.
  • 1214 : Victory of Philippe-Auguste at Bouvines over the Holy Roman Emperor and the King of England. This battle is often cited as the founding act of the kingdom of France.
  • 1220-1129: Crusade against the Albigensians: the kings of France take advantage of the fight against the Cathar heresy to extend their influence in the south.
  • 1250: King Louis IX goes on a crusade and is taken prisoner in Egypt at the end of the Battle of Mansourah. Released for a ransom that will bring the kingdom to its knees, the fervent Christian monarch dies of the plague in Tunis and becomes a Saint.
  • 1285-1314: Reign of Philip IV the Fair.  He accelerated the movement to centralize the monarchy and asserted his independence from the pope for religious affairs (Gallicanism). He elected a French pope who transferred the papal see to Avignon.
  • 1312 -1314: After the dissolution of the Order of the Temple and the confiscation of its property by Philip II, its main leaders are
    condemned to the stake.
  • 1328: On the death without direct heir of Charles IV, the greats of the kingdom opportunely release a Salic law to remove from the
    succession King Edward III of England (grandson of Philip IV) and choose Philip of Valois to occupy the throne.
  • 1337 – 1364: Hundred Years War between France and England, marked by a series of conflicts, and military disasters for French
    chivalry: Crécy (1346), Poitiers (1356), Azincourt (1415).
  • 1347-1348: Beginning of the Black Death epidemic in France that will ravage the kingdom, already very affected by the war. A third of the population will succumb to it.
  • 1420: After the sinking of Azincourt, the Treaty of Troye gives the crown of France to the King of England. Refugee in Bourges with his supporters, the Dauphin Charles will remain in a precarious situation until the episode Joan of Arc.
  • 1431: After having delivered Orléans and contributed to the coronation of Charles VII  in Reims, Joan of Arc dies at the stake in Rouen.
  • 1450-1453: With the victories of Formigny and Castillon, Charles VII dismisses the English threat and restores the prestige of the Capetian monarchy.
From the Renaissance to the Enlightenment

The end of the Hundred Years War also marked the end of the Middle Ages in France. The Renaissance begins in a coherent, powerful and densely populated kingdom. A time weakened by the wars of religion,  the old regime will know its apogee during which will coexist royal absolutism and spirit of the enlightenment.

  • 1461 -1484 : Reign of Louis XI  . Cunning and politically fine, Louis XI  meticulously got rid of Burgundian competition and aggregated many territories that made France a kingdom in one piece.
  • 1491: Marriage of Charles VIII and Anne of Brittany. The duchy will be definitively attached to the kingdom in 1532.
  • 1494: Beginning of the calamitous Italian wars, which will be the obsession of three French monarchs (Charles VIII, Louis XII and Francis I) and whose only benefit will be the introduction in France of the Renaissance.
  • 1515 Francis I begins his reign with fanfare with the victory over the Swiss at Marignan.
  • 1525: Defeat of Pavia. Taken prisoner, Francis I had to accept heavy territorial losses for the benefit of Charles V. As soon as he was released, he denounced the treaty and maintained several wars against the emperor, without results.
  • 1539: By the ordinance of Villers-Cotterêt, French becomes the official language of the kingdom.
  • 1562 – 1598: Wars of Religion in France, opposing Catholics and Calvinists. They will make many victims (Saint-Barthélémy, 1572) and will end with the Edict of Nantes (1598)
  • 1589: After the assassination of Henry III, the Bourbon and Huguenot Henry IV becomes King of France. He converted to Catholicism to consolidate his throne. The kingdom, under the impetus of Sully, returned to prosperity and expanded from Béarn, Bugey and Bresse.
  • 1610: Assassination of Henri IV by Ravaillac. Marie de Medici exercised the regency for her son, the future Louis XIII.
  • 1624: Having become chief minister of state, Cardinal Richelieu  inaugurates a policy aimed at consolidating royal power to the detriment of the nobility and Protestants. He did not hesitate to take the Habsburgs who surrounded France by allying himself with the German Protestant princes during the Thirty Years’ War.
  • 1630: Day of the Dupes. Yet another plot failed to overthrow Richelieu, who retained the king’s support until his death in 1642.
    1635: Foundation by Richelieu of the Académie française.
  • 1643: Death of Louis XIII. Anne of Austria exercised the regency with Cardinal Mazarin for her son the future Louis XIV. They will have to face the Fronde (1648-1653), the last attempt to oppose the march towards royal absolutism.
  • 1648: The Treaty of Westphalia, which ends the Thirty Years’ War, grants Alsace to France. The war against Spain (Battle of the Dunes, 1658) did not end until 1559 with the Treaty of the Pyrenees. France won Roussillon and Louis XIV married Marie-Thérèse, daughter of the King of Spain.
  • 1661: Death of Mazarin. Louis XIV announced that he would exercise a personal reign from now on.
  • 1662: Colbert takes the place of Superintendent Fouquet, disgraced. He will promote a resolutely interventionist and mercantilist economic policy, and will renovate the Royal Navy.
  • 1664 : Start of construction in Versailles.
  • 1668 – 1697: Several wars allow the kingdom to expand from Franche-Comté and southern Flanders. The kingdom is approaching its hexagonal shape which will inspire Vauban  the policy of the “pre-square”, with the construction of many defensive works.
  • 1685: Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. The Protestant elites left the kingdom.
  • 1701 – 1713: War of the Spanish Succession. Louis XIV laboriously imposed his grandson Philip on the Spanish throne.
  • 1710: Death of Louis XIV, whose reign was the longest in the history of France. Philippe d’Orléans exercised the regency
    for Louis XV  until 1723.
  • 1748: Victory of Fontenoy. While France was in a position of strength in the War of the Austrian Succession, Louis XV
    voluntarily did not withdraw anything from the conflict.
  • 1763: End of the Seven Years’ War.  Defeated, France lost almost all of its first colonial empire (North America, India).
  • 1766: Lorraine is reunited with France.
  • 1768: Genoa cedes Corsica to France.
  • 1772: Diderot completes his encyclopedia.
  • 1774: Death of Louis XV. Begun under the best auspices, the reign of the “beloved” ends in a twilight atmosphere.
  • 1776 – 1783: To hinder its hereditary enemy England, France engages with the insurgents of America.
  • 1783: First flight of a free balloon (hot air balloon) in Annonay (Ardèche).
  • 1789: After the failure of several attempts at reform, Louis XVI  convenes the Estates General at Versailles (May 5). The Third Estate proclaimed itself the National Assembly (17 June) and the storming of the Bastille (14 July) symbolised the end of the Ancien Régime.


