Best The Chile History 1810 when Chile was founded?

The Chile History Timeline

Early Chile History According to archaeological research, the history of Santiago begins with the first human groups that settled on the banks of the Mapocho River, in the tenth century BC. These were nomadic hunter-gatherer peoples who traveled from the coast to the foothills of the Andes mountain range, in search of food and mainly herds of guanacos.

Chile History: Later, around 800 AD, small agricultural communities began to form, which cultivated beans, potatoes, corn and pumpkin, and had already domesticated auquénidos. These original settlers are known as picunches, a term from Mapudungún, which means “people of the north”, that is, the branch of the Mapuche people who inhabited the central zone of the Chilean territory.

Prehistory of Chile Timeline

The Chile History: The first humans arrived in Chile around 12,000 BC. At first people lived from hunting and agriculture, but in northern Chile they were engaged in agriculture in 2,500 BC. However, agriculture began much later in southern Chile.

Chile History The oldest archaeological remains in mainland Chile have been located in Monte Verde at the end of the Upper Palaeolithic, making it the first known human settlement in America. In this period the Chinchorro culture stood out, developed in the north of the country between 5000 and 1700 BC. C.

In the north of the country, the Aymara, Atacameños and Diaguitas established from the eleventh century agricultural cultures strongly influenced by the Inca empire; since the end of the fifteenth century. In this same period the southern zone of Chile was inhabited by three different groups united by the same language: Mapudungun. These groups are known as picunches (people from the north), Mapuches (people from the land) and huilliches (people from the south).

In the southern channels, the nomadic canoeers chonos, kawésqar and yaganes lived; and in the Patagonian steppe, the land nomads Aonikenk and Selknam. On Easter Island, the Rapanui Polynesian culture developed, which almost became extinct in the mid-nineteenth century.

History On Chile

  • Continent: America.
  • Area: 756,945 km2.
  • Capital: Santiago de Chile.
  • Currency: Chilean peso.
  • Official language: Spanish.

The Discovery of Chile History

Discovery of Chile history: The history of Santiago and with it of the whole country, takes a 180-degree turn with the arrival of the Spaniards. The first Spanish expedition to Chilean territory, was commanded by the advanced Don Diego de Almagro, who left Cuzco in July 1535, and after traveling through Upper Peru (current northeast of Argentina) and crossing the Andes Mountains, arrived in Copiapó in March 1536.

Chile History Santiago Timeline
Chile History Santiago Timeline

Origin of Chile History

Origin Chile History: To know the history and origin of Chile, it is first necessary to know how it is and its geographical location. Constituted by a long and narrow strip of land, which extends from north to south along the Pacific coast. It is bordered on the north by Peru, on the east by Bolivia and Argentina, on the west by the Pacific Ocean, and on the south by the sector joining the waters of this ocean with the Atlantic. Chile is separated from Argentina, by the Andes mountain range and bathed by the Pacific Ocean.

Who colonized Chile?

The colonization of Chile by the Spaniards occurred during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In 1540, Pedro de Valdivia was commissioned a second expedition, with which the conquest of Chile began.

In 1541 he founded Santiago de Chile and in 1544 La Serena. Valdivia, was proclaimed by his fellow governor of Nueva Extremadura, name given to the conquered territories. In this first stage he fought against the indigenous people of the north of the country, trying to consolidate Spanish domination in those territories.

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When he had more troops, he began the occupation of the territories located further south and founded the city of Concepción in 1550 and four other cities. In 1553, the country seemed definitively pacified, but the Araucanian tribes, commanded by Lautaro and Caupolicán, began an insurrection, and Valdivia lost his life in one of the battles (1553).

Chile history the new governor, García Hurtado de Mendoza (1557), rebuilt the destroyed cities, but he did not manage to completely overcome the resistance of the Indians, who took refuge in the territories located south of the Biobío River, from where they later began dangerous revolts.

During the second half of the sixteenth century, Spanish governors also had to face repeated incursions by English pirates. The geographical situation of Chile, separated from the main land and sea routes, was one of the most serious drawbacks encountered by the colonization of the country.

In 1609, the Audiencia of Chile was created in Santiago, dependent on the Viceroyalty of Peru. In the eighteenth century, copper began to be exploited and freedom of trade with Spain was proclaimed (1778).

The Colonial period in Chile History 

Colonial Chile History: Consolidated the Spanish power in the region, the Indians who had escaped to the south and who had fought unsuccessfully for three years, began to return in 1544 and settle in the surroundings of Santiago, where they dedicated themselves to working the land.

By Royal Decree of April 5, 1552, the city of Santiago was granted a coat of arms, and another Decree of May 31 of the same year granted it the title of Very Noble and Very Loyal. However, even in those years, the city was not more than a military settlement and had only 6 or 7 buildings, along with a handful of small houses made of wood and straw.

In 1578, the Cathedral, the Cabildo building and other public buildings were still under construction. It was not until 1580 when the 126 blocks in which the urban layout of the original design of the city made by Gamboa was divided had finally been populated.

But despite the apparently slow development of Santiago, the city became a refuge of peace. From there the conquests to other territories that were permanently in conflict, such as Concepción, so their neighbors ended up taking refuge in Santiago, which came to be named as “very peaceful and pleasing to the eye region”. It played a double role compared to the other cities of the country, that is, provider and supporter of the conquest and on the other hand, a place of refuge, recreation and rest for those who visited it.

Little by little the population of Santiago was increasing and in the 1610s the Oidor Hernando Machado calculated a population of 1,717 Spaniards and Creoles, 8,600 Indians and 300 blacks, and the Spanish chronicler Antonio Vásquez de Espinoza speaks of “285 houses of very good building with their orchards and gardens and 61 houses of little price with thatched roofs “. The urban center was inhabited by the Spaniards and their servants while the periphery was populated by the indigenous, mestizos and some free Africans.

