First World War Timeline WW1
World War 1, which lasted nearly four years in the history of the world, changed the map of the world. This war was fought between 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. In this battle, the world saw the picture of destruction which no one would want to see again.
More than 50 million people died in this fight. It took part in three major continents like Europe, Asia and Africa and it fought from sea to earth and sky. This was a war in which the number of injured was in crores. By the end of this world war, four major empires Russia, Germany, Austria-Hungary (Hapsburg) and Osmania collapsed. The boundaries of Europe were re-determined and by its end America had emerged as the superpower of the world.
IN 1914, a war began in Europe which soon engulfed almost the entire world. The damage caused by this war had no precedent in history. In the earlier wars, the civilian populations were not generally involved and the casualties were generally confined to the warring armies. The war which began in 1914 was a total war in which all the resources of the warring states were mobilized.
It affected the economy of the entire world the casualties suffered by the civilian population from bombing of the civilian areas and the famines and epidemics, caused by the war far exceeded those suffered by the armies. In its impact also, the war had no precedent. It marked a turning point in world history. The battles of the war were fought in Europe, Asia, Africa and the Pacific. Because of the unprecedented extent of its spread and its total nature, it is known as the First World War.
The beginning of the First world war
The war began on 28 June 1914, with the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand, the heir to the throne of Austria, and his wife in Sarajevo. A month later, Austria declared war against Serbia. Russia, France, Germany and Britain helped him in this work. Germany attacked neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving to France, after which Britain declared war against Germany.
Brief of World War I
In the history of the world, World War I between 28 July 1914 AD and 11 November 1918 AD, between the world, the waters and sky took place. Due to the unprecedented figures of its participating countries and the damage it caused, it was named World War. It lasted for about 4 years and 52 months! Due to this, half the world went into the grip of violence and more than one crore people were killed and twice as many were injured.
World War 1 fought between?
In the First World War there were Allied nations on one side and axis nations on the other. The Allies included Russia, Japan, France, Britain, the United States of America and Japan, and the United States was united in this war during the years 1917 – 1918. There were only 3 countries in the Axis Nation, Austro-Hungarian, Germany and Ottoman Empire.
Conflicts within Europe
Besides the conflicts resulting from rivalries over colonies and trade, there were conflicts among the major European powers over certain developments within Europe. There were six major powers in Europe at this time—Britain, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia, France and Italy. One of the questions with which almost all these countries got involved concerned the countries comprising the Balkan peninsula in Europe.
The Balkan countries had been under the rule of Ottoman Turks. However, in the nineteenth century, the Ottoman rule had begun to collapse. There were revolts by various nationalities for independence. The Russian Czars hoped that these areas would come under their control once the Ottomans were ousted from there. They encouraged a movement called the Pan-Slav movement which was based on the theory that all the Slays of eastern Europe were one people. Many
areas in Austria-Hungary were inhabited by the Slays Russia, therefore, encouraged movements both against the Ottoman empire and Austria-Hungary The major Balkan country, Serbia, led the movement for uniting the areas inhabited by the Slavs in the Ottoman empire as well as in Austria-Hungary . The Serbian nationalism was encouraged by Russia. Other major European powers were alarmed at the growth of Russian influence in the Balkans, They wanted to check the Russian influence, while Austria Hungary had plans of expansion in this area.
Corresponding to the Pan-Slav movement, there was a PanGerman movement which aimed at the expansion of Germany all over central Europe and in the Balkans. Italy claimed certain areas which were under Austrian rule. France hoped to recover not only Alsace Lorraine which she had lost to Germany in 1871 but also to wreak vengeance on Germany for the humiliating defeat that she had suffered in the war with Germany in 187071.
Expansion of First World war
Germany declared war with Russia on 1 August 1914 and began mobilizing its forces. But the immediate German invasion was not on Russia but on Belgium and France. On August 2, the German government gave an ultimatum to the Belgian government, seeking neutrality and a path to German forces, which the Belgians resented.
The French government, fully sensing the danger, had already ordered mobilization, and on 3 August Germany declared war on France. German forces entered Belgium to speak on France on 4 August, and on the same day Britain declared war with Germany. Meanwhile, the Serbo-Austrian war appeared to be secondary. As the Great War began, in the famous words of the British Foreign Secretary Sir Edward Gray, “The lights are going out in Europe all over.”
They will not burn again in our lifetime. Many other countries soon joined the war. Japan declared war on Germany. He entered into an agreement with Britain but his main goal was to capture German territories in the Far East. Portugal, often referred to by Britain as its oldest ally, also joined the war.