Revolution(s) and Empire(s)


From 1789 and the fall of the Ancien Régime, France entered a long period of political instability, with an alternation of revolutions and attempts to return to the old order. The main achievements of the Revolution nevertheless persisted and France saw the blossoming of the bourgeoisie as the economy entered the industrial revolution. French Revolution.

  • 1789 : The National Assembly proclaims the abolition of feudal privileges (4 August) and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (26 August). French Revolution.
  • 1790: Having become a constitutional monarchy, France is divided into 83 departments.
  • 1791: Flight of the king, who is arrested in Varennes. France annexed Avignon and the Comtat Venaissin.
  • 1792: End of royalty (August 10) and proclamation of the Republic (September 21), the day after the victory of Valmy. 
  • 1793: At the end of his trial, Louis XVI now Louis Capet is sentenced to death and guillotined. Revolutionary France is at war with almost all European monarchies. French Revolution.
  • 1794: The tricolor flag is adopted. Fall of Robespierre (27-28 July). French military successes, especially in Fleurus.
  • 1795 – 1799: Regime of the Directory. Five directors share executive power. In northern Italy, Bonparte led a successful campaign against the Piedmontese and Austrians. French Revolution..
  • 1798: Bonaparte’s expedition to Egypt. Scientific successes cannot hide the military setback.
  • 1799: Coup d’état of 18 Brumaire. Bonaparte took power and was appointed consul.
  • 1804: Bonaparte becomes hereditary emperor under the name of Napoleon I and crowns himself at Notre Dame de Paris.
  • 1805: After the trafalgar naval disaster (21 October), Napoleon defeats Russia and Austria at Austerlitz (2 December).
  • 1806 – 1809: After a series of victories (Jena, Auerstaedt, Friedland, Wagram), Europe bows to Napoleon.
  • 1812: The Russian campaign, after leading the Napoleonic armies to Moscow, turns into a catastrophe.
  • 1813 – 1814: As a result of the defeat of Leipzig against a coalition Europe, France is invaded. Napoleon had to abdicate for the first time. French Revolution.
  • 1815 : The hundred days. Defeated at Waterloo(18 June), Napoleon abdicated a second time. Louis XVIII becomes King of France again. French Revolution.
  • 1821: Death of Napoleon on Saint Helena.
  • 1824: Charles X ascends the throne after the death of Louis XVIII.
  • 1830: France begins the conquest of Algeria (capture of Algiers).
  • 1830: The insurrection of the three glorious (July 27, 28, 29) leads to the abdication of Charles X. Louis-Philippe I
    becomes king of the French and establishes a liberal regime.
  • 1848: A Parisian insurrection provokes the fall of Louis-Philippe and the proclamation of the Second Republic, which undertakes many reforms: abolition of slavery, working time at 10 hours, universal suffrage (male). Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte becomes President of the Republic. French Revolution.
  • 1852: Proclamation of the Second Empire. Napoleon III is proclaimed emperor (December 2). Authoritarian and then liberal, the Second Empire saw some military expeditions without a future (Crimea 1854, Mexico 1862) and especially sustained economic growth. French Revolution.
  • 1860: France receives Nice and Savoy, a cession validated by a referendum, for the price of its support for the new Kingdom of Italy against the Austrians.
  • 1870 – 1871: Napoleon III recklessly declares war on Prussia (July 19, 1870). After the disaster of Sedan and the rout of the French armies, the imperial dynasty was deposed. The provisional government led by Gambetta had to ask for an armistice. France lost Alsace and Lorraine. French Revolution.