In Chile History the seventeenth century marked the urban development of the city of Santiago. It was at this time that the construction of the Cathedral was completed, churches and monasteries were erected such as those of the Society of Jesus and Santo Domingo that in addition to a religious function were dedicated to the education of upper-class youth; the Hospital del Socorro founded by Pedro de Valdivia in 1552 was improved and some establishments that could be called “industrial” such as mills, tanneries and ollerías (to produce pots and clay dishes) were installed in the periphery.

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During its consolidation, the city had to deal with a series of natural disasters that hit it. An example of this were the floods produced by the floods of the Mapocho River in July 1574, June 1609, winter 1620 and January 1621. To avoid these overflows, it was decided to build tajamares in the riverbed, but the works were not really definitive until 1798.

In Chile history another danger that the city had to face permanently were earthquakes. Although the chronicles recorded two of them during the sixteenth century, one in 1575 and the other in 1580, they did not cause significant damage to the buildings, nor did the earthquake of September 6, 1643.

It was the great earthquake of May 13, 1647 that would go down in history as the “great earthquake”, since it caused great destruction and the death of about 1,000 people, which constituted 25% of the population of Santiago, not counting the victims in the farms and estancias of the periphery. The buildings of the Cabildo and the Royal Houses, as well as most of the churches, fell completely, leaving only the central nave of the Cathedral made with stone arches. All the houses in the city were completely destroyed. The reconstruction was not completed until the end of the century.

At the end of the seventeenth century, the construction of the tajamares, the Cal y Canto bridge over the Mapocho River and the paving of the streets were finally completed. However, the 3 major earthquakes that occurred in less than 12 hours on July 8, 1730, again caused serious damage to the city, its homes, churches, monasteries and other public buildings.

Parallel to the urban development, and the forced reconstructions of Santiago, its population was transformed and miscegenation increased widely, which indirectly caused the process of disappearance of the indigenous population. By the beginning of the eighteenth century, the population of Santiago was estimated at about 12,000 people, while by the end of that century they must have been about 50,000. Another change is that since the early 1700s, it is the merchants and not the warriors, who occupy the highest levels of the social stratum, constituting themselves as the new aristocracy. This population growth, among other things, consolidated Santiago as a capital city.

In Chile history the last decades of the eighteenth century and the first decades of the nineteenth century were characterized by the remodeling works of the city that had been affected by the great overflows of the river.

In addition to the reconstruction of the Cal y Canto bridge and the tajamares, the road that linked Santiago with the port of Valparaíso was made, which for the first time was passable for carts and all kinds of cars. The construction of the Maipo or San Carlos canal was also completed to provide water to the city in times of drought, streets and sidewalks were paved, public lighting was installed, the new Cathedral was built and the definitive building of the City Hall and the Palacio de la Moneda were built, works that had the seal of the Italian architect Joaquín Toesca.

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Independence of Chile

Independent of Chile History: The proclamation of U.S. independence UU. (1776), the French Revolution, Argentine nationalism with its influences on neighboring countries and the imprisonment of Ferdinand VII, provoked in Chile the first emancipatory attempts.

Juan Martínez de RozasBernardo O’Higgins and José Miguel Carrera constituted in Santiago a Government Junta (September 18, 1810) that adopted revolutionary measures. But it has not yet completely separated itself from the metropolis (Spain).

Then the viceroy of Peru sent royalist contingents, which took over the S. part of Chile and completely defeated the insurgents in Rancagua (1814). In Argentina, O’Higgins took refuge and met with San Martín. Both chiefs joined forces and penetrated Chile (1817), where they defeated the royalists at Chacabuco (1817) and Maipo (1818). O’Higgins was elected Supreme Director and the independence of Chile was consummated.

When was Chile founded and who founded Chile?

  • When was Chile founded? 12 Feb 1541
  • Who founded Chile? Pedro de Valdivia

The foundation of Santiago was the first important milestone in the process of Spanish colonization of Chile, since the city was the starting point of the expeditions that initiated the recognition and occupation of new territories. On February 12, 1541, Pedro de Valdivia chose to settle in the valley of the Mapocho River, because he considered that the large indigenous population that lived there was an evident demonstration of the agricultural benefit of their lands. To guarantee the supply of water and its protection, the village was built between two arms of the river and under the protection of Cerro Huelén, from whose summit you could notice any hostile movement in a wide perimeter.

The National Historical Archive preserves the first volume of the minutes of the Cabildo de Santiago, considered the oldest manuscript source preserved in Chile. This fountain called Libro Becerro, in reference to the material with which its covers were made, contains the founding act of the city of Santiago, headed by the Spaniard Pedro de Valdivia on February 12, 1541.

This important historical document had to be rewritten after the destruction suffered by the city on September 11, 1541, during the attack of the cacique Michimalongo, Historical reviews indicate that the first documents that originated during the colonial era were destroyed on that occasion and had to be reproduced later, based only on the oral testimonies of the participants of this founding act.

Considering that paper was a scarce material in this period, given the condition of remoteness of the Chilean territory, the notary who executed this work had to elaborate them in leather and parchment, In 1544, after the arrival of the paper, the minutes were remade in this support and it is for this reason that it is this year that consigns the document.

In 1983 the Calf Book had to be completely restored, each sheet was laminated, that is, a Japanese paper was adhered with wheat starch or with some very innocuous adhesive, in order to give it greater resistance, This paper was made by hand with long fibers that join the original paper, so thin that it reveals what is written on the front of the page.

This is All about Chile history timeline.

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