In 1915, Italy declared war against Austria. Britain and France promised him Austrian and Turkish territories. Later Romania and Greece also joined with Britain, France and Russia and these countries along with their allies became known as Mitra Shaktis. Bulgaria supported Germany and Austria, promising territories in Serbia and Greece.
Turkey declared war with Russia in November and joined the war on behalf of Germany and Austria. These countries, that is, Germany and Austria and their allies were known as axis powers. Many other countries of other parts of the world also joined the war. America joined the war in 1917 on behalf of the Mitra Shaktis. Overall the number of warring countries increased to 27. In this way, the field of conflict became wider. Tags: Belgian, France, History, Japan, world war, World War I, History, Japan, World War I, France, Belgium, World War.
15% of its territory was taken away from Germany
The Treaty of Russia had completely changed the map of Europe. Germany lost about 15% of its territory. The region was home to 10% of the total population of Germany. Under the treaty, Germany’s Alsek and Laurent territories were given to France. Germany was divided into East and West Germany by building the Berlin Wall. Poland was made a separate country. Similarly, Finland, Lithuania, Latvia and Czechoslovakia were also freed from German control. About World war II
Formation of Alliances
The conflicts within Europe and the conflicts over colonies mentioned earlier had begun to create a very tense situation in Europe from the last decade of the nineteenth century. European countries began to form themselves into opposing groups. They also started spending vast sums of money to increase the size of their armies and navies, to develop new and more deadly weapons, and to generally prepare themselves for war, Europe Was gradually becoming a vast armed camp Simultaneously, propaganda for war, to breed hatred against other countries, to paint one’s own country as superior to others, and to glorify war, was started in each country.
There were, of course, people who raised their voice against the danger of war and against militarization. You have read of the attitude of the Second International and the various socialist parties. But soon all these voices were to be drowned in the drumbeats of war.
The opposing groups of countries of alliances that were formed in Europe not only added to the danger of war, but also made it inevitable that when the war broke out it would assume a worldwide magnitude. European countries had been forming and reforming alliances since the nineteenth century. Finally, in the first decade of the twentieth century, two groups of countries or alliances, emerged and faced each other with their armed might In 1882 was formed the Triple Alliance comprising Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy.
However, Italy’s loyalty to this Alliance was uncertain as her main aim was to gain territories in Europe from Austria-Hungary and in conquering Tripoli with French support As opposed to this, emerged the Triple Entente comprising France, Russia and Britain in 1907. In theory it was only a loose group based on mutual understanding as the word ‘Entente’ (meaning ‘an understanding’ indicates.
The emergence of these two hostile camps made it inevitable that a conflict involving any one of these countries would become an all-European war. As the aims of the countries in these camps included the extension of their colonial possessions, an all-European war almost certainly would become a world war. The formation of these hostile camps was accompanied with a race to build more and more deadly weapons and have larger and larger armies and navies.
A series of crises took place during the years preceding the war. These crises added to the bitterness and tension in Europe and engendered national chauvinism European countries also entered into secret treaties to gain territories at the expense of others. Often, these secret treaties leaked out and fear and suspicion grew in each country about such treaties. These fears and suspicions brought the danger of war near.
Germany was fined equivalent to 1 lakh tones of gold.
After the First World War, Germany was imposed an economic penalty of 269 billion gold mark (erstwhile German currency). This was equivalent to the price of 1 lakh tones of gold. Under the Treaty of Versailles on 28 June 1919, Germany was subject to this economic penalty. However, it was later revised and reduced several times, but it was still enough that it took Germany a full 91 years to repay it.
Germany took 91 years to pay economic penalty.
It took Germany 91 years to pay the economic penalty imposed under the Treaty of Versailles. Germany paid the last installment of the penalty on 2 October 2010. Under the treaty, Germany was earlier imposed an economic penalty of 269 billion gold mark, which was reduced to 112 billion gold mark (equivalent to the price of 42 thousand tons of gold) in 1929. Due to the global economic crisis, in 1931, Germany was given relief to pay the annual installment but when Hitler got power in 1933, he refused to pay the economic penalty.
20 years later, a new agreement was reached in London in 1953 to repay the outstanding payments, under which some payments were suspended until East and West Germany merged. During this time the rest of the payment was taking place across West Germany. When Germany reunited in 1990, the payment of arrears began. However, in 1990, Germany was waived off some of the outstanding payments. Read about World War II