The France of the Republics

The Third Republic, which constituted the longest period of institutional stability in the history of France, was a period of strong economic development, educational reform and colonial expansion until it was swept away by the defeat of 1940. the fourth that succeeded him lasted only a dozen years, before General de Gaulle,back in power, established a strong presidential regime, the Fifth Republic.

  • 1871: After the defeat against Prussia, the insurrectional Commune of Paris opposes the government, taking refuge in Versailles. After the fall of the Commune, Thiers received the title of President of the Republic.
  • 1875: Marshal Mac-Mahon is elected President of the Republic, which rules out a return of the monarchy.
  • 1880: First celebration of the national holiday on July 14.
  • 1880 – 1881: Ferry Law, primary education becomes compulsory, secular and free.
  • 1889 : The Eiffel Tower is inaugurated during the Universal Exhibition in Paris.
  • 1898: The Dreyfus affair, which began 4 years earlier, takes a national turn with the publication of Zola’s “J’accuse”.
  • 1904: France moves closer to Britain in an entente cordiale to confront the central empires.
  • 1905 – 1906: The concordat of 1801 is abolished and a law separates the churches from the state.
  • 1914: Germany declares war on France (August 3). Tensions in Europe and the assassination of the Archduke heir to the Austrian throne in Sarajevo on June 28 triggered the First World War. In September, the German offensive was halted at the Battle of the Marne. French Revolution.
  • 1916: Battle of Verdun (February-December), which will cause several hundred thousand dead and wounded.
  • 1917: Clemenceau becomes president of the council, with the sole mission of winning the war.
  • 1918: After the failure of a final German offensive, the allies reinforced by the United States gain the upper hand. The armistice was signed on 11 November. At the end of the war, France had 1.4 million dead and 1 million invalids, as well as immense material destruction. French Revolution.
  • 1919: By the Treaty of Versailles, France regains Alsace and Lorraine.
  • 1924: Victory in the general elections of the Cartel of the Lefts.
  • 1929: Construction of the Maginot Line begins.
  • 1936: Victory of the Popular Front in the legislative elections. Léon Blum led social reforms on work, wages and paid holidays.
  • 1939: Declaration of war on Germany (September 3), which has just invaded Poland.
  • 1940: On May 10, the Germans go on the offensive. After the breakthrough in the Ardennes, the French army was routed. Marshal Pétain took power (16 June) to conclude an armistice, while from London, General De Gaulle launched an appeal for resistance (18 June). French Revolution.
  • 1942: The Pétain regime, which collaborated with Nazi Germany, arrested and deported several thousand Jews during the Vél’hiv’ roundup (16-17 July). French Revolution.
  • 1944: Allied landings in Normandy (June 6, Overlord), then in Provence (August 15). Entry of the 2nd DB in Paris liberated on August 25th. French Revolution.
  • 1945: Capitulation of Germany. Republican institutions were re-established in France with the election of a constituent assembly. Nationalization of banking institutions, Renault, and the energy and insurance sector (1945 – 1946).
  • 1946: Resignation of De gaulle (January). Beginning of the Fourth Republic and election of Vincent Auriol as President.
  • 1954: After the fall of Dien Bien Phu (May), Mendès-France negotiates the Geneva Agreements on Indochina. Beginning of the insurrection in Algeria (December).
  • 1957: The Treaty of Rome creates the European Economic Community (EEC, 25 March).
  • 1958 : The Fourth Republic being unable to resolve the Algerian conflict, De Gaulle returns to power. Adoption of the new Constitution of the Fifth Republic (28 September 1958).
  • 1962: By the Evian Agreements (March 18), Algeria accedes to independence. A referendum establishes the election of the President of the Republic by universal suffrage. De Gaulle was re-elected to this position in 1965.
  • 1968: May events. Students and then employees went on strike. The Grenelle agreements grant wage increases and a reduction in working hours. French Revolution.
  • 1969: After the failure of the referendum on the reform of the Senate and the regions, General de Gaulle resigns. Georges Pompidou succeeds him. French Revolution.
  • 1970: death of General de Gaulle in Colombey (9 November).
  • 1974: After the death of Pompidou (2 April), Valéry Giscard d’Estaing is elected President of the Republic. His seven-year term will
    be marked by societal reforms and the beginning of the economic crisis that follows the first oil shock.
  • 1981: Election of François Mitterrand, first president of the Fifth from the left. Numerous social and societal reforms: increase in the minimum wage, 39-hour week, 5th week of paid leave, retirement at 60, abolition of the death penalty…
  • 1986: The right wins the general elections and Jacques Chirac becomes Prime Minister of “cohabitation”.
  • 1988: Re-election of François Mitterrand. Michel Rocard becomes Prime Minister. Agreement on New Caledonia.
  • 1992: Ratification of the Maastricht Treaty (20 September). The Single European Act establishes an economic union, an area without frontiers and a single currency: the Euro.
  • 1995: Jacques Chirac is elected President of the Republic. Two years later, after the victory of the left in the 1997 general elections, Lionel Jospin became Prime Minister.
  • 2002: Entry into force of the Euro (1 January). Jacques Chirac is re-elected president.
  • 2005 : Failure of the referendum for a European constitution.
  • 2007 : Election of Nicolas Sarkozy as President of the Republic.
  • 2007 – 2009 : The Treaty of Lisbon gives birth to a new legal entity: the European Union.
  • 2012 : François Hollande becomes President of the Republic.
  • 2015: France is the target of a series of attacks, claimed by Islamic terrorists.
  • 2017: Emmanuel Macron becomes the 8th President of the Republic.

Napoleon Bonaparte

Napoleon Bonaparte was the birth of the French Revolution, which defied the power of the kings and Tsars of Europe. His life was 52 years from 1769 to 1821, but his story seems infinite. There were only two parts to this story – win or lose. There is no such plateau where it can be said that it stayed for a while… Napoleon just climbed or landed all the time. Read about Bonaparte

France Currency

France Currency is Euro.

France Capital

Paris is the Capital of France.

The History of France

France is located in western Europe, but some of its territories are in other parts of the world. Paris is its capital. It is a member of the European Union. In terms of area, it is the largest country in the continent of Europe, surrounded by Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Spain to the south, Atlantic Ocean to the west, Mediterranean Ocean to the south and English Channel to the northwest. is. Thus, it is surrounded by seas on three sides. Its position is not good in terms of security. French Revolution.

Ancient France

During the Iron Age, galls from present-day metropolitan France became their residence. Rome occupied the region in 52 BCE. France emerged as a major European power in the last Middle Ages with its victory in the Hundred Years War (1337 to 1453), strengthening state building and political centralization. During the Renaissance, French culture developed and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century was the second largest in the world. French Revolution.

Religious civil wars were dominated by Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots) in the 16th century. France emerged as the dominant cultural, political and military power of Europe under the rule of Louis XIV. At the end of the 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the full monarchy, and established one of the oldest republics in modern history, as well as drafting the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens, which to this day the nation Expresses of the ideals. France Revolution.

History of France,
History of France

In the 19th century, Napoleon seized power there and established the first French Empire, followed by the Napoleonic Wars that shaped the continent of present-day Europe. After the fall of the empire, the Third French Republic was established in France in 1870, although all subsequent governments remained in a lean state. France was a major participant in World War I, where it emerged victorious, and one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation of the Axis powers in 1940. After its liberation in 1944, the Fourth French Republic was established which was later disbanded during the Algeria War. The fifth French Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was created in 1958 and continues to function today. Algeria and almost all other colonies became independent in the 1960s, but its close economic and military relations with France continue to this day. History of United State

France has long been a global center of arts, science and philosophy. It is home to the fourth highest cultural UNESCO World Heritage Site in Europe, and the highest in the world, hosting approximately 83 million foreign tourists annually. France is a developed country which is the seventh largest economy in the world in GDP and ninth largest in purchasing power parity. In terms of total household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France Revolution.

France performs well in the international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy and human development. France, one of the world’s superpowers, with veto powers and an official nuclear weapons-rich country, is one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council. It is a major member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is also a member of Group-8, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), World Trade Organization (WTO) and La Francophonie. Read History of Canada

France Paris,
France Paris

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